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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874229

ABSTRACT

Background@#The placement of a closed suction drain is indispensable for preventing serious infections; however, closed suction drains are inevitably accompanied by increases in local infections, pain, and length of hospital stay, and delays in breast cancer treatment including postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We analyzed predictive factors of total drainage volume and duration. @*Methods@#Among patients who were diagnosed with primary breast cancer between January 2016 and December 2017, we retrospectively analyzed those who underwent immediate implant-based breast reconstruction. Factors that could affect the total volume and duration of drainage, including lipo-prostaglandin E1 use, preoperative chemotherapy, resected breast issue weight, age, body mass index (BMI), serum white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level, were analyzed. @*Results@#The mean volume and duration of drainage were 1,213.6 mL and 14.8 days respectively. BMI and CRP on postoperative day (POD) 1 were correlated with the total drainage volume. Age, BMI, and resected breast tissue weight were correlated with the drainage duration. Multiple regression analysis showed that CRP level on POD 1, age, and resected breast tissue weight significantly affected the drainage duration. Multiple regression analysis also showed that the total drainage volume was significantly affected by BMI and CRP level on POD 1. @*Conclusions@#The factors found to affect the duration of drainage in patients undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction were CRP on POD 1, age, resected breast tissue weight, and BMI. The CRP level on POD 1 and BMI influenced the total volume of drainage.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the optimized image-based surrogate endpoints (IBSEs) in targeted therapies for glioblastoma through a systematic review and meta-analysis of phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs).MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of OVID-MEDLINE and EMBASE for phase III RCTs on glioblastoma was performed in December 2017. Data on overall survival (OS) and IBSEs, including progression-free survival (PFS), 6-month PFS (6moPFS), 12-month PFS (12moPFS), median PFS, and objective response rate (ORR) were extracted. Weighted linear regression analysis for the hazard ratio for OS and the hazard ratios or odds ratios for IBSEs was performed. The associations between IBSEs and OS were evaluated. Subgroup analyses according to disease stage (newly diagnosed glioblastoma versus recurrent glioblastoma), types of test treatment, and types of response assessment criteria were performed.RESULTS: Twenty-three phase III RCTs published between 2000 and 2017, including 8387 patients, met the inclusion criteria. OS showed strong correlations with PFS (standardized β coefficient [R] = 0.719), 6moPFS (R = 0.647), and 12moPFS (R = 0.638). OS showed no correlations with median PFS and ORR. In subgroup analysis according to types of therapies, PFS showed the highest correlations with OS in targeted therapies for cell cycle pathways (R = 0.913) and growth factor receptors and their downstream pathways (R = 0.962). 12moPFS showed the highest correlation with OS in antiangiogenic therapy (R = 0.821). The response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria provided higher correlation coefficients between OS and IBSEs than the Macdonald criteria.CONCLUSION: Overall, PFS is an optimized IBSE in targeted therapies for glioblastoma; however, 12moPFS is optimal in antiangiogenic therapy.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1126-1137, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833575

ABSTRACT

Imaging plays a key role in the management of brain tumors, including the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response assessment. Radiomics and deep learning approaches, along with various advanced physiologic imaging parameters, hold great potential for aiding radiological assessments in neuro-oncology. The ongoing development of new technology needs to be validated in clinical trials and incorporated into the clinical workflow. However, none of the potential neuro-oncological applications for radiomics and deep learning has yet been realized in clinical practice. In this review, we summarize the current applications of radiomics and deep learning in neuro-oncology and discuss challenges in relation to evidence-based medicine and reporting guidelines, as well as potential applications in clinical workflows and routine clinical practice.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833537

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To categorize the radiological patterns of recurrence after bevacizumab treatment and to derive the pooled proportions of patients with recurrent malignant glioma showing the different radiological patterns. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search in the Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify studies reporting radiological recurrence patterns in patients with recurrent malignant glioma after bevacizumab treatment failure until April 10, 2019. The pooled proportions according to radiological recurrence patterns (geographically local versus non-local recurrence) and predominant tumor portions (enhancing tumor versus non-enhancing tumor) after bevacizumab treatment were calculated. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were also performed. @*Results@#The systematic review and meta-analysis included 17 articles. The pooled proportions were 38.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.6–46.1%) for a geographical radiologic pattern of non-local recurrence and 34.2% (95% CI, 27.3–41.5%) for a non-enhancing tumor-predominant recurrence pattern. In the subgroup analysis, the pooled proportion of non-local recurrence in the patients treated with bevacizumab only was slightly higher than that in patients treated with the combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy (34.9% [95% CI, 22.8–49.4%] versus 22.5% [95% CI, 9.5–44.6%]). @*Conclusion@#A substantial proportion of high-grade glioma patients show non-local or non-enhancing radiologic patterns of recurrence after bevacizumab treatment, which may provide insight into surrogate endpoints for treatment failure in clinical trials of recurrent high-grade glioma.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833527

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Measurement of the liver and spleen volumes has clinical implications. Although computed tomography (CT)volumetry is considered to be the most reliable noninvasive method for liver and spleen volume measurement, it has limitedapplication in clinical practice due to its time-consuming segmentation process. We aimed to develop and validate a deeplearning algorithm (DLA) for fully automated liver and spleen segmentation using portal venous phase CT images in variousliver conditions. @*Materials and Methods@#A DLA for liver and spleen segmentation was trained using a development dataset of portal venousCT images from 813 patients. Performance of the DLA was evaluated in two separate test datasets: dataset-1 which included150 CT examinations in patients with various liver conditions (i.e., healthy liver, fatty liver, chronic liver disease, cirrhosis,and post-hepatectomy) and dataset-2 which included 50 pairs of CT examinations performed at ours and other institutions.The performance of the DLA was evaluated using the dice similarity score (DSS) for segmentation and Bland-Altman 95%limits of agreement (LOA) for measurement of the volumetric indices, which was compared with that of ground truth manualsegmentation. @*Results@#In test dataset-1, the DLA achieved a mean DSS of 0.973 and 0.974 for liver and spleen segmentation, respectively,with no significant difference in DSS across different liver conditions (p = 0.60 and 0.26 for the liver and spleen, respectively).For the measurement of volumetric indices, the Bland-Altman 95% LOA was -0.17 ± 3.07% for liver volume and -0.56 ± 3.78%for spleen volume. In test dataset-2, DLA performance using CT images obtained at outside institutions and our institutionwas comparable for liver (DSS, 0.982 vs. 0.983; p = 0.28) and spleen (DSS, 0.969 vs. 0.968; p = 0.41) segmentation. @*Conclusion@#The DLA enabled highly accurate segmentation and volume measurement of the liver and spleen using portalvenous phase CT images of patients with various liver conditions.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832885

ABSTRACT

Anatomical imaging is the basis of the diagnosis and treatment response assessment of brain tumors. Among the existing imaging techniques currently available in clinical practice, diffusion- weighted imaging and perfusion imaging provide additional information. Recently, with the increasing importance of evaluation of the genomic variation and heterogeneity of tumors, clinical application of imaging techniques using radiomics and deep learning is expected. In this review, we will describe recommendations for magnetic resonance imaging protocols focusing on anatomical images that are still important in the clinical application of brain tumor imaging, and the basic principles of diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion imaging among the advanced imaging techniques, as well as their pathophysiological background and clinical application. Finally, we will review the future perspectives of radiomics and deep learning applications in brain tumor imaging, which have been studied to a great extent due to the development of computer technology.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831026

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part I of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate national patterns of clinical practiceabout antiepileptic drug (AED) and steroid usage for management of brain tumors. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included9 questions of AED usage and 5 questions of steroid usage for brain tumor patients. All questionswere developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: The overall response rate was 12.8% (54/423). Regarding AED usage, the majority ofrespondents (95.2%) routinely prescribed prophylactic AEDs for patients with seizure at the peri/postoperativeperiod. However, as many as 72.8% of respondents prescribed AED routinely for seizure-naïvepatients, and others prescribed AED as the case may be. The duration of AED prophylaxis showedwide variance according to the epilepsy status and the location of tumor. Levetiracetam (82.9%) wasthe most preferred AED for epilepsy prophylaxis. Regarding steroid usage, 90.5% of respondents usesteroids in perioperative period, including 34.2% of them as a routine manner. Presence of peritumoraledema (90.9%) was considered as the most important factor determining steroid usage followed bydegree of clinical symptoms (60.6%). More than half of respondents (51.2%) replied to discontinue thesteroids within a week after surgery if there are no specific medical conditions, while 7.3% preferredslow tapering up to a month after surgery. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrated the prevailing practice patterns on AED and steroid usagein neuro-oncologic field among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain tumor patients.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831025

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part II of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with diffuse midline glioma and meningioma. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included4 questions of diffuse midline glioma and 6 questions of meningioma (including 2 case scenarios).All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: In the survey about diffuse midline glioma, 76% respondents performed histologicconfirmation to identify H3K27M mutation on immunohistochemical staining or sequencing methods.For treatment of diffuse midline glioma, respondents preferred concurrent chemoradiotherapy withtemozolomide (TMZ) and adjuvant TMZ (63.8%) than radiotherapy alone (34.0%). In the surveyabout meningioma, respondents prefer wait-and-see policy for the asymptomatic small meningiomawithout peritumoral edema. However, a greater number of respondents had chosen surgical resectionas the first choice for all large size meningiomas without exception, and small size meningiomaswith either peritumoral edema or eloquent location. There was no single opinion with major consensuson long-term follow-up plans for asymptomatic meningioma with observation policy. As many as68.1% of respondents answered that they would not add any adjuvant therapies for World Health Organizationgrade II meningiomas if the tumor was totally resected including dura. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients with diffusemidline glioma and meningioma among members of the KSNO. This information provides a pointof reference for establishing a practical guideline in the management of diffuse midline glioma andmeningioma.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831024

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted the nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries facing to treat patients with braintumor. As part III of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with brain metastasis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included7 questions of brain metastasis and 5 questions of PCNSL, focused on the management strategiesin specific situations. All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline WorkingGroup. @*Results@#" In the survey about brain metastasis, respondents preferred surgical resection withadjuvant treatment for patients with a surgically accessible single brain metastatic lesion less than 3cm in size without extracranial systemic lesions. However, most respondents considered radiosurgeryfor surgically inaccessible lesions. As the preferred treatment of multiple brain metastases according tothe number of brain lesions, respondents tended to choose radiotherapy with increasing number of lesions.Radiosurgery was mostly chosen for the brain metastases of less than or equal to 4. In the surveyabout PCNSL, a half of respondents choose high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy asthe first-line induction therapy for PCNSL. The consolidation and salvage therapy showed a little variationamong respondents. For PCNSL patients with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination, intrathecal chemotherapywas most preferred. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients withbrain metastasis and PCNSL among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain metastasis and PCNSL.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830766

ABSTRACT

Background@#Several oncoplastic approaches have been implemented in recent years to enhance cosmetic results and to reduce complications. The round block technique is a volume displacement technique for breast reconstruction after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). However, its indications are currently limited according to tumor location, and its cosmetic results and complications have not been clearly established. We hypothesized that the round block technique could produce favorable cosmetic results without major complications regardless of tumor location or nipple-tumor distance, below a certain resected tumor volume and tumor-breast volume ratio. @*Methods@#All breast reconstructions using the round block technique after BCS were included in this analysis. Patients’ data were reviewed retrospectively to investigate complications during follow-up, and clinical photos were used to evaluate cosmetic results. The relationships of tumor location, nipple-tumor distance, tumor volume, and the tumor-breast volume ratio with cosmetic results were investigated. @*Results@#In total, 108 breasts were reconstructed. The mean resected tumor volume was 30.2±15.0 mL. The cosmetic score was 4.5±0.6 out of 5. Tumor location, nipple-tumor distance, tumor volume, tumor-breast volume ratio, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy had no significant effects on cosmetic results or complications. There were no major complications requiring reoperation. @*Conclusions@#Breast reconstruction using the round block technique after BCS can lead to good cosmetic results without major complications regardless of the tumor location, nipple-tumor distance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. Below the maximum tumor volume (79.2 mL) and the maximum tumor-breast volume ratio (14%), favorable results were consistently obtained.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A widely applicable, non-invasive screening method for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is needed. We aimed to develop and validate an index combining computed tomography (CT) and routine clinical data for screening for NAFLD in a large cohort of adults with pathologically proven NAFLD.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 2218 living liver donors who had undergone liver biopsy and CT within a span of 3 days. Donors were randomized 2:1 into development and test cohorts. CT(L-S) was measured by subtracting splenic attenuation from hepatic attenuation on non-enhanced CT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the development cohort was utilized to develop a clinical-CT index predicting pathologically proven NAFLD. The diagnostic performance was evaluated by analyzing the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The cutoffs for the clinical-CT index were determined for 90% sensitivity and 90% specificity in the development cohort, and their diagnostic performance was evaluated in the test cohort.RESULTS: The clinical-CT index included CT(L-S), body mass index, and aspartate transaminase and triglyceride concentrations. In the test cohort, the clinical-CT index (AUC, 0.81) outperformed CT(L-S) (0.74; p < 0.001) and clinical indices (0.73–0.75; p < 0.001) in diagnosing NAFLD. A cutoff of ≥ 46 had a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 41%, whereas a cutoff of ≥ 56.5 had a sensitivity of 57% and a specificity of 89%.CONCLUSION: The clinical-CT index is more accurate than CT(L-S) and clinical indices alone for the diagnosis of NAFLD and may be clinically useful in screening for NAFLD.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830580

ABSTRACT

After a partial mastectomy, large or ptotic breasts can be reconstructed using breast reduction techniques. Wise-pattern reduction is typically used to remove masses in any quadrant of the breast, but this technique leaves a large inverted T-shaped scar. Instead, the short scar periareolar inferior pedicle reduction (SPAIR) technique involves a periareolar line and does not result in a scar along the inframammary fold (IMF). A 49-year-old patient with macromastia and severely ptotic breasts was diagnosed with invasive cancer of the left breast. Her large breasts caused pain in her back, shoulders, and neck. She also expressed concern about postsurgical scarring along the IMF. In light of this concern, we chose the SPAIR technique, and we designed and performed the procedure as described by Hammond. During surgery, we removed 36 g of breast tumor and 380 g of breast parenchyma from the left breast. To establish symmetry, we also removed 410 g of tissue from the right breast. Postoperatively, the patient reported satisfaction regarding the reduction mammaplasty and, in particular, noted decreased back, shoulder, and neck pain. In summary, we used the SPAIR technique to achieve oncologic and aesthetic success in a patient with macromastia and a tumor located lateral to the nipple-areolar complex.

13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1124-1137, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760288

ABSTRACT

Radiomics, which involves the use of high-dimensional quantitative imaging features for predictive purposes, is a powerful tool for developing and testing medical hypotheses. Radiologic and statistical challenges in radiomics include those related to the reproducibility of imaging data, control of overfitting due to high dimensionality, and the generalizability of modeling. The aims of this review article are to clarify the distinctions between radiomics features and other omics and imaging data, to describe the challenges and potential strategies in reproducibility and feature selection, and to reveal the epidemiological background of modeling, thereby facilitating and promoting more reproducible and generalizable radiomics research.


Subject(s)
Machine Learning
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no practical guidelines for the management of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, started to prepare guidelines for CNS tumors from February 2018. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. RESULTS: First, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended. After the diagnosis of a glioblastoma with neurosurgical intervention, patients aged ≤70 years with good performance should be treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Stupp's protocol) or standard brain radiotherapy alone. However, those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy (preferred)±concurrent or adjuvant temozolomide, temozolomide alone (Level III), or supportive treatment. Alternatively, patients aged >70 years with good performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy+concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide or Stupp's protocol or hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone, while those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone or temozolomide chemotherapy if the patient has methylated MGMT gene promoter (Level III), or supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that glioblastomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to the individual comprehensive condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Radiotherapy
15.
Blood Research ; : 63-73, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute leukemia (AL), not clearly assigned to myeloid, B-lymphoid, or T-lymphoid lineage, is classified as either biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) based on the European Group for Immunological Classification of Leukemias (EGIL) or acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage (ALAL) encompassing acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) and mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. METHODS: Medical records of children newly diagnosed with BAL or ALAL, based on the EGIL or the 2008/2016 WHO criteria, respectively, admitted at Chonnam National University Hospital in 2001–2017 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Twelve (3.2%) of 377 AL patients satisfied the BAL or ALAL definitions based on the EGIL or the WHO criteria, respectively. Among 12 patients including 11 with BAL and another with undefined case based on the EGIL criteria, 7 (1.9%) had ALAL based on more stringent 2016 WHO criteria (AUL, 2; MPAL, 5). One patient had MPAL with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), BCR-ABL+, and two had MLL gene abnormality. ALL-directed regimen was associated with better complete remission rate compared with AML-directed regimen (100.0% vs. 16.7%; P=0.015). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 51.1±15.8% and 51.9±15.7%, respectively. AUL was associated with poor OS and EFS compared with MPAL (0.0% vs. 75.0±21.7%; P=0.008). CONCLUSION: Due to the rarity of the cases, future multicenter, prospective studies incorporating large number of cases are urgently warranted to identify the clinical, biologic, and molecular markers for the prediction of prognosis and determine the best tailored therapy for each patient.


Subject(s)
Child , Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia , Leukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute , Medical Records , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , World Health Organization
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762795

ABSTRACT

Post-traumatic hematoma formation is a common complication of contusion. If the hematoma is large enough to aspirate or drain, it can be treated quickly and appropriately. However, if the hematoma is small or concealed by local swelling, it may be overlooked and left untreated. In most cases, a hematoma will resolve following conservative treatment; however, associated infection or muscle fibrosis can occur. Herein, we present the case of a patient with a chin deformity caused by a post-traumatic hematoma. The deformity was treated using botulinum toxin and triamcinolone acetonide injections as minimally invasive treatments. The course of treatment was good.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins , Chin , Congenital Abnormalities , Contusions , Facial Asymmetry , Fibrosis , Hematoma , Humans , Triamcinolone Acetonide
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Direct-to-implant breast reconstruction following nipple-sparing mastectomy is becoming increasingly common. The weight of the breast specimen informs implant selection. However, specimens of the same weight may have different volume. Therefore, identifying the factors affecting the density of breast specimens may facilitate the selection of implants with an appropriate volume. METHODS: From December 2015 to May 2018, 108 patients underwent direct-to-implant reconstruction following nipple-sparing mastectomy. The weight of the breast specimens was measured using an electronic scale in the operating room. Furthermore, the volume of specimens was measured using the water displacement technique. Multiple regression analysis was performed on factors that can affect breast density, such as menopause, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CTx), age, body mass index, and diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: The average density of breast specimens in patients older than 50 years (n=36) was 0.96±0.04 g/mL, which was significantly lower than the 1.01±0.08 g/mL observed in patients younger than 50 years (n=72) (P=0.007). The mean density of breast specimens in patients who underwent neoadjuvant CTx (n=25) was 0.96±0.06 g/mL, which was significantly lower than the value of 1.00±0.08 g/mL in those who did not (n=83). CONCLUSIONS: It is advisable to select an implant slightly larger than the mastectomy specimen weight in patients older than 50 years or in those who have undergone neoadjuvant CTx.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Breast Implants , Breast , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Mammaplasty , Mastectomy , Menopause , Operating Rooms , Water
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714016

ABSTRACT

According to the reports presented at the second Asian Radiology Forum (ARF) 2016, organized by the Korean Society of Radiology (KSR) during the Korean Congress of Radiology (KCR) in September 2016 in Seoul, there is an increasing need for the Asian-Oceanian Society of Radiology (AOSR) and its member societies to promote radiology together in the Asian-Oceanian region. In ARF 2016, the national delegates of the Asian-Oceanian radiological partner societies primarily discussed their societies' activities and contributions in international and regional societies including AOSR, expectations for AOSR, recommendations and suggestions for AOSR, and their societies' support of AOSR.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Humans , International Cooperation , Oceania , Seoul
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