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1.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 351-356, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009499

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#As common clinical screening tests cannot effectively predict a difficult airway, and unanticipated difficult laryngoscopy remains a challenge for physicians. We herein used ultrasound to develop some point-of-care predictors for difficult laryngoscopy.@*METHODS@#This prospective observational study included 502 patients who underwent laryngoscopy and a detailed sonographic assessment. Patients under 18 years old, or with maxillofacial deformities or fractures, limited mouth opening, limited neck movement or history of neck surgery were excluded from the study. Laryngoscopic views of all patients were scored and grouping using the modified Cormack-Lehane (CL) scoring system. The measurements acquired comprised tongue width, the longitudinal cross-sectional area of the tongue, tongue volume, the mandible-hyoid bone distance, the hyoid bone-glottis distance, the mandible-hyoid bone-glottis angle, the skin-thyrohyoid membrane distance, the glottis-superior edge of the thyroid cartilage distance (DGTC), the skin-hyoid bone distance, and the epiglottis midway-skin distance. ANOVA and Chi-square were used to compare differences between groups. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for difficult laryngoscopy and it was visualized by receiver operating characteristic curves and nomogram. R version 3.6.3 and SPSS version 26.0 were used for statistical analyses.@*RESULTS@#Difficult laryngoscopy was indicated in 49 patients (CL grade Ⅲ - Ⅳ) and easy laryngoscopy in 453 patients (CL grade Ⅰ - Ⅱ). The ultrasound-measured mandible-hyoid bone-glottis angle and DGTC significantly differed between the 2 groups (p < 0.001). Difficult laryngoscopy was predicted by an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.930 with a threshold mandible-hyoid bone-glottis angle of 125.5° and by an AUC of 0.722 with a threshold DGTC of 1.22 cm. The longitudinal cross-sectional area of the tongue, tongue width, tongue volume, the mandible-hyoid distance, and the hyoid-glottis distance did not significantly differ between the groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Difficult laryngoscopy may be anticipated in patients in whom the mandible-hyoid bone-glottis angle is smaller than 125.5° or DGTC is larger than 1.22 cm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Laryngoscopy , Prospective Studies , Tongue/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory System , Ultrasonography
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5830-5837, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008781

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of Xiaoxuming Decoction(XXMD) on the activation of astrocytes after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury. The model of cerebral IR injury was established using the middle cerebral artery occlusion method. Fluorocitrate(FC), an inhibitor of astrocyte activation, was applied to inhibit astrocyte activation. Rats were randomly divided into a sham group, a model group, a XXMD group, a XXMD+FC group, and a XXMD+Vehicle group. Neurobehavioral changes at 24 hours after cerebral IR injury, cerebral infarction, histopathological changes observed through HE staining, submicroscopic structure of astrocytes observed through transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence intensity of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP) and thrombospondin 1(TSP1) measured through immunofluorescence, and expression of GFAP and TSP1 in brain tissue measured through Western blot were evaluated in rats from each group. The experimental results showed that neurobehavioral scores and cerebral infarct area significantly increased in the model group. The XXMD group, the XXMD+FC group, and the XXMD+Vehicle group all alleviated neurobehavioral changes in rats. The pathological changes in the brain were evident in the model group, while the XXMD group, the XXMD+FC group, and the XXMD+Vehicle group exhibited milder cerebral IR injury in rats. The submicroscopic structure of astrocytes in the model group showed significant swelling, whereas the XXMD group, the XXMD+FC group, and XXMD+Vehicle group protected the submicroscopic structure of astrocytes. The fluorescence intensity and protein expression of GFAP and TSP1 increased in the model group compared with those in the sham group. However, the XXMD group, the XXMD+FC group, and XXMD+Vehicle group all down-regulated the expression of GFAP and TSP1. The combination of XXMD and FC showed a more pronounced effect. These results indicate that XXMD can improve cerebral IR injury, possibly by inhibiting astrocyte activation and down-regulating the expression of GFAP and TSP1.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Astrocytes , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Brain , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5548-5557, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008751

ABSTRACT

To explore the quality consistency evaluation method for multi-component traditional Chinese medicine and establish a dissolution evaluation method suitable for the characteristics of multi-component Chinese patent medicine, this study discussed the characteristics and advantages of the flow-through cell method in the dissolution evaluation of Chinese patent medicine by comparing the impact of the small cup method and the flow-through cell method on the dissolution behavior of water-soluble and lipid-soluble major active components of Danshen Tablets. Dissolution tests were performed using the small cup method as described in the 2020 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the newly introduced flow-through cell method(closed-loop method) with water solution containing 0.5% SDS as dissolution medium. Cumulative dissolution curves of the water-soluble component salvianolic acid B and the lipid-soluble component tanshinone Ⅱ_A in Danshen Tablets were plotted, and fitting and similarity analysis of the dissolution models was conducted to identify the characteristics and advantages of the flow-through cell method. For the small cup method, 150 mL of water containing 0.5% SDS was used as the dissolution medium, with a rotation speed of 75 r·min~(-1) and a temperature of(37±0.5) ℃, and 3 mL of samples were taken at 15, 30 min, 1, 2, and 4 h, with fresh dissolution medium added at the same temperature and volume. For the flow-through cell method, a closed-loop system was used. Danshen Tablets were placed in the flow-through cell with approximately 6.7 g of glass beads, and 150 mL of water containing 0.5% SDS was used as the dissolution medium. The flow rate was set at 20 mL·min~(-1), and the temperature and sampling were the same as the small cup method. The results showed that compared with the small cup method, the flow-through cell method had stronger discriminative power and higher sensitivity in distinguishing the dissolution behavior of the two components, and could better reflect the differences in formulation quality, especially for water-insoluble lipid-soluble components. Given that there were no essential differences in the in vitro release kinetics between the two methods, the flow-through cell method could not only replace the traditional small cup method but also better guide the formulation development and identify quality issues of formulations.


Subject(s)
Salvia miltiorrhiza , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tablets , Water , Lipids , Solubility
4.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 254-261, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish an analytical method for half sibling testing involving common three relatives' participation.@*METHODS@#Based on the half sibling testing scenarios with the known biological mother, grandfather or uncle, and two unidentified controversial half siblings participating, two opposing hypotheses were set. Lineage reconstruction according to Mendel's law of heredity was carried out, and the calculation formula of the half sibling kinship index was derived. Verification of actual cases was carried out and the results were compared with duo half sibling testing.@*RESULTS@#In the scenarios of the known biological mother, grandfather and uncle participating in half sibling testing, the kinship calculation formulae of 54, 91 and 99 genotype combinations for kinship index calculation were deduced respectively. The actual cases showed higher kinship indexes in trio half sibling testing compared with duo half sibling testing.@*CONCLUSIONS@#It is beneficial to obtain more genetic information for family reconstruction and improvement of the strength of genetic evidence for half sibling testing by adding known relatives.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Siblings , Genotype , Mothers , Microsatellite Repeats
5.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 247-253, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the detection efficiency of trio full sibling with another known full sibling reference added under different number of autosomal STR typing systems.@*METHODS@#Based on 43 detection systems consisting of 13 to 55 representative autosomal STR loci, 10 000 true families (full sibling group) and 10 000 false families (unrelated individual group) were randomly simulated. The full sibling index (FSI) was calculated based on the method of family reconstruction. The cumulative sibling relationship index (CFSI) of 0.000 1 and 10 000 were used as the evaluation thresholds, and the detection efficiency parameters were calculated and compared with the identification of the duo full sibling testing.@*RESULTS@#With the increasing number of STR loci, the error rate and inability of judgement rate gradually decreased; the sensitivity, specificity, correct rate of judgment and other parameters gradually increased, and the system efficiency gradually improved. Under the same detection system, trio full sibling testing showed higher sensitivity, specificity, system efficiency and lower inability of judgement rate compared with duo full sibling testing. When the system efficiency was higher than 0.85 and inability of judgement rate was less than 0.01%, at least 20 STRs should be detected for trio full sibling testing, which was less than 29 STRs required by duo full sibling testing.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The detection efficiency of trio full sibling testing is superior to that of duo full sibling testing with the same detection system, which is an effective identification scheme for laboratories with inadequate detection systems or for materials with limited conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Siblings , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting , Gene Frequency
6.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 240-246, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981856

ABSTRACT

Tri-allelic pattern in autosomal STR is a common abnormal typing phenomenon in forensic DNA analysis, which brings difficulties and uncertainties to the evaluation of the evidence weight in actual cases. This paper reviews the types, formation mechanism, occurrence frequency, genetic pattern and quantitative evaluation of evidence of the tri-allelic pattern in autosomal STR in forensic DNA analysis. This paper mainly explains the formation mechanism and genetic patterns based on different types of tri-allelic pattern. This paper also discusses the determination of tri-allelic pattern and the quantitative method of evidence evaluation in paternity testing and individual identification. This paper aims to provide references for scientific and standardized analysis of this abnormal typing phenomenon in forensic DNA analysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , DNA/genetics , Forensic Medicine , Gene Frequency , Microsatellite Repeats
7.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 231-239, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981855

ABSTRACT

Kinship testing is widely needed in forensic science practice. This paper reviews the definitions of common concepts, and summarizes the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages, and application scope of kinship analysis methods, including identity by state (IBS) method, likelihood ratio (LR) method, method of moment (MoM), and identity by descent (IBD) segment method. This paper also discusses the research hotspots of challenging kinship testing, complex kinship testing, forensic genetic genealogy analysis, and non-human biological samples.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Fingerprinting , Forensic Genetics/methods , Forensic Sciences , Pedigree
8.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 348-351, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981695

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore risk factors for infections after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, and improve the under standing for reducing infection.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 2 591 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair from January 2019 to January 2022 were retrospectively analyzed, including 1 265 males and 1 326 females, aged from 25 to 82 years old with an average age of (51.5±15.6) years old. They were divided into infection group(n=18) and uninfected group(n=2 573) according to whether or not patients had postoperative infection. Gender, age, smoking, diabetes, body mass index, local closure within 1 month before operation, operation time, preventive use of antibiotics, and internal fixation implantation between two groups were recorded. Univariate Logistic regression analysis screened factors associated with infections after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Theresultswere entered into the multivariate logistic regression analysis, screening the high risk factors for infections after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.@*RESULTS@#In 2 591 patients, 18 patients were infected after operation, infection rate was 0.69%. Univariate Logistic regression analysis showed that gender, age, operation time, antibiotic prophylaxis, internal fixation implantation were risk factors for infections after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed male(OR=14.227), age≥65 years(OR=34.313), operation time≥2 h (OR=15.616), without antibiotic prophylaxis(OR=4.891), and internal fixation implantation(OR=5.103) were major risk factors for infection after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Male, age≥65 years, operation time≥2 h, without antibiotic prophylaxis and internal fixation implantation were independent risk factors for infection after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Early diagnosis and timely treatment should be carried out to reduce the incidence of infection.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rotator Cuff , Rotator Cuff Injuries/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 77-93, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981599

ABSTRACT

Background In mainland China, patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) have approximately an 40% prevalence of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). This disease leads to recurrent retinal pigment epithelium detachment (PED), extensive subretinal or vitreous hemorrhages, and severe vision loss. China has introduced various treatment modalities in the past years and gained comprehensive experience in treating PCV.Methods A total of 14 retinal specialists nationwide with expertise in PCV were empaneled to prioritize six questions and address their corresponding outcomes, regarding opinions on inactive PCV, choices of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) monotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT) monotherapy or combined therapy, patients with persistent subretinal fluid (SRF) or intraretinal fluid (IRF) after loading dose anti-VEGF, and patients with massive subretinal hemorrhage. An evidence synthesis team conducted systematic reviews, which informed the recommendations that address these questions. This guideline used the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach to assess the certainty of evidence and grade the strengths of recommendations. Results The panel proposed the following six conditional recommendations regarding treatment choices. (1) For patients with inactive PCV, we suggest observation over treatment. (2) For treatment-na?ve PCV patients, we suggest either anti-VEGF monotherapy or combined anti-VEGF and PDT rather than PDT monotherapy. (3) For patients with PCV who plan to initiate combined anti-VEGF and PDT treatment, we suggest later/rescue PDT over initiate PDT. (4) For PCV patients who plan to initiate anti-VEGF monotherapy, we suggest the treat and extend (T&E) regimen rather than the pro re nata (PRN) regimen following three monthly loading doses. (5) For patients with persistent SRF or IRF on optical coherence tomography (OCT) after three monthly anti-VEGF treatments, we suggest proceeding with anti-VEGF treatment rather than observation. (6) For PCV patients with massive subretinal hemorrhage (equal to or more than four optic disc areas) involving the central macula, we suggest surgery (vitrectomy in combination with tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA) intraocular injection and gas tamponade) rather than anti-VEGF monotherapy. Conclusions Six evidence-based recommendations support optimal care for PCV patients' management.

10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2749-2756, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981378

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of various adjuvant rice on the quality of rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix(RSRR) with Japonica rice, millet, yellow rice, black rice, and glutinous rice as raw materials, and analyze the anti-osteoporosis effect of RSRR by the optimal adjuvant rice. On the basis of the established UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of the content of catalpol and rehmannioside D, comprehensive weighted scoring method was employed to evaluate the effect of various auxiliary rice on the quality of RSRR with the content of catalpol and rehmannioside D, character score, and taste score as indicators to optimize adjuvant rice. The osteoporosis model was induced by ovariectomy in rats. SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a positive control group, and low-dose and high-dose groups of Rehmanniae Radix, RSRR, steamed Rehmanniae Radix, and Epimedii Folium-RSRR. After treatment for 12 weeks, body weight, bone calcium content, and bone mineral density were mea-sured. The results showed that Japonica rice was selected as the optimal adjuvant due to the highest comprehensive score of RSRR steamed by Japonica rice. Rehmanniae Radix, RSRR, steamed Rehmanniae Radix, as well as Epimedii Folium-RSRR, could improve osteoporosis by increasing bone calcium content and bone mineral density. RSRR was superior to Rehmanniae Radix in improving osteo-porosis. However, there was no significant difference between RSRR and steamed Rehmanniae Radix. This study confirmed that Japo-nica rice was the optimal adjuvant rice of RSRR and verified the anti-osteoporosis effect of RSRR, which laid a foundation for further research on the pharmacological action and mechanism of RSRR.


Subject(s)
Female , Rats , Animals , Oryza , Chromatography, Liquid , Calcium , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Rehmannia , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic
11.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 374-381, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981248

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of human platelet-rich plasma-derived exosomes(PRP-exos)on the proliferation of Schwann cell(SC)cultured in vitro. Methods PRP-exos were extracted by polymerization-precipitation combined with ultracentrifugation.The morphology of PRP-exos was observed by transmission electron microscopy,and the concentration and particle size distribution of PRP-exos were determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis.Western blotting was employed to determine the expression of the marker proteins CD63,CD81,and CD9 on exosome surface and the platelet membrane glycoprotein CD41.The SCs of rats were isolated and cultured,and the expression of the SC marker S100β was detected by immunofluorescence staining.The fluorescently labeled PRP-exos were co-cultured with SCs in vitro for observation of their interaction.EdU assay was employed to detect the effect of PRP-exos on SC proliferation,and CCK-8 assay to detect the effects of PRP-exos at different concentrations(0,10,20,40,80,and 160 μg/ml)on SC proliferation. Results The extracted PRP-exos appeared as uniform saucer-shaped vesicles with the average particle size of(122.8±38.7)nm and the concentration of 3.5×1012 particles/ml.CD63,CD81,CD9,and CD41 were highly expressed on PRP-exos surface(P<0.001,P=0.025,P=0.004,and P=0.032).The isolated SCs expressed S100β,and PRP-exos could be taken up by SCs.PRP-exos of 40,80,and 160 μg/ml promoted the proliferation of SCs,and that of 40 μg/ml showed the best performance(all P<0.01). Conclusions High concentrations of PRP-exos can be extracted from PRP.PRP-exos can be taken up by SCs and promote the proliferation of SCs cultured in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Animals , Exosomes/metabolism , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Schwann Cells , Coculture Techniques , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured
12.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 294-298, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of Jianpi Peiyuan acupoint thread embedding therapy on perimenopausal obesity (PMO).@*METHODS@#Ninety-six patients of PMO were randomly divided into an observation group (48 cases) and a control group (48 cases). The control group received health education and lifestyle intervention. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, the observation group was treated with acupoint thread embedding at the main acupoints of Shangwan (CV 13), Zhongwan (CV 12), Xiawan (CV 10), Yinlingquan (SP 9) and Fenglong (ST 40), etc. as well as the supplementary acupoints in accordance with the syndrome differentiation, once every 2 weeks for 8 weeks (4 times in total). The indexes of obesity (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, hip circumference and body mass), modified Kupperman score, insomnia severity index (ISI) score, self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) score, and self-rating depression scale (SDS) score of the two groups were observed before and after treatment, and the safety was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and body mass in the two groups were lower than before treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were lower than the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, Kupperman, ISI and SAS scores in the observation group were lower than before treatment (P<0.05), and ISI score in the control group was lower than before treatment (P<0.05). Kupperman, ISI and SAS scores in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in SDS between the two groups or within groups (P>0.05). No serious adverse reactions occurred during the experiment.@*CONCLUSION@#Jianpi Peiyuan acupoint thread embedding therapy can reduce the degree of obesity in PMO patients, and improve patients' the perimenopausal symptoms, insomnia and anxiety, with good safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Perimenopause , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety , Obesity
13.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 446-452, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985889

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical data and prognosis of children with Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) common genes. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study.Clinical data of 56 children with Ph-like ALL common gene cases (Ph-like ALL positive group) treated from January 2017 to January 2022 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Children's Hospital, Henan Cancer's Hospital and Henan Provincial People's Hospital were collected, 69 children with other high-risk B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) at the same time and the same age were selected as the negative group. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of two groups were analyzed retrospectively. Comparisons between groups were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival curve, Log-Rank test was used for univariate analysis, and the Cox regression model was used for multivariate prognosis analysis. Results: Among 56 Ph-like ALL positive patients, there were 30 males and 26 females, and 15 cases were over 10 years old. There were 69 patients in Ph-like ALL negative group. Compared with the negative group, the children in positive group were older (6.4 (4.2, 11.2) vs. 4.7 (2.8, 8.4) years), and hyperleukocytosis (≥50×109/L) was more common (25% (14/56) vs. 9% (6/69)), the differences were statistically significant (both P<0.05). In the Ph-like ALL positive group, 32 cases were positive for IK6 (1 case was co-expressed with IK6 and EBF1-PDGFRB), 24 cases were IK6-negative, of which 9 cases were CRLF2 positive (including 2 cases with P2RY8-CRLF2, 7 cases with CRLF2 high expression), 5 cases were PDGFRB rearrangement, 4 cases were ABL1 rearrangement, 4 cases were JAK2 rearrangement, 1 case was ABL2 rearrangement and 1 case was EPOR rearrangement. The follow-up time of Ph-like ALL positive group was 22 (12, 40) months, and 32 (20, 45) months for negative group. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of positive group was significantly lower than the negative group ((72±7) % vs. (86±5) %, χ2=4.59, P<0.05). Compared with the 24 IK6-negative patients, the 3-year event free survival (EFS) rate of 32 IK6 positive patients was higher, the difference was statistically significant ((88±9) % vs. (65±14) %, χ2=5.37, P<0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the bone marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) not turning negative at the end of first induction (HR=4.12, 95%CI 1.13-15.03) independent prognostic risk factor for patient with Ph-like ALL common genes. Conclusions: Children with Ph-like ALL common genes were older than other high-risk B-ALL patients at diagnosis, with high white blood cells and lower survival rate. The bone marrow MRD not turning negative at the end of first induction were independent prognostic risk factor for children with Ph-like ALL common gene.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Prognosis , Philadelphia Chromosome , Retrospective Studies , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Neoplasm, Residual
14.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 665-672, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982303

ABSTRACT

With the proliferation of synthetic drugs, research on the mechanism of action of addictive drugs and treatment methods is of great significance. Among them, methamphetamine (METH) is the most representative amphetamine synthetic drug, and the treatment of METH addiction has become an urgent medical and social problem. In recent years, the therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicines on METH addiction have gained widespread attention because of their non-addictiveness, multiple targets, low side effects, low cost, and other characteristics. Previous studies have identified a variety of Chinese herbal medicines with effects on METH addiction. Based on the research on METH in recent years, this article summarizes the mechanism of action of METH as the starting point and briefly reviews the Chinese herbal medicine-based treatment of METH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Methamphetamine/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Amphetamine/therapeutic use , Behavior, Addictive/drug therapy , Amphetamine-Related Disorders/drug therapy
15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2476-2482, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999121

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharides and free monosaccharides are important active components in Cistanches Herba, which have functions of anti-aging and immunological activity regulation. The study of monosaccharide composition in polysaccharide and free monosaccharide can lay a foundation for the study of primary structure, spatial structure of Cistanche polysaccharide and biological activity of Cistanches Herba. In this study, a method of water extraction and alcohol precipitation was used to extract Cistanche polysaccharide. Trifluoroacetic acid was selected as the hydrolytic acid for polysaccharide hydrolysis. An orthogonal experimental method is established. Three levels of acid concentration, hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time were selected to investigate the optimal hydrolysis condition. The optimal hydrolysis condition was 0.08 mol·L-1 trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis at 100 ℃ for 3 h. The free monosaccharides of Cistanches Herba were extracted by water extraction. The established ion chromatogram integrated pulsed amperometry method can efficiently separate 11 monosaccharides in a short time. The method has good repeatability and high sensitivity, methodological experiment results meet the requirements of quantitative determination. It can accurately determine the monosaccharide composition of Cistanche polysaccharide and free monosaccharide content. Ion chromatography does not require derivatization operation and the pre-treatment steps are simple. This method can measure fructose, but PMP derivation-HPLC method can't. The monosaccharide composition of Cistanche polysaccharide include fucose, arabinose, rhamnose-galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, fructose, ribose and glucuronic acid, among which the contents of glucose and fructose are relatively high. The free monosaccharides in the water extract of Cistanches Herba include glucose, fructose and mannose.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2461-2467, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999102

ABSTRACT

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) in Lindera aggregata (Sims) Kosterm. The physiologically based extraction test (PBET) digestion in vitro/Caco-2 cell model was established to investigate the bioaccessible contents of Pb, Cd and As in decoction of Lindera aggregata (Sims) Kosterm. The target-organ toxicity dose modification of HI method (TTD) was used to evaluate the cumulative risk caused by the combined exposure of the total levels of Pb, Cd and As in Lindera aggregata (Sims) Kosterm. and the bioaccessible contents in the decoction. The results showed that the total contents of Pb, Cd and As in 4 batches of samples were in the range of 2.901-3.872, 1.299-1.800 and 0.062-0.216 mg·kg-1, respectively. After transportation by Cacco-2 cells, the bioaccessible contents of Pb, Cd, and As in the decoction were in the range of 0.045-0.080, 0.070-0.112 and 0.004-0.018 mg·kg-1. The results of risk assessment showed that calculated by the total amounts of heavy metals in the Lindera aggregata (Sims) Kosterm., for the end points of nervous system, the cumulative risks of co-exposure of heavy metals in 3 batches of samples were of concern. After decoction and transportation by Caco-2 cells, for the end points of cardiovascular system, blood, nervous system, kidney and testis, the TTD modification of HI values of all batches of samples were less than 1, and the health risks were acceptable. The study provided methodology basis for a more objective assessment of the health risks of heavy metals and harmful elements in traditional Chinese medicine and for a more scientific limit standard of heavy metals and harmful elements.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3024-3031, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999052

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of terpinen-4-ol (T4O) on high glucose (HG) -induced calcification in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). To investigate the role of T4O on HG-induced calcium deposition, osteogenic phenotypic transformation and mitochondrial dynamics in VSMC, Mdivi-1, a mitochondrial dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp-1) inhibitor, was used to analyze the correlation between mitochondrial dynamics and VSMC calcification and the role of T4O. Alizarin red S staining was used to observe calcium salt deposition and flow cytometry to detect intracellular Ca2+ content; Western blot and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression of phenotypic switching-related markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and Runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and mitochondrial dynamics-related markers mitofusin 1 (MFN1), mitofusin 2 (MFN2) and Drp-1. The results showed that low and high doses of T4O could inhibit HG-induced down-regulation of α-SMA, MFN1 and MFN2 expression levels, and up-regulation of BMP2, Runx2 and Drp-1 expression levels, reduce intracellular Ca2+ content and calcium salt deposition, and effectively inhibit HG-induced VSMC calcification and mitochondrial dynamics disorders. The T4O group, Mdivi-1 group and T4O+Mdivi-1 group were able to up-regulate the expression levels of HG-induced α-SMA, MFN1 and MFN2, down-regulate the protein expression levels of BMP2, Runx2 and Drp-1, and inhibit calcium salt deposition, and there was no significant difference between the above indexes in the T4O and T4O+Mdivi-1 groups. The above findings suggest that T4O can inhibit the expression level of Drp-1, regulate the disturbance of mitochondrial dynamics, and suppress HG-induced VSMC calcification.

18.
Chinese Journal of Primary Medicine and Pharmacy ; (12): 352-355, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991752

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of a deep deltoid ligament injury on postoperative ankle function and pain in patients with pronation-external rotation ankle fractures.Methods:Thirty patients with pronation-external rotation ankle fractures without deep deltoid ligament injury admitted to Weihai Municipal Hospital from March 2019 to March 2020 were included in the control group. Thirty patients with pronation-external rotation ankle fractures with deep deltoid ligament injury admitted to the same hospital from April 2020 to June 2021 were included in the observation group. Both groups received reduction and internal fixation of pronation-external rotation ankle fractures. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score, pain, and quality of life were compared between the two groups.Results:At 1 and 3 months after surgery, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scores in the observation group were (69.87 ± 2.89) points and (75.66 ± 4.27) points, which were significantly lower than (81.45 ± 4.78) points, and (93.62 ± 3.54) points in the control group ( t = 11.35, 17.37, both P < 0.01). At 1 and 3 months after surgery, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores in the observation group were (7.16 ± 1.15) points and (5.84 ± 0.52) points, respectively, which were significantly higher than (6.42 ± 0.54) points and (4.28 ± 0.16) points in the control group ( t = 3.19, 15.70, both P < 0.05). At 3 months after surgery, the scores of physical health, mental health, social relationship, and surrounding environment in the observation group were (19.18 ± 1.96) points, (18.67 ± 1.82) points, (17.42 ± 2.54) points, (19.65 ± 2.43) points, respectively, which were significantly lower than (21.65 ± 3.58) points, (23.57 ± 3.56) points, (20.09 ± 3.95) points, (22.38 ± 3.67) points in the control group ( t = 3.31, 6.71, 3.11, 3.39, all P < 0.05). Conclusion:Deep deltoid ligament injury affects the recovery of pronation-external rotation ankle fracture and affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is necessary to repair deep deltoid ligament injury in time in patients with pronation-external rotation ankle fractures.

19.
Journal of International Oncology ; (12): 107-111, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989530

ABSTRACT

As a non-invasive image analysis method, radiomics can deeply explore the clinical information hidden behind medical images, and has been widely used in medicine in recent years. Consolidation immunotherapy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy has become the standard treatment for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The prediction and identification of treatment-associated adverse events radiation pneumonitis (RP) and immune checkpoint inhibitor-related pneumonitis (CIP) are of vital importance for the formulation of treatment plan and the selection of subsequent treatment. CT-based radiomics analysis shows great potential in predicting and identifying RP and CIP.

20.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 56-64, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970952

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) and Golgi protein 73 (GP73) in the diagnosis of cirrhosis and the dynamic changes of CHI3L1 and GP73 after HCV clearance in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treated with direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs). The comparison of continuous variables of normal distribution were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and t-test. The comparison of continuous variables of non-normal distribution were statistically analyzed by rank sum test. The categorical variables were statistically analyzed by Fisher's exact test and χ(2) test. Correlation analysis was performed using Spearman correlation analysis. Methods: Data of 105 patients with CHC diagnosed from January 2017 to December 2019 were collected. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was plotted to study the efficacy of serum CHI3L1 and GP73 for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Friedman test was used to compare CHI3L1 and GP73 change characteristics. Results: The areas under the ROC curve for CHI3L1 and GP73 in the diagnosis of cirrhosis at baseline were 0.939 and 0.839, respectively. Serum levels of CHI3L1 and GP73 in the DAAs group decreased significantly at the end of treatment compared with baseline [123.79 (60.25, 178.80) ng/ml vs. 118.20 (47.68, 151.36) ng/ml, P = 0.001; 105.73 (85.05, 130.69) ng/ml vs. 95.52 (69.52, 118.97) ng/ml, P = 0.001]. Serum CHI3L1 and GP73 in the pegylated interferon combined with ribavirin (PR) group were significantly lower at the end of 24 weeks of treatment than the baseline [89.15 (39.15, 149.74) ng/ml vs. 69.98 (20.52, 71.96) ng/ml, P < 0.05; 85.07 (60.07, 121) ng/ml vs. 54.17 (29.17, 78.65) ng/ml, P < 0.05]. Conclusion: CHI3L1 and GP73 are sensitive serological markers that can be used to monitor the fibrosis prognosis in CHC patients during treatment and after obtaining a sustained virological response. Serum CHI3L1 and GP73 levels in the DAAs group decreased earlier than those in the PR group, and the serum CHI3L1 levels in the untreated group increased compared with the baseline at about two years of follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Fibrosis , Biomarkers
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