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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e287-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001229

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although it is known that a substantial proportion of the population experience loneliness, the consequence of loneliness remains unclear by countries and ages.Accordingly, this study aimed to assess the association between loneliness and suicidality in the general population of Korea.Method: A total of 5,511 Koreans aged 18–79 completed a tablet-assisted personal interview using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and responded to questions about loneliness and lifetime suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts. A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between loneliness and suicidality. @*Results@#Approximately one-third of the Korean general population reported loneliness.Being older, never married, widowed, separated, or divorced, unemployed, and having a parttime job were all significantly related to loneliness. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, individuals with loneliness were significantly associated with increased suicidal ideation (adjusted odd ratio [aOR], 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.36–4.88), suicidal plans (aOR, 4.91; 95% CI, 3.34–7.21), and suicidal attempts (aOR, 4.82; 95% CI, 3.03–7.66). Even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and mental disorders, suicidality remained statistically significant. Moreover, frequent, moderate-to-severe, and long-term loneliness were all associated with increased ORs for suicidality, regardless of sociodemographic factors and mental disorders. @*Conclusion@#Loneliness was associated with suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts. This study lays the foundation for public health policymakers to establish early intervention and mental health care support for lonely people.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 262-272, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968559

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Mental health is a global concern and needs to be studied more closely. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders and their associated factors among the general population in Korea. @*Methods@#The National Mental Health Survey of Korea 2021 was conducted between June 19 and August 31, 2021 and included 13,530 households; 5,511 participants completed the interview (response rate: 40.7%). The lifetime and 12-month diagnosis rates of mental disorders were made using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. Factors associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD), nicotine use disorder, depressive disorder, and anxiety disorder were analyzed, and mental health service utilization rates were estimated. @*Results@#The lifetime prevalence of mental disorders was 27.8%. The 12-month prevalence rates of alcohol use, nicotine use, depressive, and anxiety disorders were 2.6%, 2.7%, 1.7%, and 3.1%, respectively. The risk factors associated with 12-month diagnosis rates were as follows: AUD: sex and age; nicotine use disorder: sex; depressive disorder: marital status and job status; anxiety disorder: sex, marital status, and job status. The 12-month treatment and service utilization rates for 12-month AUD, nicotine use disorder, depressive disorder, and anxiety disorder were 2.6%, 1.1%, 28.2%, and 9.1%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Approximately 25% of adults in the general population were diagnosed with mental disorders during their lifetime. The treatment rates were substantially low. Future studies on this topic and efforts to increase the mental health treatment rate at a national level are needed.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 452-460, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977347

ABSTRACT

Objective@#North Korean defectors (NKDs) have experienced substantial difficulties during the migration and settlement in South Korea. They have a high prevalence of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal behaviors. The high prevalence of mental disorders among NKDs can lead to a high suicide rate. However, there are no suicide prevention programs for NKDs. This study aims to customize a suicide prevention program with content suitable for NKDs’ particular circumstances. @*Methods@#A multidisciplinary research team developed this program based on domestic and international gatekeeper training programs for suicide prevention and articles related to suicide prevention. @*Results@#We developed a multi-part gatekeeper training program, “Suicide CARE for NKDs.” In the “Introduction,” trainees learn about the need for the program and its importance. In “Careful observation,” trainees learn to recognize linguistic, behavioral, and situational signals of suicide risk. In “Active listening,” trainees learn how to ask about suicidal thoughts and to listen empathetically. In “Risk evaluation and expert referral,” trainees learn to evaluate suicide risk and to connect NKDs with institutes or services. @*Conclusion@#We expect this program to become useful for training gatekeepers to prevent suicide among NKD. A future follow-up study is needed to confirm the efficacy of the program.

4.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 70-86, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924833

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of intranasal esketamine in patients with treatment-resistant depression from the Asian subgroup of the SUSTAIN-2 study. @*Methods@#SUSTAIN-2 was a phase 3, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study comprising a 4-week screening, 4-week induction, 48-week optimization/maintenance, and 4-week follow-up (upon esketamine discontinuation) phase. Patients with treatment-resistant depression received esketamine plus an oral antidepressant during the treatment period. @*Results@#The incidence of ≥ 1 serious treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) among the 78 subjects from the Asian subgroup (Taiwan: 33, Korea: 26, Malaysia: 19) was 11.5% (n = 9); with no fatal TEAE. 13 Asian patients (16.7%) discontinued esketamine due to TEAEs. The most common TEAEs were dizziness (37.2%), nausea (29.5%), dissociation (28.2%), and headache (21.8%). Most TEAEs were mild to moderate in severity, transient and resolved on the same day. Upon discontinuation of esketamine, no trend in withdrawal symptoms was observed to associate long-term use of esketamine with withdrawal syndrome. There were no reports of drug seeking, abuse, or overdose. Improvements in symptoms, functioning and quality of life, occurred during in the induction phase and were generally maintained through the optimization/maintenance phases of the study. @*Conclusion@#The safety and efficacy of esketamine in the Asian subgroup was generally consistent with the total SUSTAIN-2 population. There was no new safety signal and no indication of a high potential for abuse with the long-term (up to one year) use of esketamine in the Asian subgroup. Most of the benefits of esketamine occurred early during the induction phase.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e240-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900069

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although childhood maltreatment is a known risk factor for adulthood mental health, the impact of different types of childhood maltreatment on mental disorders is not yet clear. This study explored the association of each type of childhood maltreatment with adulthood mental disorders and suicidality in South Korea. @*Methods@#A total of 5,102 individuals from the general populations over the age of 18 responded to the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and questions about childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). To evaluate the odds ratio for mental disorders and suicidality associated with each type of childhood maltreatment, we used logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#About 17.0% of the respondents reported having experienced a type of maltreatment in childhood. According to the type, 9.4% reported physical abuse, 9.3% reported emotional neglect, 7.9% reported psychological abuse, and 3.8% reported sexual abuse. Exposure to each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with most types of mental disorders after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Each type of childhood maltreatment victim was associated with suicidality (suicidal ideations, suicide plans, and suicide attempts).Dose-response patterns for suicide attempts were observed in all types of victims. Moreover, the respondents who experienced frequent childhood emotional neglect were 14 times more likely to have attempted suicide. @*Conclusion@#Childhood maltreatment was associated with mental health in adulthood.The findings show the need for early detection and intervention of victims of childhood maltreatment to minimize its negative impact on adult mental health.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e244-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900042

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated trends in the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) by sociodemographic factors in South Korea. @*Methods@#National samples of the general population aged 18 years or older collected from the nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001 (n = 6,206), 2006 (n = 6,466), and 2011 (n = 5,986) were used. For MDD diagnosis, we conducted face-to-face interviews using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We performed logistic regression analyses stratified by gender, after adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, to calculate the 2006-to-2001 odds ratio (OR) and 2011-to-2001 OR by subgroups of sociodemographic factors to explore the association of MDD prevalence with sociodemographic factors over time. @*Results@#The prevalence of MDD in the general population of South Korea increased steadily from 2001, to 2006, and to 2011 (1.6%, 2.5%, and 3.1%, respectively). Among the men, the prevalence of MDD continued to increase significantly in 18–29 years of age group (2006: adjusted OR [AOR], 3.32; 2011: AOR, 7.42), at-risk drinking group (2006: AOR, 3.56; 2011: AOR, 4.77), and not living with a partner group (2006: AOR, 3.24; 2011: AOR, 3.25).Meanwhile, among the women, the prevalence of MDD continued to significantly increase in the below-average household income group (2006: AOR, 2.58; 2011: AOR, 2.59), at-risk drinking group (2006: AOR, 2.02; 2011: AOR, 2.47), and unemployed group (2006: AOR, 1.48; 2011: AOR, 2.04). @*Conclusion@#This study may provide significant information for public policymakers to allocate sufficient health resources on MDD to vulnerable groups, particularly, men aged 18–29 years and women living in households with below-average income, and for clinicians to develop appropriate screening and treatment modalities for MDD.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e72-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899959

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence continues to accumulate that the presence or absence of early trauma (ET) implies unique characteristics in the relationships between suicidal ideation and its risk factors. We examined the relationships among recent stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Korean suicidal women with or without such a history. @*Methods@#Using data on suicidal adult females, 217 victims and 134 non-victims of ET, from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior, we performed structural equation modeling to investigate the contribution of recent stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation within each group according to the presence or absence of a history of ET. @*Results@#Structural equation modeling with anxiety and depressive symptoms as potential mediators showed a good fit. Recent stress had a direct effect on both depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in both groups. Only anxiety symptoms for victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.281; P = 0.005) and depressive symptoms for non-victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.326; P = 0.003) were full mediators that increased suicidal ideation. Thus, stress contributed to suicidal ideation by increasing the level of anxiety and depressive symptoms for victims and non-victims, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Tailored strategies to reduce suicidal ideation should be implemented according to group type, victims or non-victims of ET. Beyond educating suicidal women in stressmanagement techniques, it would be effective to decrease anxiety symptoms for those with a history of ET and decrease depressive symptoms for those without such a history.

8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1-10, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875377

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) has been established as a treatment modality for patients with treatment-resistant depression and with some specific subtypes of depression. This narrative review intends to provide psychiatrists with the latest findings on the use of ECT in depression, devided into total eight sub-topics. @*Methods@#We searched PubMed for English-language articles using combined keywords and tried to analyze journals published from 1995–2020. @*Results@#Pharmacotherapy such as antidepressants or maintenance ECT is more effective than a placebo as prevention of recurrence after ECT. The use of ECT in treatment-resistant depression, depressed patients with suicidal risks, elderly depression, bipolar depression, psychotic depression, and depression during pregnancy or postpartum have therapeutic benefits. As possible mechanisms of ECT, the role of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and other findings in the field of neurophysiology, neuro-immunology, and neurogenesis are also supported. @*Conclusion@#ECT is evolving toward reducing cognitive side effects and maximizing therapeutic effects. If robust evidence for ECT through randomized controlled studies are more established and the mechanism of ECT gets further clarified, the scope of its use in the treatment of depression will be more expanded in the future.

9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 39-47, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875375

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the association between thyroidectomy and suicide attempt. @*Methods@#A nationwide population-based electronic medical records database of South Korea between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2016 was used to investigate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of suicide attempts and probable suicide attempts before and after thyroidectomy using a self-controlled case series design. @*Results@#In 2,986 patients who attempted suicide or probable suicide, the IRRs of suicidal behaviors during risk periods one year before and after thyroidectomy were investigated. Generally, after thyroidectomy, there was no increase in IRR compared to the non-risk period. When data were analyzed according to thyroidectomy type, after partial thyroidectomy, IRR increased up to 1.43 (95% CI: 1.03–1.98, p=0.032) in the days 91–181 period. In the subgroup with major depressive disorder (MDD), the IRR increased up to 1.74 (95% CI: 1.21–2.51, p=0.003) before thyroidectomy, and increased up to 1.67 (95% CI: 1.16–2.41, p=0.006) after thyroidectomy. @*Conclusion@#Although the general risk of suicide attempt was not increased after thyroidectomy, patients with MDD showed increased risk of suicide attempt before and after thyroidectomy. These results suggest that suicidality should be evaluated when depressive symptoms are present in patients who have undergone thyroidectomy.

10.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 61-69, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874789

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study compared the psychological autopsies of suicide victims through interviews of the bereaved family members and investigations of the police death records. @*Methods@#A psychological autopsy was performed using both the Korea Psychological Autopsy Checklist (K-PAC) through an interview of the bereaved family members and the Korea Psychological Autopsy Checklist for Police Record (K-PAC-PR) from the police death records at the same suicide victims. The frequency and percentage of each analysis item were checked, and the information collected was compared. @*Results@#Of 129 victims, information from two methods showed no significant differences in marital status, employment status, cohabitation status and relationship, location of suicide, method of suicide, and main cause. Among the stress information at the time of death, interpersonal and mental health problems were consistent, but the occupational, economy, family-related, physical health problems were estimated to have greater impact according to the interview methods. The estimates of depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia were consistent, but the investigation method estimated more sleep disorders and anxiety disorders, and the interview methods estimated more drug use disorders. @*Conclusion@#Based on the analysis results, the two methods of a psychological autopsy should be properly utilized, and effective suicide prevention using the psychological autopsy information was discussed.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e240-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892365

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although childhood maltreatment is a known risk factor for adulthood mental health, the impact of different types of childhood maltreatment on mental disorders is not yet clear. This study explored the association of each type of childhood maltreatment with adulthood mental disorders and suicidality in South Korea. @*Methods@#A total of 5,102 individuals from the general populations over the age of 18 responded to the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and questions about childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). To evaluate the odds ratio for mental disorders and suicidality associated with each type of childhood maltreatment, we used logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#About 17.0% of the respondents reported having experienced a type of maltreatment in childhood. According to the type, 9.4% reported physical abuse, 9.3% reported emotional neglect, 7.9% reported psychological abuse, and 3.8% reported sexual abuse. Exposure to each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with most types of mental disorders after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Each type of childhood maltreatment victim was associated with suicidality (suicidal ideations, suicide plans, and suicide attempts).Dose-response patterns for suicide attempts were observed in all types of victims. Moreover, the respondents who experienced frequent childhood emotional neglect were 14 times more likely to have attempted suicide. @*Conclusion@#Childhood maltreatment was associated with mental health in adulthood.The findings show the need for early detection and intervention of victims of childhood maltreatment to minimize its negative impact on adult mental health.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e244-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892338

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated trends in the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) by sociodemographic factors in South Korea. @*Methods@#National samples of the general population aged 18 years or older collected from the nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001 (n = 6,206), 2006 (n = 6,466), and 2011 (n = 5,986) were used. For MDD diagnosis, we conducted face-to-face interviews using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We performed logistic regression analyses stratified by gender, after adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, to calculate the 2006-to-2001 odds ratio (OR) and 2011-to-2001 OR by subgroups of sociodemographic factors to explore the association of MDD prevalence with sociodemographic factors over time. @*Results@#The prevalence of MDD in the general population of South Korea increased steadily from 2001, to 2006, and to 2011 (1.6%, 2.5%, and 3.1%, respectively). Among the men, the prevalence of MDD continued to increase significantly in 18–29 years of age group (2006: adjusted OR [AOR], 3.32; 2011: AOR, 7.42), at-risk drinking group (2006: AOR, 3.56; 2011: AOR, 4.77), and not living with a partner group (2006: AOR, 3.24; 2011: AOR, 3.25).Meanwhile, among the women, the prevalence of MDD continued to significantly increase in the below-average household income group (2006: AOR, 2.58; 2011: AOR, 2.59), at-risk drinking group (2006: AOR, 2.02; 2011: AOR, 2.47), and unemployed group (2006: AOR, 1.48; 2011: AOR, 2.04). @*Conclusion@#This study may provide significant information for public policymakers to allocate sufficient health resources on MDD to vulnerable groups, particularly, men aged 18–29 years and women living in households with below-average income, and for clinicians to develop appropriate screening and treatment modalities for MDD.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e72-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892255

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence continues to accumulate that the presence or absence of early trauma (ET) implies unique characteristics in the relationships between suicidal ideation and its risk factors. We examined the relationships among recent stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Korean suicidal women with or without such a history. @*Methods@#Using data on suicidal adult females, 217 victims and 134 non-victims of ET, from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior, we performed structural equation modeling to investigate the contribution of recent stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation within each group according to the presence or absence of a history of ET. @*Results@#Structural equation modeling with anxiety and depressive symptoms as potential mediators showed a good fit. Recent stress had a direct effect on both depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in both groups. Only anxiety symptoms for victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.281; P = 0.005) and depressive symptoms for non-victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.326; P = 0.003) were full mediators that increased suicidal ideation. Thus, stress contributed to suicidal ideation by increasing the level of anxiety and depressive symptoms for victims and non-victims, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Tailored strategies to reduce suicidal ideation should be implemented according to group type, victims or non-victims of ET. Beyond educating suicidal women in stressmanagement techniques, it would be effective to decrease anxiety symptoms for those with a history of ET and decrease depressive symptoms for those without such a history.

14.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 346-353, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915576

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Agent Orange is a defoliant chemical that is widely known for its use by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. It is known to be associated with the occurrence of various diseases in exposed subjects. However, few previous studies have focused on the effects of exposure to Agent Orange on cognitive dysfunction. @*Methods@#A total of 387 male subjects participated in the study. They were divided into those who were exposed to Agent Orange (n=301) and those without exposure (n=86). Both were evaluated with neuropsychological batteries, including the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery-Second Edition. @*Results@#The group exposed to Agent Orange showed significantly higher scores in the Rey Complex Figure Test copy and recognition compared to those without exposure. @*Conclusion@#In this study, we compared the effects of exposure to Agent Orange on cognitive function in groups that had not yet progressed to dementia. The Agent Orange exposure group showed better results in some tests evaluating visuospatial and memory function.

15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 911-924, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832607

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In 2011, “Suicide CARE” (Standardized Suicide Prevention Program for Gatekeeper Intervention in Korea) was originally developed for the early detection of warning signs of suicide completion, since there is a tendency to regard emotional suppression as a virtue of Korean traditional culture. A total of 1.2 million individuals completed the training program of “Suicide CARE” in Korea. @*Methods@#More sophisticated suicide prevention approaches according to age, sex, and occupation have been proposed, demanding for a more detailed revision of “Suicide CARE.” Thus, during the period from August 2019 to February 2020, “Suicide CARE” has been updated to version 2.0. The assessments on domestic gatekeeper training programs for suicide prevention, international gatekeeper training programs for suicide prevention, psychological autopsy interview reports between 2015 and 2018, and the evaluation of feedback from people who completed “Suicide CARE” version 1.6 training were performed. @*Results@#We describe the revision process of “Suicide CARE,” revealing that “Suicide CARE” version 2.0 has been developed using an evidence-based methodology. @*Conclusion@#It is expected that “Suicide CARE” version 2.0 be positioned as the basic framework for many developing gatekeeper training programs for suicide prevention in Korea in the near future.

16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1149-1157, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832586

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Suicide is a huge nationwide problem that incurs a lot of socio-economic costs. Suicide also inflicts severe distress on the people left behind. The government of the Republic of Korea has been making many policy efforts to reduce suicide rate. The gatekeeper program, ‘Suicide CARE’, is one of the meaningful modalities for preventing suicide. @*Methods@#Multidisciplinary research team collaborated to update the ‘Suicide CARE’ to version 2.0. @*Results@#In the ‘Introductory part’, the authors have the time to think about the necessity and significance of the program before conducting full-scale gatekeeper training. In the ‘Careful observation’ part, trainees learn how to understand and recognize the various linguistic, behavioral, and situational signals that a person shows before committing suicide. In the ‘Active listening’ part, trainees learn how to ask suicide with a value-neutral attitude as well listening empathetically. In the ‘Risk evaluation and Expert referral’ part, trainees learn intervening strategies to identify a person’s suicidal intention, plan, and past suicide attempts, and connect the person to appropriate institutes or services. @*Conclusion@#Subsequent studies should be conducted to verify the efficacy of the gatekeeper program.

17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1118-1125, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832582

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In this study, we aimed to determine clinical correlates of false positive assignment (FPA) on commonly used bipolar screening questionnaires. @*Methods@#A retrospective chart review was conducted to a total of 3885 psychiatric outpatients. After excluding patients who have bipolar spectrum illnesses, patients who were assigned as having hypomania on the mood disorder questionnaire (MDQ) or the hypomania checklist-32 (HCL-32) were identified as patients who had FPA. Psychiatric diagnoses and severity of emotional symptoms were compared between patients with and without FPA. @*Results@#Patients with FPA on the MDQ showed significant associations with presence of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol-use disorder, while patients with FPA on the HCL-32 showed associations with presence of panic disorder and agoraphobia. FPA on the MDQ was also associated with greater emotional symptoms and lifetime history of suicide attempts. Logistic regression analysis showed that male sex, younger age, presence of alcohol-use disorder, and severity of depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were significantly associated with FPA on the MDQ. @*Conclusion@#The FPA for the MDQ was associated with clinical factors linked to trait impulsivity, and the FPA for both the MDQ and the HCL-32 could be related to increased anxiety.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e319-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831736

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the impact of getting older than the mean marriage age on mental disorders and suicidality among never-married people. @*Methods@#We performed an epidemiological survey, a nationwide study of mental disorders, in 2016. In this study, a multi-stage cluster sampling was adopted. The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was conducted with 5,102 respondents aged 18 years or above. The associations between never-married status, mental disorders, and suicidality were explored according to whether the mean age of first marriage (men = 32.8 years; women = 30.1 years) had passed. @*Results@#Never-married status over the mean marriage age was associated with agoraphobia, obsessive–compulsive disorder, mood disorders, and major depressive disorder after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Respondents with never-married status above the mean marriage age were associated with suicide attempts (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.21;95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36–7.60) after controlling for sociodemographic factors and lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, while respondents with never-married status under the mean marriage age were not. Moreover, in respondents with never-married status, getting older than the mean marriage age was associated with suicidal ideations (aOR, 1.49;95% CI, 1.04–2.15) and suicide attempts (aOR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.46–7.84) after controlling for sociodemographic factors and lifetime prevalence of mental disorders. @*Conclusion@#Never-married status above the mean first marriage age was associated with mental disorders and suicidality. These findings suggest the need for a national strategy to develop an environment where people with never-married status do not suffer even if their marriage is delayed.

19.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 777-788, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The suicide rate in South Korea was the second highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries in 2017. The purpose of this study is to understand the characteristics of people who died by suicide in Korea from 2013–2017 and to better prevent suicide. METHODS: This study was performed by the Korea Psychological Autopsy Center (KPAC), an affiliate of the Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. According to the Korea National Statistical Office, the number of suicide victims nationwide was estimated to reach about 70,000 from 2013 to 2017. Comprehensive suicide records from all 254 police stations in South Korea were evaluated by 32 investigators who completed a 14-day didactic training program. Then, we evaluated the characteristics of suicide victims in association with disease data from the National Health Insurance Database (NHID), which is anonymously linked to personal information of suicide victims. RESULTS: Thirty-one of 254 police stations in the Seoul metropolitan area were analyzed by August 10, 2018. Findings showed that the characteristics of suicide victims differed according to the nature of the region. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that different strategies and methods are needed to prevent suicide by regional groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anonyms and Pseudonyms , Autopsy , Education , Korea , Methods , National Health Programs , Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development , Police , Research Personnel , Seoul , Suicide
20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 314-324, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760922

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Suicide is the leading cause of death in 10–39-year-olds in South Korea, and the second highest rate among the OECD countries. However, few studies have investigated the particularity of completed suicide in South Korea. METHODS: Study subjects consisted of 2,838 suicide cases and 56,758 age and sex matched living controls from a national representative sample of 1,025,340 South Koreans. They were obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) with follow-up up to 12 years. We obtained information on primary diagnosis of any ICD-10 disorder along with suicide cases during their lifetime. RESULTS: Among ICD-10 disorders, depression was the most common disorder (19.10%, n=542), found in victims of completed suicides except for common medical disorders such as hypertensive crisis, respiratory tract infection or arthropathies. After adjusting for sex, age, economic status, disability, and disorders, schizophrenia showed the strongest association with suicide (AOR: 28.56, 95% CI: 19.58–41.66) among all ICD-10 disorders, followed by psoriasis, multiple body injury, epilepsy, sleep disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder. For age groups, ≤19 years was associated with anxiety disorder (AOR=80.65, 95% CI: 13.33–487.93), 20–34 years with epilepsy (AOR=134.92, 95% CI: 33.69–540.37), both 35–49 years (AOR=108.57, 95% CI: 37.17–317.09) and 50–65 years (AOR=189.41 95% CI: 26.59–1349.31), with schizophrenia, and >65 years (AOR=44.7, 95% CI: 8.93–223.63) with psoriasis. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric and physical disorders carried greatly increased risks and numbers of suicides in South Korea. Schizophrenia was the strongest risk factor, especially 35–65 years, and depression was the most common in suicide victims among ICD-10 disorders in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety Disorders , Bipolar Disorder , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Depression , Diagnosis , Epilepsy , Follow-Up Studies , Insurance, Health , International Classification of Diseases , Korea , National Health Programs , Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development , Psoriasis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia , Sleep Wake Disorders , Suicide
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