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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926309

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used for decades to evaluate and assess brain function. It is a useful method to diagnose brain disorders. However, confirmed interpretation of EEG is quite challenging because there is no standardized method for EEG reading and this may lead to interrater variability even among expert electroencephalographers. In this background, uniformly accepted nomenclature for EEG pattern were required to improve interrater agreement and to support communication for EEG research. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) established the standardized critical care EEG terminology since 2012 and has recently published the revised 2021 version of EEG terminology. This review covers new concepts of 2021 ACNS EEG terminology and clinical considerations of various EEG patterns.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926113

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Food retention, which is a characteristic observed in patients with achalasia, can interfere with peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM).However, there is no established guideline for esophageal preparation for POEM. A previous study has shown that drinking warmwater may reduce the lower esophageal sphincter pressure in patients with achalasia. This study aims to evaluate the possibility ofproper preparation of POEM by instructing the patient to drink warm water. @*Methods@#The warm water preparation was performed in 29 patients with achalasia who underwent POEM. The patients drank 1 L of warm water (60 o C) the night before POEM. We evaluated the esophageal clearness and determined the preparation quality. Twenty-nine patients were prospectively recruited and compared to control group. The control cohort comprised achalasia patients whoseendoscopic image was available from the achalasia database of our institution. A 1:2 propensity score-matched control cohort was established from the database of achalasia subjects (n = 155) to compare the outcome of the preparation. @*Results@#In the warm water preparation group, only 1 patient (3.4%) had some solid retention, but it did not interfere with the POEM procedure. The grade of clearness (P = 0.016) and quality of preparation (P < 0.001) were significantly better in the warm water preparation group than in the matched control group. There was no any adverse event at all related to warm water preparation protocol. @*Conclusions@#Drinking warm water dramatically reduces esophageal food retention and significantly improves the quality of esophageal preparation.This simple protocol is quite useful, safe, and cost-effective in the preparation of achalasia patients for POEM.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924833

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of intranasal esketamine in patients with treatment-resistant depression from the Asian subgroup of the SUSTAIN-2 study. @*Methods@#SUSTAIN-2 was a phase 3, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study comprising a 4-week screening, 4-week induction, 48-week optimization/maintenance, and 4-week follow-up (upon esketamine discontinuation) phase. Patients with treatment-resistant depression received esketamine plus an oral antidepressant during the treatment period. @*Results@#The incidence of ≥ 1 serious treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) among the 78 subjects from the Asian subgroup (Taiwan: 33, Korea: 26, Malaysia: 19) was 11.5% (n = 9); with no fatal TEAE. 13 Asian patients (16.7%) discontinued esketamine due to TEAEs. The most common TEAEs were dizziness (37.2%), nausea (29.5%), dissociation (28.2%), and headache (21.8%). Most TEAEs were mild to moderate in severity, transient and resolved on the same day. Upon discontinuation of esketamine, no trend in withdrawal symptoms was observed to associate long-term use of esketamine with withdrawal syndrome. There were no reports of drug seeking, abuse, or overdose. Improvements in symptoms, functioning and quality of life, occurred during in the induction phase and were generally maintained through the optimization/maintenance phases of the study. @*Conclusion@#The safety and efficacy of esketamine in the Asian subgroup was generally consistent with the total SUSTAIN-2 population. There was no new safety signal and no indication of a high potential for abuse with the long-term (up to one year) use of esketamine in the Asian subgroup. Most of the benefits of esketamine occurred early during the induction phase.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#In traditional Chinese medicine, the herbal pair, Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae (RAB) and Eucommiae Cortex (EC), is widely used to treat osteoporosis. Herein, we determined whether this herbal pair can be used to ameliorate glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) and find its optimal dosage in zebrafish.@*METHODS@#The characteristics of the aqueous extract of RAB and EC were separately characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography. Osteoporosis was induced in 5-day post-fertilization zebrafish larvae by exposing them to 10 μmol/L dexamethasone (Dex) for 96 h. Seven combinations of different ratios of RAB and EC were co-administered. Treatment efficacy was determined by calculating zebrafish vertebral area and sum brightness, via alizarin red staining, and by detecting alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the optimal dosage ratio.@*RESULTS@#According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015), β-ecdysone (β-Ecd) is a major bioactive marker in RAB extract, while pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) is the major marker in EC extract. Both of β-Ecd and PDG content values aligned with the Chinese Pharmacopoeia standards. Treatment with 10 μmol/L Dex reduced zebrafish vertebral area, sum brightness, and ALP activity, but RAB and EC attenuated these effects. Combining 50 µg/mL RAB and 50 µg/mL EC was optimal for preventing GIOP in zebrafish. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the mRNA expression of osteogenesis-related genes. A treatment of 10 μmol/L Dex decreased runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1), bone γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGLAP), and β-catenin levels. This effect was counteracted by RAB and EC co-treatment (P < 0.05). Additionally, the effect of using the two herbal extracts together was better than single-herb treatments separately. These results demonstrated that RAB and EC preserve osteoblast function in the presence of GC. The best mass ratio was 1:1.@*CONCLUSION@#RAB and EC herbal pair could ameliorate GC-induced effects in zebrafish, with 1:1 as the optimal dosage ratio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Glucocorticoids , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Zebrafish
5.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(5): 571-578, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340164

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between physical education classes and PA among adolescents from 50 lowand middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: A self-reported questionnaire from the Global School-based Student Survey (GSHS) was used to collect information on participation frequency of physical education classes and being physically active over the last week, as well as other control variables (e.g., sex, age, country, sedentary behavior). Multivariable logistic regression and a pooled meta-analysis were performed to explore the association and compared country-wise differences. Results: Included adolescents aged from 13 to 17 years (n = 187,386, %boys = 51.7; mean age = 14.6 years), the prevalence of sufficient PA (meeting the PA guidelines) was 14.9%. The prevalence of 5 days or more to engage in physical education classes was 16.5%. Compared with adolescents who had 0 days for physical education classes, higher participation frequency was more likely related to sufficient PA (OR: 1 day = 1.34, 2 days = 1.66, 3 days = 1.67, 4 days = 1.79, 5 days or more = 2.46), these findings were also observed in both sexes. A moderate inconsistency on the association across the included countries was found (I2 = 53%, p < 0.01), although the pooled OR was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.36-1.65). Conclusions: Participating in more physical education classes may be an effective approach to increase physical activity levels among adolescents in LMICs. However, promoting physical activity levels among adolescents in LMICs through physical education classes should consider more country-specific factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Physical Education and Training , Developing Countries , Poverty , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sedentary Behavior
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875377

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) has been established as a treatment modality for patients with treatment-resistant depression and with some specific subtypes of depression. This narrative review intends to provide psychiatrists with the latest findings on the use of ECT in depression, devided into total eight sub-topics. @*Methods@#We searched PubMed for English-language articles using combined keywords and tried to analyze journals published from 1995–2020. @*Results@#Pharmacotherapy such as antidepressants or maintenance ECT is more effective than a placebo as prevention of recurrence after ECT. The use of ECT in treatment-resistant depression, depressed patients with suicidal risks, elderly depression, bipolar depression, psychotic depression, and depression during pregnancy or postpartum have therapeutic benefits. As possible mechanisms of ECT, the role of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and other findings in the field of neurophysiology, neuro-immunology, and neurogenesis are also supported. @*Conclusion@#ECT is evolving toward reducing cognitive side effects and maximizing therapeutic effects. If robust evidence for ECT through randomized controlled studies are more established and the mechanism of ECT gets further clarified, the scope of its use in the treatment of depression will be more expanded in the future.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875375

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the association between thyroidectomy and suicide attempt. @*Methods@#A nationwide population-based electronic medical records database of South Korea between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2016 was used to investigate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of suicide attempts and probable suicide attempts before and after thyroidectomy using a self-controlled case series design. @*Results@#In 2,986 patients who attempted suicide or probable suicide, the IRRs of suicidal behaviors during risk periods one year before and after thyroidectomy were investigated. Generally, after thyroidectomy, there was no increase in IRR compared to the non-risk period. When data were analyzed according to thyroidectomy type, after partial thyroidectomy, IRR increased up to 1.43 (95% CI: 1.03–1.98, p=0.032) in the days 91–181 period. In the subgroup with major depressive disorder (MDD), the IRR increased up to 1.74 (95% CI: 1.21–2.51, p=0.003) before thyroidectomy, and increased up to 1.67 (95% CI: 1.16–2.41, p=0.006) after thyroidectomy. @*Conclusion@#Although the general risk of suicide attempt was not increased after thyroidectomy, patients with MDD showed increased risk of suicide attempt before and after thyroidectomy. These results suggest that suicidality should be evaluated when depressive symptoms are present in patients who have undergone thyroidectomy.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874789

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study compared the psychological autopsies of suicide victims through interviews of the bereaved family members and investigations of the police death records. @*Methods@#A psychological autopsy was performed using both the Korea Psychological Autopsy Checklist (K-PAC) through an interview of the bereaved family members and the Korea Psychological Autopsy Checklist for Police Record (K-PAC-PR) from the police death records at the same suicide victims. The frequency and percentage of each analysis item were checked, and the information collected was compared. @*Results@#Of 129 victims, information from two methods showed no significant differences in marital status, employment status, cohabitation status and relationship, location of suicide, method of suicide, and main cause. Among the stress information at the time of death, interpersonal and mental health problems were consistent, but the occupational, economy, family-related, physical health problems were estimated to have greater impact according to the interview methods. The estimates of depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia were consistent, but the investigation method estimated more sleep disorders and anxiety disorders, and the interview methods estimated more drug use disorders. @*Conclusion@#Based on the analysis results, the two methods of a psychological autopsy should be properly utilized, and effective suicide prevention using the psychological autopsy information was discussed.

9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 487-493, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904256

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The prevalence and incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are increasing worldwide. Despite increased understanding of inflammatory pathogenesis, changes in endoscopic features after treatment of EoE have not been clearly described.We aimed to investigate the reversibility of endoscopic features of EoE after treatment. @*Materials and Methods@#Out of 58 adult subjects who were diagnosed with EoE at the Yonsei University Health System from July 2006 to August 2019, we recruited 33 subjects (30 males; mean age: 42 years) whose pre-treatment and post-treatment endoscopic images were available. Endoscopic features included both inflammatory and fibrostenotic features. Exudate, edema, furrow, and crepe paper-like mucosa were classified as inflammatory features. Ring and stricture were classified as fibrostenotic features. We compared changes in endoscopic features after treatment for EoE. @*Results@#After treatment, clinical symptoms improved in all patients. The following endoscopic features were observed before treatment: furrow (81.8%), edema (90.9%), exudate (42.4%), ring (27.3%), crepe paper-like mucosa (15.2%), and stricture (3.0%).Endoscopic remission was achieved in 21 patients (63.6%). Inflammatory features were reversible (72.7%, p<0.001), whereas fibrostenotic features were not (10%, p=0.160). Exudate had resolved in 92.9% of patients, edema in 70% and furrow in 88.9%. Ring and stricture persisted in almost all of the patients (9/10) who had these endoscopic features before treatment. @*Conclusion@#We outlined the reversibility of endoscopic inflammatory features of EoE. Fibrostenotic features were irreversible after esophageal remodeling in patients with EoE. However, further validation studies with long-term follow-up are needed.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900069

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although childhood maltreatment is a known risk factor for adulthood mental health, the impact of different types of childhood maltreatment on mental disorders is not yet clear. This study explored the association of each type of childhood maltreatment with adulthood mental disorders and suicidality in South Korea. @*Methods@#A total of 5,102 individuals from the general populations over the age of 18 responded to the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and questions about childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). To evaluate the odds ratio for mental disorders and suicidality associated with each type of childhood maltreatment, we used logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#About 17.0% of the respondents reported having experienced a type of maltreatment in childhood. According to the type, 9.4% reported physical abuse, 9.3% reported emotional neglect, 7.9% reported psychological abuse, and 3.8% reported sexual abuse. Exposure to each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with most types of mental disorders after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Each type of childhood maltreatment victim was associated with suicidality (suicidal ideations, suicide plans, and suicide attempts).Dose-response patterns for suicide attempts were observed in all types of victims. Moreover, the respondents who experienced frequent childhood emotional neglect were 14 times more likely to have attempted suicide. @*Conclusion@#Childhood maltreatment was associated with mental health in adulthood.The findings show the need for early detection and intervention of victims of childhood maltreatment to minimize its negative impact on adult mental health.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900042

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated trends in the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) by sociodemographic factors in South Korea. @*Methods@#National samples of the general population aged 18 years or older collected from the nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001 (n = 6,206), 2006 (n = 6,466), and 2011 (n = 5,986) were used. For MDD diagnosis, we conducted face-to-face interviews using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We performed logistic regression analyses stratified by gender, after adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, to calculate the 2006-to-2001 odds ratio (OR) and 2011-to-2001 OR by subgroups of sociodemographic factors to explore the association of MDD prevalence with sociodemographic factors over time. @*Results@#The prevalence of MDD in the general population of South Korea increased steadily from 2001, to 2006, and to 2011 (1.6%, 2.5%, and 3.1%, respectively). Among the men, the prevalence of MDD continued to increase significantly in 18–29 years of age group (2006: adjusted OR [AOR], 3.32; 2011: AOR, 7.42), at-risk drinking group (2006: AOR, 3.56; 2011: AOR, 4.77), and not living with a partner group (2006: AOR, 3.24; 2011: AOR, 3.25).Meanwhile, among the women, the prevalence of MDD continued to significantly increase in the below-average household income group (2006: AOR, 2.58; 2011: AOR, 2.59), at-risk drinking group (2006: AOR, 2.02; 2011: AOR, 2.47), and unemployed group (2006: AOR, 1.48; 2011: AOR, 2.04). @*Conclusion@#This study may provide significant information for public policymakers to allocate sufficient health resources on MDD to vulnerable groups, particularly, men aged 18–29 years and women living in households with below-average income, and for clinicians to develop appropriate screening and treatment modalities for MDD.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899959

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence continues to accumulate that the presence or absence of early trauma (ET) implies unique characteristics in the relationships between suicidal ideation and its risk factors. We examined the relationships among recent stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Korean suicidal women with or without such a history. @*Methods@#Using data on suicidal adult females, 217 victims and 134 non-victims of ET, from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior, we performed structural equation modeling to investigate the contribution of recent stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation within each group according to the presence or absence of a history of ET. @*Results@#Structural equation modeling with anxiety and depressive symptoms as potential mediators showed a good fit. Recent stress had a direct effect on both depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in both groups. Only anxiety symptoms for victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.281; P = 0.005) and depressive symptoms for non-victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.326; P = 0.003) were full mediators that increased suicidal ideation. Thus, stress contributed to suicidal ideation by increasing the level of anxiety and depressive symptoms for victims and non-victims, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Tailored strategies to reduce suicidal ideation should be implemented according to group type, victims or non-victims of ET. Beyond educating suicidal women in stressmanagement techniques, it would be effective to decrease anxiety symptoms for those with a history of ET and decrease depressive symptoms for those without such a history.

13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 487-493, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896552

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The prevalence and incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are increasing worldwide. Despite increased understanding of inflammatory pathogenesis, changes in endoscopic features after treatment of EoE have not been clearly described.We aimed to investigate the reversibility of endoscopic features of EoE after treatment. @*Materials and Methods@#Out of 58 adult subjects who were diagnosed with EoE at the Yonsei University Health System from July 2006 to August 2019, we recruited 33 subjects (30 males; mean age: 42 years) whose pre-treatment and post-treatment endoscopic images were available. Endoscopic features included both inflammatory and fibrostenotic features. Exudate, edema, furrow, and crepe paper-like mucosa were classified as inflammatory features. Ring and stricture were classified as fibrostenotic features. We compared changes in endoscopic features after treatment for EoE. @*Results@#After treatment, clinical symptoms improved in all patients. The following endoscopic features were observed before treatment: furrow (81.8%), edema (90.9%), exudate (42.4%), ring (27.3%), crepe paper-like mucosa (15.2%), and stricture (3.0%).Endoscopic remission was achieved in 21 patients (63.6%). Inflammatory features were reversible (72.7%, p<0.001), whereas fibrostenotic features were not (10%, p=0.160). Exudate had resolved in 92.9% of patients, edema in 70% and furrow in 88.9%. Ring and stricture persisted in almost all of the patients (9/10) who had these endoscopic features before treatment. @*Conclusion@#We outlined the reversibility of endoscopic inflammatory features of EoE. Fibrostenotic features were irreversible after esophageal remodeling in patients with EoE. However, further validation studies with long-term follow-up are needed.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892365

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although childhood maltreatment is a known risk factor for adulthood mental health, the impact of different types of childhood maltreatment on mental disorders is not yet clear. This study explored the association of each type of childhood maltreatment with adulthood mental disorders and suicidality in South Korea. @*Methods@#A total of 5,102 individuals from the general populations over the age of 18 responded to the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and questions about childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). To evaluate the odds ratio for mental disorders and suicidality associated with each type of childhood maltreatment, we used logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#About 17.0% of the respondents reported having experienced a type of maltreatment in childhood. According to the type, 9.4% reported physical abuse, 9.3% reported emotional neglect, 7.9% reported psychological abuse, and 3.8% reported sexual abuse. Exposure to each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with most types of mental disorders after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Each type of childhood maltreatment victim was associated with suicidality (suicidal ideations, suicide plans, and suicide attempts).Dose-response patterns for suicide attempts were observed in all types of victims. Moreover, the respondents who experienced frequent childhood emotional neglect were 14 times more likely to have attempted suicide. @*Conclusion@#Childhood maltreatment was associated with mental health in adulthood.The findings show the need for early detection and intervention of victims of childhood maltreatment to minimize its negative impact on adult mental health.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892338

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated trends in the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) by sociodemographic factors in South Korea. @*Methods@#National samples of the general population aged 18 years or older collected from the nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001 (n = 6,206), 2006 (n = 6,466), and 2011 (n = 5,986) were used. For MDD diagnosis, we conducted face-to-face interviews using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We performed logistic regression analyses stratified by gender, after adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, to calculate the 2006-to-2001 odds ratio (OR) and 2011-to-2001 OR by subgroups of sociodemographic factors to explore the association of MDD prevalence with sociodemographic factors over time. @*Results@#The prevalence of MDD in the general population of South Korea increased steadily from 2001, to 2006, and to 2011 (1.6%, 2.5%, and 3.1%, respectively). Among the men, the prevalence of MDD continued to increase significantly in 18–29 years of age group (2006: adjusted OR [AOR], 3.32; 2011: AOR, 7.42), at-risk drinking group (2006: AOR, 3.56; 2011: AOR, 4.77), and not living with a partner group (2006: AOR, 3.24; 2011: AOR, 3.25).Meanwhile, among the women, the prevalence of MDD continued to significantly increase in the below-average household income group (2006: AOR, 2.58; 2011: AOR, 2.59), at-risk drinking group (2006: AOR, 2.02; 2011: AOR, 2.47), and unemployed group (2006: AOR, 1.48; 2011: AOR, 2.04). @*Conclusion@#This study may provide significant information for public policymakers to allocate sufficient health resources on MDD to vulnerable groups, particularly, men aged 18–29 years and women living in households with below-average income, and for clinicians to develop appropriate screening and treatment modalities for MDD.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892255

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence continues to accumulate that the presence or absence of early trauma (ET) implies unique characteristics in the relationships between suicidal ideation and its risk factors. We examined the relationships among recent stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Korean suicidal women with or without such a history. @*Methods@#Using data on suicidal adult females, 217 victims and 134 non-victims of ET, from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior, we performed structural equation modeling to investigate the contribution of recent stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation within each group according to the presence or absence of a history of ET. @*Results@#Structural equation modeling with anxiety and depressive symptoms as potential mediators showed a good fit. Recent stress had a direct effect on both depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in both groups. Only anxiety symptoms for victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.281; P = 0.005) and depressive symptoms for non-victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.326; P = 0.003) were full mediators that increased suicidal ideation. Thus, stress contributed to suicidal ideation by increasing the level of anxiety and depressive symptoms for victims and non-victims, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Tailored strategies to reduce suicidal ideation should be implemented according to group type, victims or non-victims of ET. Beyond educating suicidal women in stressmanagement techniques, it would be effective to decrease anxiety symptoms for those with a history of ET and decrease depressive symptoms for those without such a history.

17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916311

ABSTRACT

Poststroke epilepsy is the most common cause of epilepsy in adult. Acute symptomatic seizure is a provoked seizure usually caused by systemic metabolic disorders. If stroke patient has a seizure, it is very important to discriminate whether it is a poststroke epilepsy or provoked seizure. The reason is that there are differences in the approach to treatment and the continuation of antiepileptic drugs. We report a stroke mimic patient who had two different mechanisms of focal seizures.

18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916269

ABSTRACT

Improved medical care and increased life expectancy have led to a focus on the impact of adult spinal deformity (ASD) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the field of the spine. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift in the evaluation and management of ASD regarding the important correlation between sagittal imbalance and clinical outcomes.Current Concepts: Loss of lumbar lordosis is recognized as a key driver of ASD followed by forward-leaning of the trunk, reducing thoracic kyphosis, pelvic retroversion, and knee flexion. Radiological assessment has been critical for evaluating ASD from the anteroposterior and lateral view of the whole spine radiograph. Important parameters include coronal, regional, global, and sagittal spinopelvic parameters. Especially, sagittal spinopelvic parameters significantly correlate with disability and HRQoL in patients with ASD, which can influence the process of decision-making with respect to the choice between conservative treatment and surgery.Discussion and Conclusion: Sagittal imbalance has been recently emphasized in patients with ASD. Therefore, the decision-making of ASD treatment should be focused on restoring harmonious alignment to prevent catastrophic complications and improvement of HRQoL.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915576

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Agent Orange is a defoliant chemical that is widely known for its use by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. It is known to be associated with the occurrence of various diseases in exposed subjects. However, few previous studies have focused on the effects of exposure to Agent Orange on cognitive dysfunction. @*Methods@#A total of 387 male subjects participated in the study. They were divided into those who were exposed to Agent Orange (n=301) and those without exposure (n=86). Both were evaluated with neuropsychological batteries, including the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery-Second Edition. @*Results@#The group exposed to Agent Orange showed significantly higher scores in the Rey Complex Figure Test copy and recognition compared to those without exposure. @*Conclusion@#In this study, we compared the effects of exposure to Agent Orange on cognitive function in groups that had not yet progressed to dementia. The Agent Orange exposure group showed better results in some tests evaluating visuospatial and memory function.

20.
Cancer Research and Clinic ; (6): 419-422, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912899

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the short-term efficacy and safety of albumin-bound paclitaxel combined with nedaplatin followed by concurrent radiotherapy in treatment of stage Ⅲ massive cervical cancer.Methods:The clinical data of 84 patients with massive cervical cancer admitted to Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital from April 2019 to April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the different treatment regimens, patients were divided into the observation group and the control group, each with 42 cases. The observation group received albumin-bound paclitaxel combined with nedaplatin followed by concurrent radiotherapy, and the control group received solvent-based paclitaxel combined with nedaplatin followed by concurrent radiotherapy. The short-term efficacy and adverse reactions of the two groups were compared.Results:The partial remission (PR) rate of the observation group and the control group at 1 month of treatment was 92.9% (39/42) and 35.7% (15/42), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant ( χ2 = 29.867, P < 0.01). The complete remission (CR) rate of the observation group and the control group at 1 month after treatment was 59.5% (25/42) and 38.1% (16/42), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant ( χ2 = 3.859, P = 0.049). The incidence of diarrhea of the observation group was lower than that of the control group [33.33% (14/42) vs. 54.8% (23/42)], and the difference was statistically significant ( χ2 = 3.913, P = 0.048). There were no statistical differences in the incidence of hematological adverse reactions and abnormal liver and kidney functions between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Conclusion:The albumin-bound paclitaxel combined with nedaplatin followed by concurrent radiotherapy have a good short-term efficacy in treatment of stage Ⅲ massive cervical cancer, and the adverse reactions are tolerable.

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