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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915510

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recent genomic studies identified four discrete molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma (MB), and the risk stratification of childhood MB in the context of subgroups was refined in 2015. In this study, we investigated the effect of molecular subgroups on the risk stratification of childhood MB. @*Methods@#The nCounter® system and a customized cancer panel were used for molecular subgrouping and risk stratification in archived tissues. @*Results@#A total of 44 patients were included in this study. In clinical risk stratification, based on the presence of residual tumor/metastasis and histological findings, 24 and 20 patients were classified into the average-risk and high-risk groups, respectively. Molecular subgroups were successfully defined in 37 patients using limited gene expression analysis, and DNA panel sequencing additionally classified the molecular subgroups in three patients. Collectively, 40 patients were classified into molecular subgroups as follows: WNT (n = 7), SHH (n = 4), Group 3 (n = 8), and Group 4 (n = 21). Excluding the four patients whose molecular subgroups could not be determined, among the 17 average-risk group patients in clinical risk stratification, one patient in the SHH group with the TP53 variant was reclassified as very-high-risk using the new risk classification system. In addition, 5 of 23 patients who were initially classified as high-risk group in clinical risk stratification were reclassified into the low- or standard-risk groups in the new risk classification system. @*Conclusion@#The new risk stratification incorporating integrated diagnosis showed some discrepancies with clinical risk stratification. Risk stratification based on precise molecular subgrouping is needed for the tailored treatment of MB patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913836

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We performed this study to determine whether the degree of neutropenia after the first chemotherapy cycle can be used as a surrogate marker of individual susceptibility to chemotherapeutic agents affecting treatment outcome in patients with neuroblastoma. @*Materials and Methods@#The study included 313 patients who received the first cycle chemotherapy with a CEDC (cisplatin+etoposide+doxorubicin+cyclophosphamide) regimen and had absolute neutrophil count (ANC) data available. The cumulative incidences of progression and treatment-related mortality (TRM) were estimated. To identify genetic variations associated with the ANC, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. @*Results@#An ANC of 32.5/μL was determined as the cutoff point to categorize patients into the good and poor prognosis subgroups in terms of progression. Patients with a high nadir ANC had a higher cumulative incidence of progression than those with a low nadir ANC (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, high nadir ANC, age, bone marrow involvement, and unfavorable histology were poor prognostic factors. With regard to the TRM, patients with a low nadir ANC (ANC < 51.0/μL) had a higher cumulative incidence of TRM than those with a high nadir ANC (p=0.010). In GWAS, single-nucleotide polymorphisms of LPHN2 and CRHR1 were significantly associated with the nadir ANC. @*Conclusion@#In neuroblastoma patients, the degree of neutropenia after the first chemotherapy cycle can be used as a surrogate marker to predict an individual’s susceptibility to chemotherapeutic agents. Tailoring of treatment based on the degree of neutropenia needs to be considered.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903140

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a serious threat to pediatric patients with cancer given high morbidity and mortality. We present an 18-year-old male with precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia who developed Pancoast syndrome, presented with paresthesia and numbness in the right shoulder and arm during a neutropenic fever period. He was diagnosed with pneumonia in the right upper lung field. He was later found to have an invasive pulmonary fungal infection caused by multiple fungi species, including Rhizomucor, confirmed by histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (proven infection), Penicillium decumbens diagnosed by PCR, and Aspergillus suspected from galactomannan assay (probable infection). Unfortunately, the patient's condition further worsened owing to the aggravation of leukemia, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and bacterial coinfection, leading to multiorgan failure and death. Here, we report a case of IFI caused by multiple fungal species that presented as Pancoast syndrome.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900012

ABSTRACT

Background@#The optimal conditioning regimen in cord blood transplantation (CBT) needs to be determined. This study aimed to identify the impact of conditioning regimen on the outcome of CBT in children with acute leukemia. @*Methods@#Medical records of patients with acute leukemia who received CBT were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#A total of 71 patients were allocated into 2 groups; patients who received total body irradiation 10 Gy, cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg, and fludarabine 75 mg/m 2 were named as the TCF group (n = 18), while the non-TCF group (n = 53) included patients conditioned with regimens other than the TCF regimen. All patients in the TCF group were successfully engrafted, while 22.6% in the non-TCF group (n = 12) failed to achieve donor-origin hematopoiesis (P = 0.028). The incidence of cytomegalovirus diseases was 5.6% in the TCF group and 30.2% in the non-TCF group (P = 0.029). The 5-year overall survival rates of the TCF and non-TCF groups were 77.8% and 44.2%, respectively (P = 0.017). @*Conclusion@#Patients conditioned with the TCF regimen achieved better engraftment and survival rates, less suffering from cytomegalovirus disease. Our data suggest that the TCF regimen is a preferred option for CBT in children with acute leukemia.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895436

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a serious threat to pediatric patients with cancer given high morbidity and mortality. We present an 18-year-old male with precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia who developed Pancoast syndrome, presented with paresthesia and numbness in the right shoulder and arm during a neutropenic fever period. He was diagnosed with pneumonia in the right upper lung field. He was later found to have an invasive pulmonary fungal infection caused by multiple fungi species, including Rhizomucor, confirmed by histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (proven infection), Penicillium decumbens diagnosed by PCR, and Aspergillus suspected from galactomannan assay (probable infection). Unfortunately, the patient's condition further worsened owing to the aggravation of leukemia, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and bacterial coinfection, leading to multiorgan failure and death. Here, we report a case of IFI caused by multiple fungal species that presented as Pancoast syndrome.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892308

ABSTRACT

Background@#The optimal conditioning regimen in cord blood transplantation (CBT) needs to be determined. This study aimed to identify the impact of conditioning regimen on the outcome of CBT in children with acute leukemia. @*Methods@#Medical records of patients with acute leukemia who received CBT were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#A total of 71 patients were allocated into 2 groups; patients who received total body irradiation 10 Gy, cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg, and fludarabine 75 mg/m 2 were named as the TCF group (n = 18), while the non-TCF group (n = 53) included patients conditioned with regimens other than the TCF regimen. All patients in the TCF group were successfully engrafted, while 22.6% in the non-TCF group (n = 12) failed to achieve donor-origin hematopoiesis (P = 0.028). The incidence of cytomegalovirus diseases was 5.6% in the TCF group and 30.2% in the non-TCF group (P = 0.029). The 5-year overall survival rates of the TCF and non-TCF groups were 77.8% and 44.2%, respectively (P = 0.017). @*Conclusion@#Patients conditioned with the TCF regimen achieved better engraftment and survival rates, less suffering from cytomegalovirus disease. Our data suggest that the TCF regimen is a preferred option for CBT in children with acute leukemia.

10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1184-1194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913813

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Effectiveness and safety of clofarabine (one of the treatment mainstays in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) was assessed in Korean pediatric patients with ALL to facilitate conditional coverage with evidence development. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter, prospective, observational study, patients receiving clofarabine as mono/combination therapy were followed up every 4-6 weeks for 6 months or until hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Response rates, survival outcomes, and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Sixty patients (2-26 years old; 65% B-cell ALL, received prior ≥ 2 regimen, 68.3% refractory to previous regimen) were enrolled and treated with at least one dose of clofarabine; of whom 26 (43.3%) completed 6 months of follow-up after the last dose of clofarabine. Fifty-eight patients (96.7%) received clofarabine combination therapy. Overall remission rate (complete remission [CR] or CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) was 45.0% (27/60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32.4 to 57.6) and the overall response rate (CR, CRp, or partial remission [PR]) was 46.7% (28/60; 95% CI, 34.0 to 59.3), with 11 (18.3%), 16 (26.7%), and one (1.7%) patients achieving CR, CRp, and PR, respectively. The median time to remission was 5.1 weeks (95% CI, 4.7 to 6.1). Median duration of remission was 16.6 weeks (range, 2.0 to 167.6 weeks). Sixteen patients (26.7%) proceeded to HSCT. There were 24 deaths; 14 due to treatment-emergent adverse events. @*Conclusion@#Remission with clofarabine was observed in approximately half of the study patients who had overall expected safety profile; however, there was no favorable long-term survival outcome in this study.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874161

ABSTRACT

Background@#We developed an assay to measure DNA-incorporated 6-thioguanine (DNATG) and validated its clinical applicability in Korean pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in order to improve individualized thiopurine treatment and reduce the life-threatening cytotoxicity. @*Methods@#The DNA-TG assay was developed based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with isotope-labeled TG-d3 and guanine-d3 as internal standards.This method was applied to 257 samples of pediatric ALL patients. The DNA-TG level was compared with erythrocyte TG nucleotide (RBC-TGN) level in relation to the TPMT and NUDT15 genotypes, which affect thiopurine metabolism, using Spearman’s rank test and repeated measure ANOVA. @*Results@#For DNA-TG quantification, a linearity range of 10.0-5,000.0 fmol TG/µg DNA;bias for accuracy of –10.4% –3.5%; coefficient of variation for intra- and inter-day precision of 3.4% and 5.8% at 80 fmol TG/µg DNA and of 4.9% and 5.3% at 800 fmol TG/µg DNA, respectively; and recovery of 85.7%–116.2% were achieved without matrix effects or carry-over. The median DNA-TG level in the 257 samples was 106.0 fmol TG/µg DNA (interquartile range, 75.8–150.9). There was a strong correlation between DNA-TG and RBC-TGN levels (ρ = 0.68,ρ < 0.0001). The DNA-TG/RBC-TGN ratio was significantly higher in NUDT15 intermediate metabolizers (*1/*2 and *1/*3) than in patients with wildtype alleles (ρ < 0.0001). @*Conclusions@#This simple and sensitive method for measuring DNA-TG level can improve therapeutic drug monitoring for thiopurine treatment.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832104

ABSTRACT

Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is the most common inherited red cell membrane disorder. Its main laboratory finding is anemia with reticulocytosis. However, in the case of an aplastic crisis, there may be no reticulocytosis, making the diagnosis of HS difficult. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy who initially presented with persistent fever and sore throat. His 8-year old brother also had anemia of unknown etiology, and his father had a history of splenectomy in his 20s. Physical examination revealed anemic conjunctivae and hepatosplenomegaly, and laboratory findings showed anemia with decreased reticulocyte count and elevated ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase levels. A peripheral blood smear showed microcytic hypochromic anemia with severe poikilocytosis (spherocytes, acanthocytes, schistocytes), and bone marrow examination revealed decreased erythroid cells and increased hemophagocytosis. Increased osmotic fragility was observed, and parvovirus B19 was detected using polymerase chain reaction. Hence, we established the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis manifested as an aplastic crisis caused by parvovirus B19 infection

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832103

ABSTRACT

In children and adolescents, acute pancreatitis is a rare cause of abdominal pain.The causes of pancreatitis in children are various including infection and drugs, but the overall cause of this condition in a pediatric patient is sometimes unknown. We describe a case of Burkitt lymphoma which showed acute pancreatitis findings as an initial presentation. In this case, a 16-year-old boy presented with abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant that had been present for one month. Pancreatitis was suspected due to high amylase and lipase and the computed tomography findings in the patient, which showed swelling and adjacent infiltration of the pancreas. However, initial treatments did not improve the patient’s symptoms. The following imaging studies showed mass-like lesions involving the pancreas, distal duodenum and jejunum associated with mesenteric lymphadenopathy that suggested a lymphoma in this case. In the final analysis, the patient was diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma which was seen on bone marrow biopsies and also found on the small bowel tissue biopsies.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899724

ABSTRACT

Background@#Infants and very young children with malignant brain tumors have a poorer survival and a higher risk for neurologic deficits. The present study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of multimodal treatment including tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in minimizing use of radiotherapy (RT) in very young children with non-metastatic malignant brain tumors. @*Methods@#Twenty consecutive patients younger than 3 years were enrolled between 2004 and 2017. Tandem HDCT/auto-SCT was performed after six cycles of induction chemotherapy.Local RT was administered only to patients with post-operative gross residual tumor at older than 3 years. Since September 2015, early post-operative local RT for patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor or primitive neuroectodermal tumor was administered. @*Results@#All 20 enrolled patients underwent the first HDCT/auto-SCT, and 18 proceeded to the second. Two patients died from toxicity during the second HDCT/auto-SCT, and four patients experienced relapse/progression (one localized and three metastatic), three of whom remained alive after salvage treatment including RT. A total of 17 patients remained alive at a median 7.8 (range, 2.5−15.7) years from diagnosis. Nine survivors received no RT, six survivors received local RT alone, and two survivors who experienced metastatic relapse after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT received both local and craniospinal RT. The 5-year overall, eventfree, and craniospinal RT-free survival rates were 85.0% ± 8.0%, 70.0% ± 10.2%, and 75.0% ± 9.7%, respectively. Neuroendocrine and neurocognitive functions evaluated 5 years after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT were acceptable. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that non-metastatic malignant brain tumors in very young children could be treated with multimodal therapy including tandem HDCT/auto-SCT while minimizing RT, particularly craniospinal RT.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899708

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the incidence and clinical significance of segmental chromosomal aberrations (SCAs) in Korean patients with neuroblastoma. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed with neuroblastoma from 2012 to 2018 were included for retrospective review. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze four SCAs (MYCN amplification, 1p deletion, 11q deletion, and 17q gain). Clinical characteristics at diagnosis, early tumor response (reduction in primary tumor volume and neuron-specific enolase level after the first three cycles of chemotherapy), and survival rates were compared according to SCAs. @*Results@#Among 173 patients with FISH results, 92 (53.2%) had at least one of the four SCAs, while 25 (14.5%) had two co-aberrations, and eight (4.6%) had three co-aberrations. SCAs detected in our study were MYCN amplification (n = 17, 9.8%), 1p deletion (n = 26, 15.2%), 11q deletion (n = 44, 25.6%), and 17q gain (n = 46, 27.1%). Patients with MYCN amplification showed a better early response but a worse survival than those without (5-year overall survival: 46.2% ± 13.1% vs. 88.6% ± 3.4%). Furthermore, 1p deletion was associated with a better early response but a worse survival; however, it was not an independent factor for survival. We could not find any prognostic significance associated with 11q deletion or 17q gain. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study investigating SCAs in Korean neuroblastoma patients. Prognostic significance of SCAs other than MYCN amplification was different from those reported in western countries. Further study with a larger cohort and longer follow-up is needed to confirm our findings.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892020

ABSTRACT

Background@#Infants and very young children with malignant brain tumors have a poorer survival and a higher risk for neurologic deficits. The present study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of multimodal treatment including tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in minimizing use of radiotherapy (RT) in very young children with non-metastatic malignant brain tumors. @*Methods@#Twenty consecutive patients younger than 3 years were enrolled between 2004 and 2017. Tandem HDCT/auto-SCT was performed after six cycles of induction chemotherapy.Local RT was administered only to patients with post-operative gross residual tumor at older than 3 years. Since September 2015, early post-operative local RT for patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor or primitive neuroectodermal tumor was administered. @*Results@#All 20 enrolled patients underwent the first HDCT/auto-SCT, and 18 proceeded to the second. Two patients died from toxicity during the second HDCT/auto-SCT, and four patients experienced relapse/progression (one localized and three metastatic), three of whom remained alive after salvage treatment including RT. A total of 17 patients remained alive at a median 7.8 (range, 2.5−15.7) years from diagnosis. Nine survivors received no RT, six survivors received local RT alone, and two survivors who experienced metastatic relapse after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT received both local and craniospinal RT. The 5-year overall, eventfree, and craniospinal RT-free survival rates were 85.0% ± 8.0%, 70.0% ± 10.2%, and 75.0% ± 9.7%, respectively. Neuroendocrine and neurocognitive functions evaluated 5 years after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT were acceptable. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that non-metastatic malignant brain tumors in very young children could be treated with multimodal therapy including tandem HDCT/auto-SCT while minimizing RT, particularly craniospinal RT.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892004

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the incidence and clinical significance of segmental chromosomal aberrations (SCAs) in Korean patients with neuroblastoma. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed with neuroblastoma from 2012 to 2018 were included for retrospective review. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze four SCAs (MYCN amplification, 1p deletion, 11q deletion, and 17q gain). Clinical characteristics at diagnosis, early tumor response (reduction in primary tumor volume and neuron-specific enolase level after the first three cycles of chemotherapy), and survival rates were compared according to SCAs. @*Results@#Among 173 patients with FISH results, 92 (53.2%) had at least one of the four SCAs, while 25 (14.5%) had two co-aberrations, and eight (4.6%) had three co-aberrations. SCAs detected in our study were MYCN amplification (n = 17, 9.8%), 1p deletion (n = 26, 15.2%), 11q deletion (n = 44, 25.6%), and 17q gain (n = 46, 27.1%). Patients with MYCN amplification showed a better early response but a worse survival than those without (5-year overall survival: 46.2% ± 13.1% vs. 88.6% ± 3.4%). Furthermore, 1p deletion was associated with a better early response but a worse survival; however, it was not an independent factor for survival. We could not find any prognostic significance associated with 11q deletion or 17q gain. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study investigating SCAs in Korean neuroblastoma patients. Prognostic significance of SCAs other than MYCN amplification was different from those reported in western countries. Further study with a larger cohort and longer follow-up is needed to confirm our findings.

20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1251-1261, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831133

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor found in children. To identify significant genetic factors for the risk of NB, several genetic studies was conducted mainly for Caucasians and Europeans. However, considering racial differences, there is a possibility that genetic predispositions that contribute to the development of NB are different, and GWAS study has not yet been conducted on Korean NB patients. @*Materials and Methods@#To identify the genetic variations associated with the risk of pediatric NB in Korean children, we performed a genome-wide association analysis with 296 NB patients and 1000 unaffected controls (total n = 1,296) after data cleaning and filtering as well as imputation of non-genotyped SNPs using IMPUTE v2.3.2. @*Results@#After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found 21 statistically significant SNPs associated with the risk of NB (Pcorr < 0.05) within 12 genes (RPTN, MRPS18B, LRRC45, KANSL1L, ARHGEF40, IL15RA, L1TD1, ANO7, LAMA5, OR7G2, SALL4, and NEUROG2). Interestingly, out of these, 12 markers were nonsynonymous SNPs. The SNP rs76015112 was most significantly associated with the risk of NB (p = 8.1E-23, Pcorr = 2.3E-17) and was located in the RPTN gene. In addition, significant nonsynonymous SNPs in ADGRE1 were found in patients with MYCN amplification (rs7256147, p = 2.6E-05). In high-risk group, rs7256147 was observed as a significant SNP (p = 5.9E-06). @*Conclusion@#Our findings might facilitate improved understanding of the mechanism of pediatric NB pathogenesis. However, functional evaluation and replication of these results in other populations are still needed.

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