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1.
Radiol. bras ; 55(1): 19-23, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360667

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between shear wave elastography parameters and arterial resistance in kidney transplant recipients. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study involving consecutive adult kidney transplant recipients. All patients underwent color Doppler to evaluate the resistive index (RI) and ultrasound shear wave elastography for the quantification of renal allograft stiffness. Results: We evaluated 55 patients, of whom 9 (16.4%) had an RI defined as abnormal (≥ 0.79) and 46 (83.6%) had an RI defined as normal (< 0.79). The mean age was higher in the abnormal RI group than in the normal RI group (68.0 ± 8.6 years vs. 42.6 ± 14.1 years; p < 0.001), as was the mean shear wave velocity (2.6 ± 0.4 m/s vs. 2.2 ± 0.4 m/s; p = 0.013). Multivariate analysis identified two independent predictors of arterial resistance: age (OR = 1.169; 95% CI: 1.056 to 1.294; p = 0.003) and shear wave velocity (OR = 17.1; 95% CI: 1.137 to 257.83; p = 0.040). Conclusion: We observed an association between rigidity in the cortex of the transplanted kidney, as evaluated by shear wave elastography, and arterial resistance, as evaluated by color Doppler, in kidney transplant recipients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre parâmetros de elastografia por onda de cisalhamento e resistência arterial em pacientes transplantados renais. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo transversal prospectivo. O estudo incluiu de forma consecutiva indivíduos adultos transplantados renais. Foram coletados dados demográficos e clínicos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à técnica ultrassonográfica para avaliação do índice de resistência (IR) e à quantificação da elasticidade do tecido por ondas de cisalhamento para avaliar a rigidez do aloenxerto renal. Resultados: Foram avaliados 55 pacientes. A média de idade e a velocidade da onda de cisalhamento foram maiores em pacientes com IR ≥ 0,79 (respectivamente, 68,0 ± 8,6 anos e 2,6 ± 0,4 m/s) quando comparados a pacientes com IR < 0,79 (respectivamente, 42,6 ± 14,1 anos, p < 0,001 e 2,2 ± 0,4 m/s, p = 0,013). A análise multivariada identificou a idade (OR = 1,169, IC 95%: 1,056 a 1,294; p = 0,003) e a velocidade da onda de cisalhamento (OR = 17,1, IC 95%: 1,137 a 257,83; p = 0,040) como fatores independentes associados a resistência arterial. Conclusão: Observou-se associação entre a rigidez do córtex do transplante renal avaliada por elastografia por onda de cisalhamento e a resistência arterial em pacientes pós-transplantados renais avaliados por Doppler.

2.
J. bras. pneumol ; 48(1): e20210371, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360543

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Lung cancer screening (LCS) programs are increasing worldwide. Incidental findings (IFs) on LCS are defined as low-dose CT findings unrelated to the primary purpose of identifying lung cancer. Most IFs on LCS are benign and clinically insignificant but are being increasingly recognized, and some require urgent referral for further diagnostic workup. Other findings are expected and are known as smoking-related comorbidities, including COPD, cardiovascular disease, emphysema, and interstitial lung disease, and their diagnosis can have a significant impact on patient prognosis. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the most common IFs on LCS, organized by organ. We will discuss the current literature on IFs on LCS, focusing on their prevalence, appropriate communication, and triggering of clinical pathway systems.


RESUMO Os programas de rastreamento de câncer de pulmão (RCP) estão aumentando em todo o mundo. Achados incidentais (AI) no RCP são achados de TC de baixa dose sem relação com o propósito principal de identificar câncer de pulmão. A maioria dos AI no RCP é benigna e clinicamente insignificante, mas os AI estão sendo cada vez mais reconhecidos, e alguns requerem encaminhamento urgente para investigação diagnóstica adicional. Outros achados são esperados e conhecidos como comorbidades relacionadas ao tabagismo, tais como DPOC, doença cardiovascular, enfisema e doença pulmonar intersticial, e seu diagnóstico pode ter um impacto significativo no prognóstico do paciente. O propósito deste ensaio pictórico é ilustrar os AI mais comuns no RCP, organizados por órgão/sistema. Discutiremos a literatura atual a respeito de AI no RCP, com foco em sua prevalência, comunicação apropriada e desencadeamento de procedimentos clínicos.

5.
Radiol. bras ; 54(5): 329-335, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340574

ABSTRACT

Abstract Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) is a noninvasive imaging method that can be used to diagnose and stage tumors, as well as to assess therapeutic responses in oncology. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the accuracy of WB-MRI for the diagnosis of metastases in pediatric patients. The following electronic databases were searched: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov. All of the selected studies included children and adolescents with histopathological confirmation of a primary tumor. Collectively, the studies included 118 patients ranging in age from 7 months to 19 years. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of WB-MRI were, respectively, 0.964 (95% CI: 0.944-0.978; I2 = 0%) and 0.902 (95% CI: 0.882-0.919; I2 = 98.4%), with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.991. We found that WB-MRI had good accuracy for the diagnosis of metastases in pediatric patients and could therefore provide an alternative to complete the staging of tumors in such patients, being a safer option because it does not involve the use of ionizing radiation.


Resumo A ressonância magnética de corpo inteiro (WB-MRI) é um método de imagem não invasivo que pode ser usado para diagnosticar, estadiar e avaliar a resposta terapêutica em oncologia. O objetivo desta meta-análise foi avaliar a precisão do diagnóstico de WB- MRI no diagnóstico de metástases em crianças. Foram pesquisadas as seguintes bastes de dados: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Todos os estudos incluíram crianças e adolescentes com prova histopatológica de um tumor original. Os estudos selecionados incluíram 118 pacientes com idade variando de 7 meses a 19 anos. A sensibilidade e especificidade combinadas de WB-MRI foram, respectivamente, 0,964 (IC 95%: 0,944-0,978; I2 = 0%) e 0,902 (IC 95%: 0,882-0,919; I2 = 98,4%), com AUC de 0,991. A WB-MRI tem uma boa precisão para o diagnóstico de metástases em pediatria e pode potencialmente fornecer um método alternativo não ionizante mais seguro para completar o estadiamento da doença maligna em crianças.

7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(4): 705-729, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286767

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in males. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT, a non-invasive diagnostic tool to evaluate PC with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression, has emerged as a more accurate alternative to assess disease staging. We aimed to identify predictors of positive 68Ga-PSMA PET and the accuracy of this technique. Materials and methods: Diagnostic accuracy cross-sectional study with prospective and retrospective approaches. We performed a comprehensive literature search on PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase database in search of studies including PC patients submitted to radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy with curative intent and presented biochemical recurrence following ASTRO 1996 criteria. A total of 35 studies involving 3910 patients submitted to 68-Ga-PSMA PET were included and independently assessed by two authors: 8 studies on diagnosis, four on staging, and 23 studies on restaging purposes. The significance level was α=0.05. Results: pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.90 (0.86-0.93) and 0.90 (0.82-0.96), respectively, for diagnostic purposes; as for staging, pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.93 (0.86-0.98) and 0.96 (0.92-0.99), respectively. In the restaging scenario, pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.76 (0.74-0.78) and 0.45 (0.27-0.58), respectively, considering the identification of prostate cancer in each described situation. We also obtained specificity and sensitivity results for PSA subdivisions. Conclusion: 68Ga-PSMA PET provides higher sensitivity and specificity than traditional imaging for prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Radiopharmaceuticals , Positron-Emission Tomography
8.
Radiol. bras ; 54(4): 225-231, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287757

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To establish the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in discriminating malignant from non-malignant thoracic lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: This was a meta-analysis involving systematic searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases up through April 2020. Studies reporting thoracic DWI and lymph node evaluation were included. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Results: We evaluated six studies, involving a collective total of 356 mediastinal lymph nodes in 214 patients. Thoracic DWI had a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 92% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 71-98%) and 93% (95% CI: 79-98%), respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 13.2 (95% CI: 4.0-43.8) and 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02-0.36), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio was 149 (95% CI: 18-1,243), and the AUC was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.98). Conclusion: DWI is a reproducible technique and has demonstrated high accuracy for differentiating between malignant and benign states in thoracic lymph nodes.


Resumo Objetivo: Uma meta-análise foi realizada para estabelecer o desempenho diagnóstico da ressonância magnética com imagem ponderada em difusão (DWI) na discriminação de linfonodos torácicos malignos de benignos. Materiais e Métodos: MEDLINE, EMBASE e Web of Science foram sistematicamente pesquisados até abril de 2020. Foram incluídos estudos que relatavam o uso de DWI na avaliação de linfonodos torácicos. Sensibilidade, especificidade, razão de chances de diagnóstico, valores preditivos positivos e negativos e área sob a curva (AUC) foram calculados. Resultados: Foram encontrados 356 linfonodos mediastinais de 214 pacientes nos seis estudos incluídos. DWI produziu sensibilidade e especificidade combinadas de 92% (intervalo de confiança 95% [IC 95%]: 71-98%) e 93% (IC 95%: 79-98%), respectivamente. A razão de verossimilhança positiva foi de 13,2 (IC 95%: 4,0-43,8), a razão de verossimilhança negativa foi de 0,09 (IC 95%: 0,02-0,36); A razão de chances de diagnóstico foi de 149 (IC 95%: 18-1.243). A DWI teve uma AUC de 0,97 (IC 95%: 0,95-0,98). Conclusão: DWI é uma técnica reprodutível que demonstrou alta acurácia na diferenciação de estados malignos e benignos nos linfonodos torácicos.

9.
Radiol. bras ; 54(3): 165-170, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250652

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate variables affecting the need for analgesia after ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy performed on an outpatient basis. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 1,042 liver biopsies performed between 2012 and 2018. The data collected included the age and sex of the patient, as well as self-reported pain in the recovery room, the pain treatment used, the indication for the biopsy, and the lobe punctured. As per the protocol of our institution, physicians would re-evaluate patients with mild pain (1-3 on a visual analog scale), prescribe analgesics for those with moderate pain (4-6 on the visual analog scale), and prescribe opioids for those with severe pain (7-10 on the visual analog scale). Results: The main indications for biopsy were related to diffuse disease (in 89.9%), including the follow-up of hepatitis C (in 47.0%) and suspicion of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (in 38.0%). Pain requiring analgesia occurred in 8.0% of procedures. Of the 485 female patients, 51 (10.5%) needed analgesia, compared with 33 (5.9%) of the 557 male patients (p < 0.05). The need for analgesia did not differ in relation to patient age, the lobe punctured, or the indication for biopsy (nodular or diffuse disease). The analgesic most commonly used was dipyrone (in 75.9%), followed by paracetamol alone (16.4%) and their combination with opioids (7.6%). Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy is safe and well tolerated. Postprocedural pain does not correlate with the lobe punctured, patient age, or the indication for biopsy and appears to affect more women than men.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar variáveis que afetam a necessidade de analgesia após biópsia hepática guiada por ultrassonografia. Materiais e Métodos: Análise retrospectiva de 1042 biópsias hepáticas realizadas entre 2012 e 2018. Os dados coletados incluíram dor detectada na sala de recuperação, analgesia utilizada, indicação, lobo puncionado, idade e sexo do paciente. O protocolo institucional indicava orientações e reavaliação para dor leve (1-3, segundo a escala visual analógica), analgésicos simples para dor moderada (4-6, segundo a escala visual analógica) e opioides para dor importante (7-10, segundo a escala visual analógica). Resultados: As indicações foram principalmente doença difusa (89,9%), particularmente no seguimento de hepatite C (47,0%) e suspeita de esteato-hepatite não alcoólica (38,0%). Dor com necessidade de analgesia ocorreu em 8,0% dos procedimentos. Mulheres demandaram analgesia em 10,5% das vezes e homens demandaram em 5,9% (p < 0,05). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na necessidade de analgesia em relação a idade, lobo hepático puncionado ou indicação por doença nodular versus difusa. O analgésico mais utilizado foi dipirona (75,9%), seguido de paracetamol (16,4%) e associação com opioides (7,6%). Conclusão: Este é um procedimento seguro e bem tolerado. Dor pós-procedimento não se correlaciona com lateralidade da biópsia, idade ou doença nodular versus difusa e parece afetar mais mulheres que homens.

10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(1): 37-43, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154715

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare quantitative CT parameters between children with severe asthma and healthy subjects, correlating to their clinical features. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed CT data from 19 school-aged children (5-17 years) with severe asthma and 19 control school-aged children with pectus excavatum. The following CT parameters were evaluated: total lung volume (TLV), mean lung density (MLD), CT air trapping index (AT%) (attenuation ≤856 HU), airway wall thickness (AWT), and percentage of airway wall thickness (AWT%). Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) data were correlated to the following clinical parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow at 25-75% (FEF 25-75%), FEV1/FVC ratio, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis, serum IgE levels, and previous hospitalizations due to asthma. Results: Asthma patients presented higher mean values of AT% (23.8 ± 6.7% vs. controls, 9.7 ± 3.2%), AWT (1.46 ± 0.22 mm vs. controls, 0.47 ± −735 ± 28 HU vs. controls, −666 ± 19 HU). Mean AT% was 29.0 ± 4.7% in subjects with previous hospitalization against 19.2 ± 5.0% in those with no prior hospitalization (p < 0.001). AT% presented very strong negative correlations with FVC (r = −0.933, p < 0.001) and FEV1 (r = −0.841, p < 0.001) and a moderate correlation with FEF 25-75% (r = −0.608, p = 0.007). AT% correlation with FEV1/FVC ratio and serum IgE was weak (r = −0.184, p = 0.452, and r = −0.363, p = 0.202) Conclusion: Children with severe asthma present differences in quantitative chest CT scans compared to healthy controls with strong correlations with pulmonary function tests and previous hospitalizations due to asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Aged , Asthma/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Function Tests , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Retrospective Studies , Lung/diagnostic imaging
11.
Radiol. bras ; 54(1): 9-14, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155225

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate computed tomography (CT) findings in 23 patients with bronchial atresia. Materials and Methods: The CT images were reviewed by two radiologists who reached decisions by consensus. We included only patients who presented with abnormalities on CT and in whom the diagnosis had been confirmed by pathological examination of the surgical specimen (if the lesion was resected). The CT scans were assessed in order to identify the main findings and to map the distribution of the lesions (i.e., to determine whether the pulmonary involvement was unilateral or bilateral). Results: The main CT finding was the combination of bronchocele and hyperinflation of the distal lung. That combination was observed in all of the patients. The lesions were unilateral in all 23 cases, being seen predominantly in the left upper lobe, followed by the right lower lobe, right upper lobe, middle lobe, and left lower lobe. Conclusion: The diagnosis of bronchial atresia can be reliably made on the basis of a finding of bronchocele accompanied by hyperinflation of the adjacent lung parenchyma.


Resumo Objetivo: Analisar os achados na tomografia computadorizada (TC) de tórax de 23 pacientes com atresia brônquica. Materiais e Métodos: As imagens de TC foram avaliadas por dois observadores e os casos discordantes foram resolvidos por consenso. Os critérios de inclusão foram a presença de anormalidades na TC compatíveis com atresia brônquica e/ou diagnóstico confirmado por exame anatomopatológico das peças cirúrgicas para os pacientes submetidos a ressecção cirúrgica. As TCs foram avaliadas quanto aos principais achados de imagem, à distribuição das lesões, ao envolvimento pulmonar unilateral ou bilateral. Resultados: Os principais achados na TC foram a presença de broncocele, hiperinsuflação do parênquima pulmonar ou ambos. A combinação desses achados foi encontrada em todos os pacientes. Em relação à distribuição, o envolvimento foi unilateral nos 23 casos. Quando se consideraram os lobos mais acometidos, o lobo superior esquerdo foi o mais acometido, seguido do lobo inferior direito, lobo superior direito, lobo médio e lobo inferior esquerdo. Conclusão: O diagnóstico de atresia brônquica pode ser feito em presença de broncocele associada com hiperinsuflação do parênquima pulmonar adjacente.

13.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(5): e20200595, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346404

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Effective communication among members of medical teams is an important factor for early and appropriate diagnosis. The terminology used in radiology reports appears in this context as an important link between radiologists and other members of the medical team. Therefore, heterogeneity in the use of terms in reports is an important but little discussed issue. This article is the result of an extensive review of nomenclature in thoracic radiology, including for the first time terms used in X-rays, CT, and MRI, conducted by radiologists from Brazil and Portugal. The objective of this review of medical terminology was to create a standardized language for medical professionals and multidisciplinary teams.


RESUMO A comunicação eficiente entre a equipe médica é um fator importante no diagnóstico e tratamento precoce e adequado dos pacientes. A terminologia utilizada em relatórios de exames radiológicos aparece nesse contexto como um elo importante entre radiologistas e os demais integrantes da equipe médica. Portanto, a heterogeneidade no uso de termos em relatórios é importante mas ainda pouco discutida. Este artigo é resultado de uma extensa revisão da nomenclatura radiológica em radiologia torácica, englobando pela primeira vez termos utilizados em vários métodos (radiografia, TC e RM), desenvolvida por radiologistas brasileiros e portugueses. O objetivo desta revisão da terminologia médica foi criar uma linguagem padronizada para os profissionais médicos e as equipes multidisciplinares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiology , Language , Portugal , Brazil , Consensus
17.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20200055, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180801

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluation of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes is crucial for patient management. Malignant lymphoma and sarcoidosis are often difficult to differentiate. Our objective was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MRI for differentiating between sarcoidosis and malignant lymphoma. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 47 patients who underwent chest MRI and were diagnosed with one of the diseases between 2017 and 2019. T1, T2, and diffusion-weighted signal intensity were measured. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and T2 ratios were calculated. The diagnostic performance of MRI was determined by ROC analysis. Results: Mean T2 ratio was significantly lower in the sarcoidosis group than in the lymphoma group (p = 0.009). The T2-ratio cutoff value that best differentiated between lymphoma-related and sarcoidosis-related enlarged lymph nodes was 7.1, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 58.3%, 95.6%, 76.5%, 93.3%, and 68.7%, respectively. The mean ADC was significantly lower in the lymphoma group than in the sarcoidosis group (p = 0.002). The ADC cutoff value that best differentiated between lymphoma-related and sarcoidosis-related enlarged lymph nodes was 1.205, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 87.5%, 82.6%, 85.1%, 84.0% and 86.3%, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding T1 signal intensity, T2 signal intensity, and lymph node diameter. Conclusions: MRI parameters such as ADC, diffusion, and T2 ratio can be useful in the differentiation between sarcoidosis and lymphoma in the evaluation of enlarged lymph nodes.


RESUMO Objetivo: A avaliação de linfonodomegalias mediastinais é crucial para o manejo dos pacientes. O linfoma maligno e a sarcoidose costumam ser difíceis de diferenciar. Nosso objetivo foi determinar a precisão diagnóstica da RMN para diferenciar sarcoidose de linfoma maligno. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com 47 pacientes submetidos a RMN de tórax e diagnosticados com uma das doenças entre 2017 e 2019. Foi medida a intensidade do sinal em T1, T2 e difusão. Foram calculados o coeficiente de difusão aparente (ADC, do inglês apparent diffusion coefficient) e a razão T2. O desempenho diagnóstico da RMN foi determinado pela análise da curva ROC. Resultados: A média da razão T2 foi significativamente menor no grupo sarcoidose que no grupo linfoma (p = 0,009). A razão T2 = 7,1 foi o melhor valor de corte para diferenciar linfonodomegalias relacionadas com linfoma daquelas relacionadas com sarcoidose, com sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e precisão de 58,3%, 95,6%, 76,5%, 93,3% e 68,7%, respectivamente. A média do ADC foi significativamente menor no grupo linfoma que no grupo sarcoidose (p = 0,002). O ADC = 1,205 foi o melhor valor de corte para diferenciar linfonodomegalias relacionadas com linfoma daquelas relacionadas com sarcoidose, com sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e precisão de 87,5%, 82,6%, 85,1%, 84,0% e 86,3%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto à intensidade do sinal em T1, intensidade do sinal em T2 e diâmetro dos linfonodos. Conclusões: Parâmetros de RMN como ADC, difusão e razão T2 podem ser úteis na diferenciação entre sarcoidose e linfoma na avaliação de linfonodomegalias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoidosis/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis
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