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Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 104-110, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430502


SUMMARY: The myodural bridge is a dense connective tissue connecting muscles and ligaments to the spinal dura mater in the atlanto-occipital interspace. Some researchers believe that the myodural bridge may play a vital physiological role. It is possible, for instance, that the prevention of spinal dura mater infoldings might be involved in regulated cerebrospinal fluid circulation. For instance, it is possible to prevent spinal dura mater infoldings, regulating cerebrospinal circulation. Bats are nocturnal and the only mammals that can perform a genuine and sustained flight, whereas tree shrews are arboreal mammals that often climb to a high altitude of about 10,000 feet. Both animals have lifestyles that are different from other previously studied mammals. The study of these two animals will shed further light on the existence of the myodural bridge in mammals. Gross anatomical dissection was used to observe the connections between the deep muscles of the neck and the dura mater at the level of the atlanto-occipital interspace. The existing structures were analyzed using conventional and special histological staining techniques. The suboccipital regions in bats and tree shrews contained the rectus capitis dorsal major (RCDma), rectus capitis dorsal minor (RCDmi), oblique capitis anterior (OCA), and oblique capitis posterior (OCP). Dense connective tissue connects the RCDmi to the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane (PAOM) and the latter to the spinal dura mater. The myodural bridge in these mammals shares a similar structure to the myodural bridge in humans. Histological analyses confirmed that the connective fibers of the myodural bridge were primarily type I collagen fibers. In this study, it is supplemented by the existence of the myodural bridge in mammals. This further demonstrates that myodural bridge widely exists in the normal anatomy of mammals. This provides morphological support for a comparative anatomical study of the physiological function of the myodural bridge.

El puente miodural es un tejido conjuntivo denso que conecta los músculos y los ligamentos a la duramadre espinal en el espacio atlanto-occipital. Algunos investigadores creen que el puente miodural puede desempeñar un papel fisiológico vital. Es posible, por ejemplo, que la prevención de los pliegues de la duramadre espinal pueda estar involucrada en la circulación regulada del líquido cefalorraquídeo. En esta instancia, es posible prevenir los pliegues de la duramadre espinal, regulando la circulación cerebro espinal. Los murciélagos son animales nocturnos y los únicos mamíferos que pueden realizar un vuelo real y sostenido, mientras que las musarañas arborícolas son mamíferos arbóreos que a menudo ascienden a una gran altura de unos 10 000 pies. Ambos animales tienen estilos de vida diferentes a los de otros mamíferos previamente estudiados. El estudio de estos dos animales ofrecerá más información sobre la existencia del puente miodural en los mamíferos. Se realizó una disección anatómica macroscópica para observar las conexiones entre los músculos profundos del cuello y la duramadre a nivel del espacio atlanto-occipital. Las estructuras existentes se analizaron mediante técnicas de tinción histológica convencionales y especiales. Las regiones suboccipitales en murciélagos y musarañas arbóreas presentaban el músculo recto dorsal mayor de la cabeza (RCDma), el recto dorsal menor de la cabeza (RCDmi), el oblicuo anterior de la cabeza (OCA) y el oblicuo posterior de la cabeza (OCP). El tejido conjuntivo denso conecta el RCDmi con la membrana atlanto- occipital posterior (PAOM) y esta última con la duramadre espinal. El puente miodural en estos mamíferos comparte una estructura similar al puente miodural en humanos. Los análisis histológicos confirmaron que las fibras conectivas del puente miodural son principalmente fibras de colágeno tipo I. Esto demuestra además que el puente miodural existe ampliamente en la anatomía normal de los mamíferos. Esta investigación proporciona apoyo morfológico para un estudio anatómico comparativo de la función fisiológica del puente miodural.

Animals , Tupaiidae/anatomy & histology , Chiroptera/anatomy & histology , Dura Mater/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Comparative
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 264-267, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430529


SUMMARY: The corporo-glans ligament is the ligament connecting the corpus cavernosum and the glans of the penis. The anatomical description of the corporo-glans ligaments shape is still uncertain, this knowledge affects penile reconstructive procedures. The anatomy of the corporo-glans ligament was analyzed and recorded via observing sagittal sections of 10 different penile P45 plastination sections. According to the P45 plastination sections, the corporo-glans junction displayed a fibrous tissue band connecting the distal ends of the two corpus cavernous (CC) with the glans penis (GP). The fibrous band was a round-obtuse shape and ran deep into the glans of the penis and occupied about 2/3 of the whole GP. The original end was laid in a socket embedded in the GP. The density of the fibers of the ligament at the original end close to the tunica albuginea was less than that of the other parts. The fibers originating from the tunica albuginea, directly extended to the blind end of the two CC, covering the distal end of the two CC.

El ligamento cuerpo cavernoso-glande es el ligamento que conecta el cuerpo cavernoso y el glande del pene. La descripción anatómica de la forma de los ligamentos cuerpo cavernoso -glande aún es incierta; este conocimiento afecta los procedimientos reconstructivos del pene. La anatomía del ligamento cuerpo cavernoso-glande se analizó y registró mediante la observación de 10 secciones sagitales diferentes del pene a través de plastinación P45. Según las secciones de plastinación, la unión cuerpo-glande mostraba una banda de tejido fibroso que conectaba los extremos distales de los dos cuerpos cavernosos con el glande del pene. La banda fibrosa tenía una forma redonda y obtusa y se adentraba profundamente en el glande del pene ocupando alrededor de 2/3 de él. En su origen se coloca en un espacio profundo en el glande del pene. La densidad de las fibras del ligamento cuerpo cavernoso-glande en su origen cercano a la túnica albugínea era menor que el de las otras partes. Las fibras que se originan en la túnica albugínea, se extienden directamente hasta el extremo ciego de los dos cuerpos cavernosos, cubriendo el extremo distal de estos.

Humans , Penis/anatomy & histology , Plastination/methods , Ligaments/anatomy & histology
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 262-272, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968559


Objective@#Mental health is a global concern and needs to be studied more closely. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders and their associated factors among the general population in Korea. @*Methods@#The National Mental Health Survey of Korea 2021 was conducted between June 19 and August 31, 2021 and included 13,530 households; 5,511 participants completed the interview (response rate: 40.7%). The lifetime and 12-month diagnosis rates of mental disorders were made using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. Factors associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD), nicotine use disorder, depressive disorder, and anxiety disorder were analyzed, and mental health service utilization rates were estimated. @*Results@#The lifetime prevalence of mental disorders was 27.8%. The 12-month prevalence rates of alcohol use, nicotine use, depressive, and anxiety disorders were 2.6%, 2.7%, 1.7%, and 3.1%, respectively. The risk factors associated with 12-month diagnosis rates were as follows: AUD: sex and age; nicotine use disorder: sex; depressive disorder: marital status and job status; anxiety disorder: sex, marital status, and job status. The 12-month treatment and service utilization rates for 12-month AUD, nicotine use disorder, depressive disorder, and anxiety disorder were 2.6%, 1.1%, 28.2%, and 9.1%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Approximately 25% of adults in the general population were diagnosed with mental disorders during their lifetime. The treatment rates were substantially low. Future studies on this topic and efforts to increase the mental health treatment rate at a national level are needed.

Gut and Liver ; : 78-91, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966875


Background/Aims@#The discrepancies between the diagnosis of preoperative endoscopic forceps biopsy (EFB) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in patients with early gastric neoplasm (EGN) exist objectively. Among them, pathological upgrading directly influences the accuracy and appropriateness of clinical decisions. The aims of this study were to investigate the risk factors for the discrepancies, with a particular focus on pathological upgrading and to establish a prediction model for estimating the risk of pathological upgrading after EFB. @*Methods@#We retrospectively collected the records of 978 patients who underwent ESD from December 1, 2017 to July 31, 2021 and who had a final histopathology determination of EGN. A nomogram to predict the risk of pathological upgrading was constructed after analyzing subgroup differences among the 901 lesions enrolled. @*Results@#The ratio of pathological upgrading was 510 of 953 (53.5%). Clinical, laboratorial and endoscopic characteristics were analyzed using univariable and binary multivariable logistic regression analyses. A nomogram was constructed by including age, history of chronic atrophic gastritis, symptoms of digestive system, blood high density lipoprotein concentration, macroscopic type, pathological diagnosis of EFB, uneven surface, remarkable redness, and lesion size. The C-statistics were 0.804 (95% confidence interval, 0.774 to 0.834) and 0.748 (95% confidence interval, 0.664 to 0.832) in the training and validation set, respectively. We also built an online webserver based on the proposed nomogram for convenient clinical use. @*Conclusions@#The clinical value of identifying the preoperative diagnosis of EGN lesions is limited when using EFB separately. We have developed a nomogram that can predict the probability of pathological upgrading with good calibration and discrimination value.

Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1579-1586, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421821


SUMMARY: For treating cruciate ligament injuries, especially for characterizing the mechanics of the tunnel in cruciate ligament reconstruction, correctly understanding the bony information of the attachment area of the cruciate ligaments is significant. We studied 31 knee joints of middle-aged Chinese adults using the P45 sheet plastination technique, focusing on the attachment areas of the cruciate ligaments, especially the bony structures. The trabeculae at the attachment area were distributed radially and extended deep into the medial wall of the lateral condyle of the femur. However, in the anterior part of the intercondylar eminence, the trabeculae of the anterior group were parallelly arranged along the tendinous fibers of the anterior cruciate ligament, while the trabeculae of the posterior group were parallelly arranged along the perpendicular direction of the anterior cruciate ligament fibers. Similarly, at the attachment area of the lateral wall of the medial condyle of the posterior cruciate ligament, the trabeculae extended radially toward the deep medial condyle. Deep in the posterior part of the intercondylar eminence, the trabeculae were arranged longitudinally. In the anterior part of the intercondylar eminence, the trabeculae were parallelly arranged along the perpendicular directions of ligament fibers. The distribution patterns of the trabecular at the attachment areas of the cruciate ligaments at the ends of the femur and tibia were different. This difference should be considered when orthopedic surgeons reconstruct anterior cruciate ligaments.

Para el tratamiento de lesiones de los ligamentos cruzados, especialmente para caracterizar la mecánica del túnel en su reconstrucción, es importante comprender correctamente la información ósea del área de inserción de estos ligamentos. Estudiamos 31 articulaciones de rodilla de individuos chinos, adultos, de mediana edad, utilizando la técnica de plastinación de láminas P45, centrándonos en las áreas de unión de los ligamentos cruzados, especialmente en las estructuras óseas. Las trabéculas en el área de inserción se distribuyeron radialmente y se extendieron profundamente en la pared medial del cóndilo lateral del fémur. Sin embargo, en la parte anterior de la eminencia intercondílea, las trabéculas del grupo anterior estaban dispuestas paralelamente a lo largo de las fibras tendinosas del ligamento cruzado anterior, mientras que las trabéculas del grupo posterior estaban dispuestas paralelamente a lo largo de la dirección perpendicular de las fibras del ligamento cruzado anterior. De manera similar, en el área de inserción en la cara lateral del cóndilo medial del ligamento cruzado posterior, las trabéculas se extendían radialmente y profundas hacia el cóndilo medial. Profundamente en la parte posterior de la eminencia intercondílea, las trabéculas estaban dispuestas longitudinalmente. En la parte anterior de la eminencia intercondílea, las trabéculas estaban dispuestas paralelamente a lo largo de las direcciones perpendiculares de las fibras del ligamento. Los patrones de distribución del tejido óseo trabecular en las áreas de unión de los ligamentos cruzados en los extremos del fémur y la tibia eran diferentes. Estas diferencias deben tenerse en consideración cuando los cirujanos ortopédicos reconstruyen los ligamentos cruzados anteriores.

Humans , Plastination/methods , Knee Joint/anatomy & histology , Ligaments, Articular/anatomy & histology , Cancellous Bone/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 796-800, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385687


SUMMARY: The atlanto-occipital joint is composed of the superior fossa of the lateral masses of the atlas (C1) and the occipital condyles. Congenital Atlanto-occipital fusion (AOF) involves the osseous union of the base of the occiput (C0) and the atlas (C1). AOF or atlas occipitalization/assimilation represents a craniovertebral junction malformation (CVJM) which can be accompanied by other cranial or spinal malformations. AOF may be asymptomatic or patients may experience symptoms from neural compression as well as limited neck movement. The myodural bridge (MDB) complex is a dense fibrous structure that connects the suboccipital muscular and its related facia to the cervical spinal dura mater, passing through both the posterior atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial interspaces. It is not known if atlas occipitilization can induce structural changes in the MDB complex and its associated suboccipital musculature. The suboccipital region of a cadaveric head and neck specimen from an 87-year-old Chinese male having a congenital AOF malformation with resultant changes to the MDB complex was observed. After being treated with the P45 plastination method, multiple slices obtained from the cadaveric head and neck specimen were examined with special attention paid to the suboccipital region and the CVJM. Congenital atlanto-occipital fusion malformations are defined as partial or complete fusion of the base of the occiput (C0) with the atlas (C1). In the present case of CVJM, unilateral fusion of the left occipital condyle with the left lateral mass of C1 was observed, as well as posterior central fusion of the posterior margin of the foramen magnum with the posterior arch of C1. Also noted was a unilateral variation of the course of the vertebral artery due to the narrowed posterior atlanto-occipital interspace. Surprisingly, complete agenesis of the rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmi) and the obliques capitis superior (OCS) muscles was also observed in the plastinated slices. Interestingly, the MDB, which normally originates in part from the RCPmi muscle, was observed to originate from a superior bifurcation within an aspect of the nuchal ligament. Therefore, the observed changes involving the MDB complex appear to be an effective compensation to the suboccipital malformations.

RESUMEN: La articulación atlanto-occipital está compuesta por las caras articulares superiores de las masas laterales del atlas (C1) y los cóndilos occipitales. La fusión atlanto-occipital congénita (FAO) implica la unión ósea de la base del occipucio (C0) y el atlas (C1). La FAO u occipitalización/asimilación del atlas representa una malformación de la unión craneovertebral (MUCV) que puede presentar otras malformaciones craneales o espinales. La FAO puede ser asintomática o los pacientes pueden experimentar síntomas de compresión neural así como movimiento limitado del cuello. El complejo del puente miodural (PMD) es una estructura fibrosa densa que conecta el músculo suboccipital y su fascia relacionada con la duramadre espinal cervical, pasando a través de los espacios intermedios atlanto-occipital posterior y atlanto-axial. No se sabe si la occipitilización del atlas puede inducir cambios estructurales en el complejo PMD y en la musculatura suboccipital. Se observó en la región suboccipital de un espécimen cadavérico, cabeza y cuello de un varón chino de 87 años con una malformación congénita de FAO con los cambios resultantes en el complejo PMD. Se examinaron múltiples cortes obtenidos de la muestra de cabeza y cuello después de ser tratados con el método de plastinación P45, con especial atención a la región suboccipital y la MUCV. Las malformaciones congénitas por fusión atlanto-occipital se definen como la fusión parcial o completa de la base del occipucio (C0) con el atlas (C1). En el presente caso de MUCV se observó la fusión unilateral del cóndilo occipital izquierdo con la masa lateral izquierda de C1, así como fusión posterior central del margen posterior del foramen magnum con el arco posterior de C1. También se observó una variación unilateral del curso de la arteria vertebral por el estrechamiento del espacio interatlanto-occipital posterior. Se observó además agenesia completa de los músculos Rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmi) y oblicuos capitis superior (OCS) en los cortes plastinados. Curiosamente, se observó que el MDB, que normalmente se origina en parte del músculo RCPmi, se origina en una bifurcación superior dentro de un aspecto del ligamento nucal. Por lo tanto, los cambios observados en el complejo PMD parecen ser una compensación de las malformaciones suboccipitales.

Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Atlanto-Occipital Joint/abnormalities , Skull/abnormalities , Cervical Vertebrae/abnormalities , Plastination/methods , Cadaver
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1308-1320, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405271


SUMMARY: To establish an unprovable diagnostic indicative index reference for ultrasound examination of the fetal cerebral ventricles, based on the morphological characteristics throughout fetal nervous system development. Key ultrasonic morphological indicators of fetal ventricular development, which includes frontal horn width (FHW), occipital horn width (OHW), width of 3rd ventricle, cavity of septum pellucidum (CSP), width and length of 4th ventricle and thalamo-occipital distance (TOD) had been measured and analyzed collectively. All data of the indicators was collected on singleton pregnant woman between 16-39 weeks of gestational age (GA), between November 2017 and June 2021 at the Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University. A total of 235 pregnant women were enrolled in the cross section study; another 36 pregnant women voluntarily joined a timeline-tracking follow-up study (cohort study) under the same examining criteria. A decrease of FHW and OHW of the lateral ventricles was observed as GA increased; while dimensional values of TOD, 3rd ventricle, CSP, as well as 4th ventricle increased with GA. Most of these indicators showed an enhanced variation tendency within a certain period of GA. Moreover, values of FHW and TOD showed asymmetry of the two hemispheres within the whole GA. Our findings revealed the morphological regularity of fetal ventricular development, which would instructively enhance the relative clinical ultrasound diagnosis; moreover, TOD also showed regularly changes as GA increased, suggesting that TOD should be considered as an additional routine ultrasonic indicator for fetal ventricular development.

RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio fue establecer un índice de referencia indicativo diagnóstico no demostrable para el examen ecográfico de los ventrículos cerebrales fetales, basado en las características morfológicas a lo largo del desarrollo del sistema nervioso fetal. Indicadores morfológicos ultrasónicos clave del desarrollo ventricular fetal, que incluyen el ancho del cuerno frontal (FHW), el ancho del cuerno occipital (OHW), el ancho del tercer ventrículo, la cavidad del septo pelúcido (CSP), el ancho y el largo del cuarto ventrículo y la distancia tálamo-occipital (TOD) fueron medidos y analizados conjuntamente. Todos los datos de los indicadores se recopilaron en mujeres embarazadas de un solo feto entre 16 y 39 semanas de edad gestacional (EG), entre noviembre de 2017 y junio de 2021 en el Segundo Hospital de la Universidad Médica de Dalian. Un total de 235 mujeres embarazadas se inscribieron en el estudio transversal; otras 36 mujeres embarazadas se unieron voluntariamente a un estudio de seguimiento de línea de tiempo (estudio de cohorte) bajo los mismos criterios de examen. Se observó una disminución de FHW y OHW de los ventrículos laterales a medida que aumentaba la GA; mientras que los valores dimensionales de TOD, tercer ventrículo, CSP y cuarto ventrículo aumentaron con GA. La mayoría de estos indicadores mostraron una tendencia de variación mejorada dentro de un cierto período de GA. Además, los valores de FHW y TOD mostraron asimetría de los dos hemisferios dentro de toda la AG. Nuestros hallazgos revelaron la regularidad morfológica del desarrollo ventricular fetal, lo que mejoraría de manera instructiva el diagnóstico clínico de ultrasonido relativo; además, TOD también mostró cambios regulares a medida que aumentaba la GA, lo que sugiere que TOD debe considerarse como un indicador ultrasónico de rutina adicional para el desarrollo ventricular fetal.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cerebral Ventricles/growth & development , Cerebral Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
Int. j. morphol ; 40(2): 304-313, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385602


SUMMARY: Myodural bridges (MDB) are anatomical connections between the suboccipital muscles and the cervical dura mater which pass through both the atlanto-occipital and the atlanto-axial interspaces in mammals. In our previous studies, we found that the MDB exists in seven terrestrial mammal species, two marine mammal species, two reptilian species, and one bird species. A recent study suggested that given the "ubiquity" of myodural bridges in terrestrial vertebrates, the MDB may also exist in snakes. Specifically, we focused on the Gloydius shedaoensis, a species of Agkistrodon (pit viper snake) that is only found on Shedao Island, which is in the southeastern sea of Dalian City in China. Six head and neck cadaveric specimens of Gloydius shedaoensis were examined. Three specimens were used for anatomical dissection and the remaining three cadaveric specimens were utilized for histological analysis. The present study confirmed the existence of the MDB in the Gloydius shedaoensis. The snake's spinalis muscles originated from the posterior edge of the supraoccipital bones and the dorsal facet of the exocciput, and then extended on both sides of the spinous processes of the spine, merging with the semispinalis muscles. On the ventral aspect of this muscular complex, it gave off fibers of the MDB. These MDB fibers twisted around the posterior margin of the exocciput and then passed through the atlanto-occipital interspace, finally terminating on the dura mater. We observed that the MDB also existed in all of the snakes' intervertebral joints. These same histological findings were also observed in the Gloydius brevicaudus, which was used as a control specimen for the Gloydius shedaoensis. In snakes the spinal canal is longer than that observed in most other animals. Considering the unique locomotive style of snakes, our findings contribute to support the hypothesis that the MDB could modulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsations.

RESUMEN: Los puentes miodurales (MDB) son conexiones anatómicas entre los músculos suboccipitales y la duramadre cervical que pasan a través de los espacios intermedios atlanto-occipital y atlanto-axial en los mamíferos. En nuestros estudios anteriores, encontramos que el MDB existe en siete especies de mamíferos terrestres, dos especies de mamíferos marinos, dos especies de reptiles y una especie de ave. Un estudio reciente sugirió que dada la "ubicuidad" de los puentes miodurales en los vertebrados terrestres, el MDB también puede existir en las serpientes. Específicamente, nos enfocamos en Gloydius shedaoensis, una especie de Agkistrodon (serpiente víbora) que solo se encuentra en la isla Shedao, en el mar sureste de la ciudad de Dalian en China. Se examinaron seis especímenes cadavéricos de cabeza y cuello de Gloydius shedaoensis. Se utilizaron tres especímenes para la disección anatómica y los tres especímenes cadavéricos restantes se utilizaron para el análisis histológico. El presente estudio confirmó la existencia del MDB en Gloydius shedaoensis. Los músculos espinosos de la serpiente se originaron en el margen posterior de los huesos supraoccipital y la cara dorsal del exoccipucio, y luego se extendieron a ambos lados de los procesos espinosas de la columna vertebral, fusionándose con los músculos semiespinosos. En la cara ventral de este complejo muscular se desprendían fibras del MDB. Estas fibras MDB se ubican alrededor del margen posterior del exoccipucio y luego atraviesan el interespacio atlanto-occipital, terminando finalmente en la duramadre. Observamos que el MDB también existía en todas las articulaciones intervertebrales de las serpientes. Estos mismos hallazgos histológicos también se observaron en Gloydius brevicaudus, que se utilizó como muestra de control para Gloydius shedaoensis. En las serpientes, el canal espinal es más largo que el observado en la mayoría de los otros animales. Teniendo en cuenta el estilo único locomotor de las serpientes, nuestros hallazgos contribuyen a respaldar la hipótesis de que el MDB podría modular las pulsaciones del líquido cerebroespinal.

Animals , Cerebrospinal Fluid/physiology , Viperidae/anatomy & histology , Connective Tissue , Dura Mater/anatomy & histology , Crotalinae , Anatomy, Comparative
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1000-1008, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405224


SUMMARY: A comparative study of the morphology of suboccipital cavernous sinus (SCS) using MRI and cast specimens was performed. The present retrospective study analysed the craniocervical magnetic resonance venography (MRV) imaging data of 61 patients. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed using Mimics 19.0. The SCS left-right diameter(d1), distance from the midline (d2), supero-inferior diameter(d3), anteroposterior diameter (d4), distance from posterior diameter to skin (d5), and diameter of the SCS at different parts (d6-d8) were measured. Comparison between MRV images and cast specimens, the SCS, marginal sinus, anterior condylar vein, and vertebral artery venous plexus were symmetrical and could be bilaterally displayed, whereas the presence of extra condylar vein and posterior condylar vein exhibited different types. The adjacency between the SCS and its communicating vessels and changes in its communicating vessels corresponded well with the MRV images and cast specimens. Many types of the presence of left and right lateral condylar and posterior condylar veins were found in the cast specimens, which could be divided into the bilateral presence of posterior condylar and lateral condylar veins, unilateral presence of posterior condylar veins, and unilateral presence of lateral condylar vein. A total of 61 cases analysed using MRV images revealed the bilateral presence of posterior condylar and lateral condylar veins (77.1 %), the unilateral presence of posterior condylar vein (18.0 %), and the unilateral presence of lateral condylar vein (9.8 %), of which the bilateral presence of posterior condylar and lateral condylar veins accounted for the largest proportion. MRV images and cast specimens of the SCS showed its normal morphological structure and adjacency, thus providing accurate and complete Three-dimensional imaging anatomical data of the SCS and its communicating vascular structures. This study enriches the Chinese SCS imaging anatomy data and may be valuable in clinical practice.

RESUMEN: Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la morfología del seno cavernoso suboccipital (SCS) mediante resonancia magnética y muestras de yeso. El presente estudio retrospectivo analizó los datos de imágenes de venografía por resonancia magnética (RNM) craneocervical de 61 pacientes. La reconstrucción tridimensional se realizó con Mimics 19.0. Se midió: el diámetro izquierdo-derecho del SCS (d1), la distancia desde la línea mediana (d2), el diámetro superoinferior (d3), el diámetro anteroposterior (d4), la distancia desde el diámetro posterior hasta la piel (d5) y el diámetro del SCS en diferentes partes (d6-d8). En la comparación entre las imágenes RNM y las muestras de yeso, el SCS, el seno marginal, la vena condilar anterior y el plexo venoso de la arteria vertebral eran simétricos y se observaron bilateralmente, mientras que la presencia de la vena extracondilar y la vena condilar posterior presentaba tipos diferentes. La proximidad del SCS y sus vasos comunicantes y los cambios en sus vasos comunicantes se correspondieron bien con las imágenes de RNM y los especímenes moldeados. Se encontraron muchos tipos de venas condilares laterales y condilares posteriores izquierda y derecha en las muestras de yeso, que podrían dividirse en presencia bilateral de venas condilares posteriores y condilares laterales, presencia unilateral de venas condilares posteriores y presencia unilateral de venas condilares laterales. Un total de 61 casos analizados mediante imágenes MRV revelaron la presencia bilateral de venas condilares posteriores y condilares laterales (77,1 %), la presencia unilateral de venas condilares posteriores (18,0 %) y la presencia unilateral de venas condilares laterales (9,8 %) de los cuales la presencia bilateral de las venas condilar posterior y condilar lateral representó la mayor proporción. Las imágenes de RNM y las muestras de yeso del SCS mostraron su estructura morfológica y adyacencia normales, lo que proporcionó datos anatómicos de imágenes tridimensionales precisos y completos del SCS y sus estructuras vasculares comunicantes. Este estudio enriquece los datos de anatomía de imágenes de SCS chino y puede ser valioso en la práctica clínica.

Humans , Cavernous Sinus/anatomy & histology , Cavernous Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Calcium Sulfate , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Printing, Three-Dimensional
Asian Spine Journal ; : 440-450, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937228


Proximal junctional problems are among the potential complications of surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) and are associated with higher morbidity and increased rates of revision surgery. The diverse manifestations of proximal junctional problems range from proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) to proximal junctional failure (PJF). Although there is no universally accepted definition for PJK, the most common is a proximal junctional angle greater than 10° that is at least 10° greater than the preoperative measurement. PJF represents a progression from PJK and is characterized by pain, gait disturbances, and neurological deficits. The risk factors for PJK can be classified according to patient-related, radiological, and surgical factors. Based on an understanding of the modifiable factors that contribute to reducing the risk of PJK, prevention strategies are critical for patients with ASD.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936281


OBJECTIVE@#To construct a polylactic acid-glycolic acid-polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) nanocarrier (N-Pac-CD133) coupled with a CD133 nucleic acid aptamer carrying paclitaxel for eliminating lung cancer stem cells (CSCs).@*METHODS@#Paclitaxel-loaded N-Pac-CD133 was prepared using the emulsion/solvent evaporation method and characterized. CD133+ lung CSCs were separated by magnetic bead separation and identified for their biological behaviors and gene expression profile. The efficiency of paclitaxel-loaded N-Pac-CD133 for targeted killing of lung cancer cells was assessed in vitro. SCID mice were inoculated with A549 cells and received injections of normal saline, empty nanocarrier linked with CD133 aptamer (N-CD133), paclitaxel, paclitaxel-loaded nanocarrier (N-Pac) or paclitaxel-loaded N-Pac-CD133 (n=8, 5 mg/kg paclitaxel) on days 10, 15 and 20, and the tumor weight and body weight of the mice were measured on day 40.@*RESULTS@#Paclitaxel-loaded N-Pac-CD133 showed a particle size of about 100 nm with a high encapsulation efficiency (>80%) and drug loading rate (>8%), and was capable of sustained drug release within 48 h. The CD133+ cell population in lung cancer cells showed the characteristic features of lung CSCs, including faster growth rate (30 days, P=0.001) and high expressions of tumor stem cell markers OV6(P < 0.001), CD133 (P=0.001), OCT3/4 (P=0.002), EpCAM (P=0.04), NANOG (P=0.005) and CD44 (P=0.02). Compared with N-Pac and free paclitaxel, paclitaxel-loaded N-Pac-CD133 showed significantly enhanced targeting ability and cytotoxicity against lung CSCs in vitro (P < 0.001) and significantly reduced the formation of tumor spheres (P < 0.001). In the tumor-bearing mice, paclitaxel-loaded N-Pac-CD133 showed the strongest effects in reducing the tumor mass among all the treatments (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#CD133 aptamer can promote targeted delivery of paclitaxel to allow targeted killing of CD133+ lung CSCs. N-Pac-CD133 loaded with paclitaxel may provide an effective treatment for lung cancer by targeting the lung cancer stem cells.

Animals , Mice , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Carriers , Lung , Mice, SCID , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 207-211, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935506


Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ectopic meningothelial hamartoma (EMH). Methods: Three cases of EMH diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 2014 to December 2020 were enrolled. All cases were evaluated by clinical and imaging features, HE and immunohistochemical staining, and the relevant literature was reviewed. Results: There were one male and two female patients, aged 2, 67 and 19 years, respectively. Clinically, they presented as skin masses in the head and face region (two cases) and sacro-coccygeal region (one case). Grossly, the lesions ranged in size from 1.6 cm to 8.9 cm. Microscopically, the lesions were ill-defined, and located in the dermis and subcutis, and showed pseudovascular channels lined by monolayer of cuboidal to flattened epithelium with mild atypia, with variable cystic cavity formation. There was prominent interstitial fibrosis. Concentric, lamellated, onion skin-like arrangement with short spindle or ovoid cells and psammoma bodies were noted. Immunohistochemically, these cells were strongly positive for SSTR2, EMA, vimentin and progesterone receptor. Ki-67 positive index was low, approximately 1%. Conclusions: EMH is uncommon. Definitive diagnosis relies on histopathologic examination. The importance in recognizing the lesions is to differentiate from other more aggressive tumors.

Female , Humans , Male , Choristoma/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Hamartoma/pathology , Meninges , Skin Diseases/pathology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935287


Objective: To explore the association between size-fractionated particle number concentrations (PNC) and respiratory health in children. Methods: From November 2018 to June 2019, there were 65 children aged 6-9 years from an elementary school in shanghai recruited in this panel study with three rounds of follow-up. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels were measured and buccal mucosa samples of children were collected at each follow-up visit. The level of PNC, temperature and humidity of the elementary school was monitored from 3 days before each physical examination to the end of the physical examination. The linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the association between PNC and indicators of respiratory health in children. Results: Linear mixed effects model analysis revealed that, at lag 2 day, an interquartile range increase in PNC for particles measuring 0.25-0.40 μm was associated with the absolute changes in FVC, FEV1 and abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) about -60.15 ml (95%CI:-88.97 ml, -31.32 ml), -34.26 ml (95%CI:-63.22 ml, -5.31 ml), -6.00 (95%CI:-9.15, -2.84) and percentage change in FeNO about 12.10% (95%CI: 3.05%, 21.95%), respectively. These adverse health effects increased with the decrease of particle size. Conclusion: The short-term exposure to particulate matter is associated with reduced lung function, buccal microbe diversity and higher airway inflammation level among children. These adverse health effects may increase with the decrease of particle size.

Child , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Lung , Nitric Oxide , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Vital Capacity
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932683


Cervical cancer is a common malignant tumor in gynecology, and its morbidity and mortality rates rank the fourth among female malignant tumors. Lymph node metastasis is the most important pattern of metastasis and a critical independent prognostic factor for cervical cancer. Considering the high missed diagnosis rate of para-aortic lymph node metastasis, and the high treatment failure rate caused by para-aortic lymph node metastasis after cervical cancer treatment, a small number of clinicians have applied preventive extended-field radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with Ⅲ B and Ⅲ c1 cervical cancer in recent years. This article reviews the prognosis and side effects of preventive extended-field radiotherapy in patients with stage Ⅲ B and Ⅲ c1 cervical cancer.

Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926309


Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used for decades to evaluate and assess brain function. It is a useful method to diagnose brain disorders. However, confirmed interpretation of EEG is quite challenging because there is no standardized method for EEG reading and this may lead to interrater variability even among expert electroencephalographers. In this background, uniformly accepted nomenclature for EEG pattern were required to improve interrater agreement and to support communication for EEG research. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) established the standardized critical care EEG terminology since 2012 and has recently published the revised 2021 version of EEG terminology. This review covers new concepts of 2021 ACNS EEG terminology and clinical considerations of various EEG patterns.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926113


Background/Aims@#Food retention, which is a characteristic observed in patients with achalasia, can interfere with peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM).However, there is no established guideline for esophageal preparation for POEM. A previous study has shown that drinking warmwater may reduce the lower esophageal sphincter pressure in patients with achalasia. This study aims to evaluate the possibility ofproper preparation of POEM by instructing the patient to drink warm water. @*Methods@#The warm water preparation was performed in 29 patients with achalasia who underwent POEM. The patients drank 1 L of warm water (60 o C) the night before POEM. We evaluated the esophageal clearness and determined the preparation quality. Twenty-nine patients were prospectively recruited and compared to control group. The control cohort comprised achalasia patients whoseendoscopic image was available from the achalasia database of our institution. A 1:2 propensity score-matched control cohort was established from the database of achalasia subjects (n = 155) to compare the outcome of the preparation. @*Results@#In the warm water preparation group, only 1 patient (3.4%) had some solid retention, but it did not interfere with the POEM procedure. The grade of clearness (P = 0.016) and quality of preparation (P < 0.001) were significantly better in the warm water preparation group than in the matched control group. There was no any adverse event at all related to warm water preparation protocol. @*Conclusions@#Drinking warm water dramatically reduces esophageal food retention and significantly improves the quality of esophageal preparation.This simple protocol is quite useful, safe, and cost-effective in the preparation of achalasia patients for POEM.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924833


Objective@#To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of intranasal esketamine in patients with treatment-resistant depression from the Asian subgroup of the SUSTAIN-2 study. @*Methods@#SUSTAIN-2 was a phase 3, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study comprising a 4-week screening, 4-week induction, 48-week optimization/maintenance, and 4-week follow-up (upon esketamine discontinuation) phase. Patients with treatment-resistant depression received esketamine plus an oral antidepressant during the treatment period. @*Results@#The incidence of ≥ 1 serious treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) among the 78 subjects from the Asian subgroup (Taiwan: 33, Korea: 26, Malaysia: 19) was 11.5% (n = 9); with no fatal TEAE. 13 Asian patients (16.7%) discontinued esketamine due to TEAEs. The most common TEAEs were dizziness (37.2%), nausea (29.5%), dissociation (28.2%), and headache (21.8%). Most TEAEs were mild to moderate in severity, transient and resolved on the same day. Upon discontinuation of esketamine, no trend in withdrawal symptoms was observed to associate long-term use of esketamine with withdrawal syndrome. There were no reports of drug seeking, abuse, or overdose. Improvements in symptoms, functioning and quality of life, occurred during in the induction phase and were generally maintained through the optimization/maintenance phases of the study. @*Conclusion@#The safety and efficacy of esketamine in the Asian subgroup was generally consistent with the total SUSTAIN-2 population. There was no new safety signal and no indication of a high potential for abuse with the long-term (up to one year) use of esketamine in the Asian subgroup. Most of the benefits of esketamine occurred early during the induction phase.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922535


OBJECTIVE@#In traditional Chinese medicine, the herbal pair, Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae (RAB) and Eucommiae Cortex (EC), is widely used to treat osteoporosis. Herein, we determined whether this herbal pair can be used to ameliorate glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) and find its optimal dosage in zebrafish.@*METHODS@#The characteristics of the aqueous extract of RAB and EC were separately characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography. Osteoporosis was induced in 5-day post-fertilization zebrafish larvae by exposing them to 10 μmol/L dexamethasone (Dex) for 96 h. Seven combinations of different ratios of RAB and EC were co-administered. Treatment efficacy was determined by calculating zebrafish vertebral area and sum brightness, via alizarin red staining, and by detecting alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the optimal dosage ratio.@*RESULTS@#According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015), β-ecdysone (β-Ecd) is a major bioactive marker in RAB extract, while pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) is the major marker in EC extract. Both of β-Ecd and PDG content values aligned with the Chinese Pharmacopoeia standards. Treatment with 10 μmol/L Dex reduced zebrafish vertebral area, sum brightness, and ALP activity, but RAB and EC attenuated these effects. Combining 50 µg/mL RAB and 50 µg/mL EC was optimal for preventing GIOP in zebrafish. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the mRNA expression of osteogenesis-related genes. A treatment of 10 μmol/L Dex decreased runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1), bone γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGLAP), and β-catenin levels. This effect was counteracted by RAB and EC co-treatment (P < 0.05). Additionally, the effect of using the two herbal extracts together was better than single-herb treatments separately. These results demonstrated that RAB and EC preserve osteoblast function in the presence of GC. The best mass ratio was 1:1.@*CONCLUSION@#RAB and EC herbal pair could ameliorate GC-induced effects in zebrafish, with 1:1 as the optimal dosage ratio.

Animals , Glucocorticoids , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Zebrafish
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3124-3138, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939960


Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), one of the dominating constituents of tumor microenvironment, are important contributors to cancer progression and treatment resistance. Therefore, regulation of TAMs polarization from M2 phenotype towards M1 phenotype has emerged as a new strategy for tumor immunotherapy. Herein, we successfully initiated antitumor immunotherapy by inhibiting TAMs M2 polarization via autophagy intervention with polyethylene glycol-conjugated gold nanoparticles (PEG-AuNPs). PEG-AuNPs suppressed TAMs M2 polarization in both in vitro and in vivo models, elicited antitumor immunotherapy and inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth in mice. As demonstrated by the mRFP-GFP-LC3 assay and analyzing the autophagy-related proteins (LC3, beclin1 and P62), PEG-AuNPs induced autophagic flux inhibition in TAMs, which is attributed to the PEG-AuNPs induced lysosome alkalization and membrane permeabilization. Besides, TAMs were prone to polarize towards M2 phenotype following autophagy activation, whereas inhibition of autophagic flux could reduce the M2 polarization of TAMs. Our results revealed a mechanism underlying PEG-AuNPs induced antitumor immunotherapy, where PEG-AuNPs reduce TAMs M2 polarization via induction of lysosome dysfunction and autophagic flux inhibition. This study elucidated the biological effects of nanomaterials on TAMs polarization and provided insight into harnessing the intrinsic immunomodulation capacity of nanomaterials for effective cancer treatment.

J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(5): 571-578, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340164


Abstract Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between physical education classes and PA among adolescents from 50 lowand middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: A self-reported questionnaire from the Global School-based Student Survey (GSHS) was used to collect information on participation frequency of physical education classes and being physically active over the last week, as well as other control variables (e.g., sex, age, country, sedentary behavior). Multivariable logistic regression and a pooled meta-analysis were performed to explore the association and compared country-wise differences. Results: Included adolescents aged from 13 to 17 years (n = 187,386, %boys = 51.7; mean age = 14.6 years), the prevalence of sufficient PA (meeting the PA guidelines) was 14.9%. The prevalence of 5 days or more to engage in physical education classes was 16.5%. Compared with adolescents who had 0 days for physical education classes, higher participation frequency was more likely related to sufficient PA (OR: 1 day = 1.34, 2 days = 1.66, 3 days = 1.67, 4 days = 1.79, 5 days or more = 2.46), these findings were also observed in both sexes. A moderate inconsistency on the association across the included countries was found (I2 = 53%, p < 0.01), although the pooled OR was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.36-1.65). Conclusions: Participating in more physical education classes may be an effective approach to increase physical activity levels among adolescents in LMICs. However, promoting physical activity levels among adolescents in LMICs through physical education classes should consider more country-specific factors.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Physical Education and Training , Developing Countries , Poverty , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sedentary Behavior