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1.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 235-246, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968279

ABSTRACT

Objective@#It is difficult to predict the treatment response of tissue after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) because radiation necrosis (RN) and tumor recurrence can coexist. Our study aimed to predict tumor recurrence, including the recurrence site, after SRS of brain metastasis by performing a longitudinal tumor habitat analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#Two consecutive multiparametric MRI examinations were performed for 83 adults (mean age, 59.0 years; range, 27–82 years; 44 male and 39 female) with 103 SRS-treated brain metastases. Tumor habitats based on contrastenhanced T1- and T2-weighted images (structural habitats) and those based on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) images (physiological habitats) were defined using k-means voxel-wise clustering. The reference standard was based on the pathology or Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncologycriteria for brain metastases (RANO-BM). The association between parameters of single-time or longitudinal tumor habitat and the time to recurrence and the site of recurrence were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and Dice similarity coefficient, respectively. @*Results@#The mean interval between the two MRI examinations was 99 days. The longitudinal analysis showed that an increase in the hypovascular cellular habitat (low ADC and low CBV) was associated with the risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 2.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–4.91; P = 0.001). During the single-time analysis, a solid low-enhancing habitat (low T2 and low contrast-enhanced T1 signal) was associated with the risk of recurrence (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.01–2.35; P= 0.045). A hypovascular cellular habitat was indicative of the future recurrence site (Dice similarity coefficient = 0.423). @*Conclusion@#After SRS of brain metastases, an increased hypovascular cellular habitat observed using a longitudinal MRI analysis was associated with the risk of recurrence (i.e., treatment resistance) and was indicative of recurrence site. A tumor habitat analysis may help guide future treatments for patients with brain metastases.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 133-144, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968256

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN)2A/B homozygous deletion is a key molecular marker of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant astrocytomas in the 2021 World Health Organization. We aimed to investigate whether qualitative and quantitative MRI parameters can predict CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion status in IDH-mutant astrocytomas. @*Materials and Methods@#Preoperative MRI data of 88 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 42.0 ± 11.9 years; 40 females and 48 males) with IDH-mutant astrocytomas (76 without and 12 with CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion) from two institutions were included. A qualitative imaging assessment was performed. Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), 5th percentile of ADC, mean normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV), and 95th percentile of nCBV were assessed via automatic tumor segmentation.Logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion in all 88 patients and a subgroup of 47 patients with histological grades 3 and 4. The discrimination performance of the logistic regression models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). @*Results@#In multivariable analysis of all patients, infiltrative pattern (odds ratio [OR] = 4.25, p = 0.034), maximal diameter (OR = 1.07, p = 0.013), and 95th percentile of nCBV (OR = 1.34, p = 0.049) were independent predictors of CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion. The AUC, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the corresponding model were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72–0.91), 90.4%, 83.3%, and 75.0%, respectively. On multivariable analysis of the subgroup with histological grades 3 and 4, infiltrative pattern (OR = 10.39, p = 0.012) and 95th percentile of nCBV (OR = 1.24, p = 0.047) were independent predictors of CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion, with an AUC accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the corresponding model of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.60–0.88), 87.8%, 80.0%, and 58.1%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The presence of an infiltrative pattern, larger maximal diameter, and higher 95th percentile of the nCBV may be useful MRI biomarkers for CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion in IDH-mutant astrocytomas.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 772-783, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002390

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Imaging-based survival stratification of patients with gliomas is important for their management, and the 2021 WHO classification system must be clinically tested. The aim of this study was to compare integrative imaging- and pathology-based methods for survival stratification of patients with diffuse glioma. @*Materials and Methods@#This study included diffuse glioma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (training set: 141 patients) and Asan Medical Center (validation set: 131 patients). Two neuroradiologists analyzed presurgical CT and MRI to assign gliomas to five imaging-based risk subgroups (1 to 5) according to well-known imaging phenotypes (e.g., T2/FLAIR mismatch) and recategorized them into three imaging-based risk groups, according to the 2021 WHO classification: group 1 (corresponding to risk subgroup 1, indicating oligodendroglioma, isocitrate dehydrogenase [IDH]-mutant, and 1p19q-codeleted), group 2 (risk subgroups 2 and 3, indicating astrocytoma, IDH-mutant), and group 3 (risk subgroups 4 and 5, indicating glioblastoma, IDHwt). The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated for each imaging risk group, subgroup, and pathological diagnosis. Time-dependent area-under-the receiver operating characteristic analysis (AUC) was used to compare the performance between imaging-based and pathology-based survival model. @*Results@#Both OS and PFS were stratified according to the five imaging-based risk subgroups (P < 0.001) and three imagingbased risk groups (P < 0.001). The three imaging-based groups showed high performance in predicting PFS at one-year (AUC, 0.787) and five-years (AUC, 0.823), which was similar to that of the pathology-based prediction of PFS (AUC of 0.785 and 0.837). Combined with clinical predictors, the performance of the imaging-based survival model for 1- and 3-year PFS (AUC 0.813 and 0.921) was similar to that of the pathology-based survival model (AUC 0.839 and 0.889). @*Conclusion@#Imaging-based survival stratification according to the 2021 WHO classification demonstrated a performance similar to that of pathology-based survival stratification, especially in predicting PFS.

4.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 308-312, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002187

ABSTRACT

The areola is a rare location for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) because sunlight exposure, the main risk factor for SCC, is unusual on it. Acantholytic SCC (ASCC) is a rare histologic variant of SCC, characterized by pseudoglandular appearance with acantholytic tumor cells. A 59-year-old male presented a painful erythematous papule on his right areola. He had a history of psoralen ultraviolet A phototherapy for psoriasis in his 20s. Biopsy revealed an epithelial tumor and pseudoglandular structures with acantholytic tumor cells. In immunohistochemistry, cytokeratin 5/6, epithelial membrane antigen, and p63 were positive, while cytokeratin 7, carcinoembryonic antigen, S-100, and estrogen and progesterone receptors were negative. Periodic acid-Schiff stain was negative. Ki-67 labeling index was 79.7%. The final diagnosis was ASCC of the areola. After wide local excision, recurrence have not been reported. Here, we report a case of ASCC on the areola, focusing on its rare histologic variant and uncommon location.

5.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1875-1885, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918211

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Central nervous system involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been increasingly reported. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of radiologically demonstrated neurologic complications and detailed neuroimaging findings associated with COVID-19. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed up to September 17, 2020, and studies evaluating neuroimaging findings of COVID-19 using brain CT or MRI were included. Several cohort-based outcomes, including the proportion of patients with abnormal neuroimaging findings related to COVID-19 were evaluated. The proportion of patients showing specific neuroimaging findings was also assessed. Subgroup analyses were also conducted focusing on critically ill COVID-19 patients and results from studies that used MRI as the only imaging modality. @*Results@#A total of 1394 COVID-19 patients who underwent neuroimaging from 17 studies were included; among them, 3.4% of the patients demonstrated COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed (23.1%). The predominant cerebral neuroimaging finding was white matter abnormality (17.6%), followed by acute/subacute ischemic infarction (16.0%), and encephalopathy (13.0%). Significantly more critically ill patients had COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings than other patients (9.1% vs. 1.6%; p = 0.029). The type of imaging modality used did not significantly affect the proportion of COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. @*Conclusion@#Abnormal neuroimaging findings were occasionally observed in COVID-19 patients. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed finding. Critically ill patients showed abnormal neuroimaging findings more frequently than the other patient groups. White matter abnormalities, ischemic infarctions, and encephalopathies were the common cerebral neuroimaging findings.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1985-1995, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918194

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although the liver-to-spleen volume ratio (LSVR) based on CT reflects portal hypertension, its prognostic role in cirrhotic patients has not been proven. We evaluated the utility of LSVR, automatically measured from CT images using a deep learning algorithm, as a predictor of hepatic decompensation and transplantation-free survival in patients with hepatitis B viral (HBV)-compensated cirrhosis. @*Materials and Methods@#A deep learning algorithm was used to measure the LSVR in a cohort of 1027 consecutive patients (mean age, 50.5 years; 675 male and 352 female) with HBV-compensated cirrhosis who underwent liver CT (2007–2010).Associations of LSVR with hepatic decompensation and transplantation-free survival were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards and competing risk analyses, accounting for either the Child-Pugh score (CPS) or Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and other variables. The risk of the liver-related events was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Aalen-Johansen estimator. @*Results@#After adjustment for either CPS or MELD and other variables, LSVR was identified as a significant independent predictor of hepatic decompensation (hazard ratio for LSVR increase by 1, 0.71 and 0.68 for CPS and MELD models, respectively; p < 0.001) and transplantation-free survival (hazard ratio for LSVR increase by 1, 0.8 and 0.77, respectively; p < 0.001). Patients with an LSVR of < 2.9 (n = 381) had significantly higher 3-year risks of hepatic decompensation (16.7% vs. 2.5%, p < 0.001) and liver-related death or transplantation (10.0% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001) than those with an LSVR ≥ 2.9 (n = 646). When patients were stratified according to CPS (Child-Pugh A vs. B–C) and MELD (< 10 vs. ≥ 10), an LSVR of < 2.9 was still associated with a higher risk of liver-related events than an LSVR of ≥ 2.9 for all Child-Pugh (p ≤ 0.045) and MELD (p ≤ 0.009) stratifications. @*Conclusion@#The LSVR measured on CT can predict hepatic decompensation and transplantation-free survival in patients with HBV-compensated cirrhosis.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 584-595, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894705

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has shown activity against melanoma brain metastases. Recently, promising results have also been reported for ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy. We aimed to evaluate radiologic response and adverse event rates of these therapeutic options by a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed up to October 12, 2019 and included studies evaluating the intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and/or disease control rates (DCRs) of ICI with or without radiotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastases. We also evaluated safety-associated outcomes. @*Results@#Eleven studies with 14 cohorts (3 with ICI combination therapy; 5 with ICI combined with radiotherapy; 6 with ICI monotherapy) were included. ICI combination therapy {pooled ORR, 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44–61%); DCR, 57% (95% CI, 49–66%)} and ICI combined with radiotherapy (pooled ORR, 42% [95% CI, 31–54%]; DCR, 85% [95% CI, 63–95%]) showed higher local efficacy compared to ICI monotherapy (pooled ORR, 15% [95% CI, 11–20%]; DCR, 26% [95% CI, 21– 32%]). The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was significantly higher with ICI combination therapy (60%; 95% CI, 52–67%) compared to ICI monotherapy (11%; 95% CI, 8–17%) and ICI combined with radiotherapy (4%; 95% CI, 1–19%). Grade 3 or 4 central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse event rates were not different (9% in ICI combination therapy; 8% in ICI combined with radiotherapy; 5% in ICI monotherapy). @*Conclusion@#ICI combination therapy or ICI combined with radiotherapy showed better local efficacy than ICI monotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastasis. The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was highest with ICI combination therapy, and the CNS-related grade 3 or 4 event rate was similar. Prospective trials will be necessary to compare the efficacy of ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy.

8.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 1-8, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889703

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

9.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 9-15, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889702

ABSTRACT

Background@#To date, there has been no practical guidelines for the prescription of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in brain tumor patients in Korea. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for AED usage in brain tumors since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of the keywords. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. Prophylactic AED administration is not recommended in newly diagnosed brain tumor patients without previous seizure history. When AEDs are administered during peri/postoperative period, it may be tapered off according to the following recommendations. In seizure-naïve patients with no postoperative seizure, it is recommended to stop or reduce AED 1 week after surgery. In seizure-naïve patients with one early postoperative seizure (<1 week after surgery), it is advisable to maintain AED for at least 3 months before tapering. In seizure-naïve patients with ≥2 postoperative seizures or in patients with preoperative seizure history, it is recommended to maintain AEDs for more than 1 year. The possibility of drug interactions should be considered when selecting AEDs in brain tumor patients. Driving can be allowed in brain tumor patients when proven to be seizure-free for more than 1 year. @*Conclusion@#The KSNO suggests prescribing AEDs in patients with brain tumor based on the current guideline. This guideline will contribute to spreading evidence-based prescription of AEDs in brain tumor patients in Korea.

10.
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery ; : 164-167, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889365

ABSTRACT

Reconstruction of lip defects is important because the lips play an important role in maintaining aesthetic facial balance, facial expressions, and speech. There are various methods of lip reconstruction such as primary repair, skin grafting, and utilization of local and free flaps. It is important to select a proper reconstruction method according to the size and location of lip defect. Failure to select an appropriate method may result in distortion, color mismatch, sensory loss, and aesthetic imbalance. Herein we present a case of successful aesthetic reconstruction of the lower vermilion. We removed a venous malformation, which was limited to the lower vermilion and adjacent to the white roll, and repaired the defect using the modified O-Z flap.

11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 584-595, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902409

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has shown activity against melanoma brain metastases. Recently, promising results have also been reported for ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy. We aimed to evaluate radiologic response and adverse event rates of these therapeutic options by a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed up to October 12, 2019 and included studies evaluating the intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and/or disease control rates (DCRs) of ICI with or without radiotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastases. We also evaluated safety-associated outcomes. @*Results@#Eleven studies with 14 cohorts (3 with ICI combination therapy; 5 with ICI combined with radiotherapy; 6 with ICI monotherapy) were included. ICI combination therapy {pooled ORR, 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44–61%); DCR, 57% (95% CI, 49–66%)} and ICI combined with radiotherapy (pooled ORR, 42% [95% CI, 31–54%]; DCR, 85% [95% CI, 63–95%]) showed higher local efficacy compared to ICI monotherapy (pooled ORR, 15% [95% CI, 11–20%]; DCR, 26% [95% CI, 21– 32%]). The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was significantly higher with ICI combination therapy (60%; 95% CI, 52–67%) compared to ICI monotherapy (11%; 95% CI, 8–17%) and ICI combined with radiotherapy (4%; 95% CI, 1–19%). Grade 3 or 4 central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse event rates were not different (9% in ICI combination therapy; 8% in ICI combined with radiotherapy; 5% in ICI monotherapy). @*Conclusion@#ICI combination therapy or ICI combined with radiotherapy showed better local efficacy than ICI monotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastasis. The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was highest with ICI combination therapy, and the CNS-related grade 3 or 4 event rate was similar. Prospective trials will be necessary to compare the efficacy of ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy.

12.
Archives of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery ; : 23-30, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874229

ABSTRACT

Background@#The placement of a closed suction drain is indispensable for preventing serious infections; however, closed suction drains are inevitably accompanied by increases in local infections, pain, and length of hospital stay, and delays in breast cancer treatment including postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We analyzed predictive factors of total drainage volume and duration. @*Methods@#Among patients who were diagnosed with primary breast cancer between January 2016 and December 2017, we retrospectively analyzed those who underwent immediate implant-based breast reconstruction. Factors that could affect the total volume and duration of drainage, including lipo-prostaglandin E1 use, preoperative chemotherapy, resected breast issue weight, age, body mass index (BMI), serum white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level, were analyzed. @*Results@#The mean volume and duration of drainage were 1,213.6 mL and 14.8 days respectively. BMI and CRP on postoperative day (POD) 1 were correlated with the total drainage volume. Age, BMI, and resected breast tissue weight were correlated with the drainage duration. Multiple regression analysis showed that CRP level on POD 1, age, and resected breast tissue weight significantly affected the drainage duration. Multiple regression analysis also showed that the total drainage volume was significantly affected by BMI and CRP level on POD 1. @*Conclusions@#The factors found to affect the duration of drainage in patients undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction were CRP on POD 1, age, resected breast tissue weight, and BMI. The CRP level on POD 1 and BMI influenced the total volume of drainage.

13.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 1-8, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897407

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

14.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 9-15, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897406

ABSTRACT

Background@#To date, there has been no practical guidelines for the prescription of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in brain tumor patients in Korea. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for AED usage in brain tumors since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of the keywords. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. Prophylactic AED administration is not recommended in newly diagnosed brain tumor patients without previous seizure history. When AEDs are administered during peri/postoperative period, it may be tapered off according to the following recommendations. In seizure-naïve patients with no postoperative seizure, it is recommended to stop or reduce AED 1 week after surgery. In seizure-naïve patients with one early postoperative seizure (<1 week after surgery), it is advisable to maintain AED for at least 3 months before tapering. In seizure-naïve patients with ≥2 postoperative seizures or in patients with preoperative seizure history, it is recommended to maintain AEDs for more than 1 year. The possibility of drug interactions should be considered when selecting AEDs in brain tumor patients. Driving can be allowed in brain tumor patients when proven to be seizure-free for more than 1 year. @*Conclusion@#The KSNO suggests prescribing AEDs in patients with brain tumor based on the current guideline. This guideline will contribute to spreading evidence-based prescription of AEDs in brain tumor patients in Korea.

15.
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery ; : 164-167, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897069

ABSTRACT

Reconstruction of lip defects is important because the lips play an important role in maintaining aesthetic facial balance, facial expressions, and speech. There are various methods of lip reconstruction such as primary repair, skin grafting, and utilization of local and free flaps. It is important to select a proper reconstruction method according to the size and location of lip defect. Failure to select an appropriate method may result in distortion, color mismatch, sensory loss, and aesthetic imbalance. Herein we present a case of successful aesthetic reconstruction of the lower vermilion. We removed a venous malformation, which was limited to the lower vermilion and adjacent to the white roll, and repaired the defect using the modified O-Z flap.

16.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1126-1137, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833575

ABSTRACT

Imaging plays a key role in the management of brain tumors, including the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response assessment. Radiomics and deep learning approaches, along with various advanced physiologic imaging parameters, hold great potential for aiding radiological assessments in neuro-oncology. The ongoing development of new technology needs to be validated in clinical trials and incorporated into the clinical workflow. However, none of the potential neuro-oncological applications for radiomics and deep learning has yet been realized in clinical practice. In this review, we summarize the current applications of radiomics and deep learning in neuro-oncology and discuss challenges in relation to evidence-based medicine and reporting guidelines, as well as potential applications in clinical workflows and routine clinical practice.

17.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 908-918, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833537

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To categorize the radiological patterns of recurrence after bevacizumab treatment and to derive the pooled proportions of patients with recurrent malignant glioma showing the different radiological patterns. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search in the Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify studies reporting radiological recurrence patterns in patients with recurrent malignant glioma after bevacizumab treatment failure until April 10, 2019. The pooled proportions according to radiological recurrence patterns (geographically local versus non-local recurrence) and predominant tumor portions (enhancing tumor versus non-enhancing tumor) after bevacizumab treatment were calculated. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were also performed. @*Results@#The systematic review and meta-analysis included 17 articles. The pooled proportions were 38.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.6–46.1%) for a geographical radiologic pattern of non-local recurrence and 34.2% (95% CI, 27.3–41.5%) for a non-enhancing tumor-predominant recurrence pattern. In the subgroup analysis, the pooled proportion of non-local recurrence in the patients treated with bevacizumab only was slightly higher than that in patients treated with the combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy (34.9% [95% CI, 22.8–49.4%] versus 22.5% [95% CI, 9.5–44.6%]). @*Conclusion@#A substantial proportion of high-grade glioma patients show non-local or non-enhancing radiologic patterns of recurrence after bevacizumab treatment, which may provide insight into surrogate endpoints for treatment failure in clinical trials of recurrent high-grade glioma.

18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 987-997, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833527

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Measurement of the liver and spleen volumes has clinical implications. Although computed tomography (CT)volumetry is considered to be the most reliable noninvasive method for liver and spleen volume measurement, it has limitedapplication in clinical practice due to its time-consuming segmentation process. We aimed to develop and validate a deeplearning algorithm (DLA) for fully automated liver and spleen segmentation using portal venous phase CT images in variousliver conditions. @*Materials and Methods@#A DLA for liver and spleen segmentation was trained using a development dataset of portal venousCT images from 813 patients. Performance of the DLA was evaluated in two separate test datasets: dataset-1 which included150 CT examinations in patients with various liver conditions (i.e., healthy liver, fatty liver, chronic liver disease, cirrhosis,and post-hepatectomy) and dataset-2 which included 50 pairs of CT examinations performed at ours and other institutions.The performance of the DLA was evaluated using the dice similarity score (DSS) for segmentation and Bland-Altman 95%limits of agreement (LOA) for measurement of the volumetric indices, which was compared with that of ground truth manualsegmentation. @*Results@#In test dataset-1, the DLA achieved a mean DSS of 0.973 and 0.974 for liver and spleen segmentation, respectively,with no significant difference in DSS across different liver conditions (p = 0.60 and 0.26 for the liver and spleen, respectively).For the measurement of volumetric indices, the Bland-Altman 95% LOA was -0.17 ± 3.07% for liver volume and -0.56 ± 3.78%for spleen volume. In test dataset-2, DLA performance using CT images obtained at outside institutions and our institutionwas comparable for liver (DSS, 0.982 vs. 0.983; p = 0.28) and spleen (DSS, 0.969 vs. 0.968; p = 0.41) segmentation. @*Conclusion@#The DLA enabled highly accurate segmentation and volume measurement of the liver and spleen using portalvenous phase CT images of patients with various liver conditions.

19.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 467-487, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832885

ABSTRACT

Anatomical imaging is the basis of the diagnosis and treatment response assessment of brain tumors. Among the existing imaging techniques currently available in clinical practice, diffusion- weighted imaging and perfusion imaging provide additional information. Recently, with the increasing importance of evaluation of the genomic variation and heterogeneity of tumors, clinical application of imaging techniques using radiomics and deep learning is expected. In this review, we will describe recommendations for magnetic resonance imaging protocols focusing on anatomical images that are still important in the clinical application of brain tumor imaging, and the basic principles of diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion imaging among the advanced imaging techniques, as well as their pathophysiological background and clinical application. Finally, we will review the future perspectives of radiomics and deep learning applications in brain tumor imaging, which have been studied to a great extent due to the development of computer technology.

20.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 1-10, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831026

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part I of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate national patterns of clinical practiceabout antiepileptic drug (AED) and steroid usage for management of brain tumors. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included9 questions of AED usage and 5 questions of steroid usage for brain tumor patients. All questionswere developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: The overall response rate was 12.8% (54/423). Regarding AED usage, the majority ofrespondents (95.2%) routinely prescribed prophylactic AEDs for patients with seizure at the peri/postoperativeperiod. However, as many as 72.8% of respondents prescribed AED routinely for seizure-naïvepatients, and others prescribed AED as the case may be. The duration of AED prophylaxis showedwide variance according to the epilepsy status and the location of tumor. Levetiracetam (82.9%) wasthe most preferred AED for epilepsy prophylaxis. Regarding steroid usage, 90.5% of respondents usesteroids in perioperative period, including 34.2% of them as a routine manner. Presence of peritumoraledema (90.9%) was considered as the most important factor determining steroid usage followed bydegree of clinical symptoms (60.6%). More than half of respondents (51.2%) replied to discontinue thesteroids within a week after surgery if there are no specific medical conditions, while 7.3% preferredslow tapering up to a month after surgery. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrated the prevailing practice patterns on AED and steroid usagein neuro-oncologic field among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain tumor patients.

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