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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 514-518, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000787

ABSTRACT

The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in older patients is increasing. However, chemotherapy should be administered considering the medical comorbidities of the patients and the toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. Here, we present a case of abdominal wall hematoma with spontaneous inferior epigastric artery injury caused by coughing in a 70-year-old woman who was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated an abdominal wall hematoma with active bleeding. However, angiography with selective embolization of the right inferior epigastric artery and the right internal mammary artery was performed successfully. Scheduled chemotherapy was discontinued over concerns of rebleeding and breast-conserving surgery was performed. When deciding on chemotherapy for older patients, attention should be paid to the various complications.

2.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 987-1001, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000013

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To investigate whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in individuals without generalized obesity is associated with visceral fat obesity (VFO), sarcopenia, and/or myosteatosis. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional analysis included 14,400 individuals (7,470 men) who underwent abdominal computed tomography scans during routine health examinations. The total abdominal muscle area (TAMA) and skeletal muscle area (SMA) at the 3rd lumbar vertebral level were measured. The SMA was divided into the normal attenuation muscle area (NAMA) and low attenuation muscle area, and the NAMA/TAMA index was calculated. VFO was defined by visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio, sarcopenia by body mass index-adjusted SMA, and myosteatosis by the NAMA/TAMA index. NAFLD was diagnosed with ultrasonography. @*Results@#Of the 14,400 individuals, 4,748 (33.0%) had NAFLD, and the prevalence of NAFLD among non-obese individuals was 21.4%. In regression analysis, both sarcopenia (men: odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19–1.67, P<0.001; women: OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.40–1.90, P<0.001) and myosteatosis (men: OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.02–1.50, P=0,028; women: OR=1.23, 95% CI 1.04–1.46, P=0.017) were significantly associated with non-obese NAFLD after considering for VFO and other various risk factors, whereas VFO (men: OR=3.97, 95% CI 3.43–4.59 [adjusted for sarcopenia], OR 3.98, 95% CI 3.44–4.60 [adjusted for myosteatosis]; women: OR=5.42, 95% CI 4.53–6.42 [adjusted for sarcopenia], OR=5.33, 95% CI 4.51–6.31 [adjusted for myosteatosis]; all P<0.001) was strongly associated with non-obese NAFLD after adjustment with various known risk factors. @*Conclusions@#In addition to VFO, sarcopenia and/or myosteatosis were significantly associated with non-obese NAFLD.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 562-569, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976710

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy (SLNB) during breast cancer surgery, SLN mapping using dye and isotope (DUAL) may have lower false-negative rates than the dye-only (DYE) method. However, the long-term outcomes of either method are unclear. We aimed to compare long-term oncological outcomes of DYE and DUAL for SLNB in early breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective single-institution cohort study included 5,795 patients (DYE, 2,323; DUAL, 3,472) with clinically node-negative breast cancer who underwent SLNB and no neoadjuvant therapy. Indigo carmine was used for the dye method and Tc99m-antimony trisulfate for the isotope. To compare long-term outcomes, pathologic N0 patients were selected from both groups, and propensity score matching (PSM), considering age, pT category, breast surgery, and adjuvant treatment, was performed (1,441 patients in each group). @*Results@#The median follow-up duration was 8.7 years. The median number of harvested sentinel nodes was 3.21 and 3.12 in the DYE and DUAL groups, respectively (p=0.112). The lymph node–positive rate was not significantly different between the two groups in subgroups of similar tumor sizes (p > 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the mapping method was not significantly associated with the lymph node–positive rate (p=0.758). After PSM, the 5-year axillary recurrence rate (DYE 0.8% vs. DUAL 0.6%, p=0.096), and 5-year disease-free survival (DYE 93.9% vs. DUAL 93.7%, p=0.402) were similar between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#Dye alone for SLNB was not inferior to dual mapping regarding long-term oncological outcomes in early breast cancer.

4.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 104-117, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966772

ABSTRACT

Background@#The association of myosteatosis measured using visual muscular quality map in computed tomography (CT) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), its severity, and fibrosis was analyzed in a large population. @*Methods@#Subjects (n=13,452) with abdominal CT between 2012 and 2013 were measured total abdominal muscle area (TAMA) at L3 level. TAMA was segmented into intramuscular adipose tissue and skeletal muscle area (SMA), which was further classified into normal attenuation muscle area (NAMA) and low attenuation muscle area (LAMA). The following variables were adopted as indicators of myosteatosis: SMA/body mass index (BMI), NAMA/BMI, NAMA/TAMA, and LAMA/BMI. NAFLD and its severity were assessed by ultrasonography, and liver fibrosis was measured by calculating the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) and fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) scores. @*Results@#According to multiple logistic regression analyses, as quartiles of SMA/BMI, NAMA/BMI, and NAMA/TAMA increased, the odds ratios (ORs) for NAFLD decreased in each sex (P for trend <0.001 for all). The ORs of moderate/severe NAFLD were significantly higher in the Q1 group than in the Q4 group for SMA/BMI, NAMA/BMI, and NAMA/TAMA in men. The ORs of intermediate/high liver fibrosis scores assessed by NFS and FIB-4 scores increased linearly with decreasing quartiles for SMA/BMI, NAMA/BMI, and NAMA/TAMA in each sex (P for trend <0.001 for all). Conversely, the risk for NAFLD and fibrosis were positively associated with LAMA/BMI quartiles in each sex (P for trend <0.001 for all). @*Conclusion@#A higher proportion of good quality muscle was associated with lower risks of NAFLD and fibrosis.

5.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 53-59, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937783

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The standard care for patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is a total mastectomy (TM); however, there is growing interest in repeating BCS for IBTR. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed patients with IBTR who underwent initial BCS for breast cancer at our institution between January 2000 and December 2018. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival rates between the standard BCS-TM treatment group and the repeat-BCS group. @*Results@#We enrolled 209 IBTR patients with a median follow-up of 102.3 months. No significant differences were observed in overall survival (10 years: 87.3% vs. 78.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-2.81; p=0.821), distant metastasis free survival (10 years: 73.9% vs. 77.7%; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.37-1.72; p=0.727) and disease-free survival (10 years: 57.1% vs. 65.2%; HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.35-1.12; p=0.115) between two groups. Repeat-BCS group showed significantly poorer locoregional recurrence free survival rate than did the TM group (HR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.06-5.56; p=0.029) but the significance was not shown after excluding ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence events. @*Conclusion@#No significant differences were observed in survival outcomes and recurrence rates between patients with IBTR who underwent mastectomy or repeat BCS regardless of molecular subtype, except secondary IBTR rates.

6.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 83-88, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916448

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the interocular difference of axial length (AL), mean keratometry (K), corneal astigmatism and anterior chamber depth (ACD) according to AL without history of ocular surgery. @*Methods@#This study was performed on 16,411 patients (32,825 eyes) who were measured AL, K, corneal astigmatism and ACD by IOL Master® from April 2007 to September 2016, excluding patients with missing values and extreme values in AL. After, patients were divided into four groups based on AL; AL < 24 mm, 24 mm ≤ AL < 26 mm, 26 mm ≤ AL < 28 mm, AL ≥ 28 mm, we investigated which variables were associated according to AL. To compensate for age and sex, 1:1:1:1 random matching was performed for age and sex. @*Results@#The longer the average AL of both eyes, the greater the difference between the AL, ACD and mean corneal K of both eyes. The longer AL group had the deeper ACD, the flatter mean corneal K, the higher corneal astigmatism. The older age group had the more shallow ACD, the steeper mean corneal K, lower corneal astigmatism. @*Conclusions@#Ophthalmologists have to be careful in setting fellow eye as control in treating or studying patients with long AL or axial myopia. Because, the longer the average AL of both eyes, the greater the difference between the AL, the ACD and the mean corneal K of both eyes.

7.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 486-498, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924930

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to determine the optimal cut-off values of visceral fat area (VFA) and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR) for predicting incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#A total of 10,882 individuals (6,835 men; 4,047 women) free of T2DM at baseline aged between 30 and 79 years who underwent abdominal computed tomography scan between 2012 and 2013 as a part of routine health check-ups were included and followed. VFA, subcutaneous fat area, and VSR on L3 vertebral level were measured at baseline. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 730 (8.1% for men; 4.3% for women) incident cases of T2DM were identified. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off values of VFA and VSR for predicting incident T2DM were 130.03 cm2 and 1.08 in men, respectively, and 85.7 cm2 and 0.48 in women, respectively. Regardless of sex, higher VFA and VSR were significantly associated with a higher risk of incident T2DM. Compared with the lowest quartiles of VFA and VSR, the highest quartiles had adjusted odds ratios of 2.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.73 to 3.97) and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.14 to 2.11) in men, respectively, and 32.49 (95% CI, 7.42 to 142.02) and 11.07 (95% CI, 3.89 to 31.50) in women, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Higher VFA and VSR at baseline were independent risk factors for the development of T2DM. Sex-specific reference values for visceral fat obesity (VFA ≥130 cm2 or VSR ≥1.0 in men; VFA ≥85 cm2 or VSR ≥0.5 in women) are proposed for the prediction of incident T2DM.

8.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 46-54, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875078

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate risk factors of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with routine health check-up data. @*Methods@#Among 9,019 patients older than 40 years who underwent a routine health checkup at a single institution of South Korea from January to December 2017, 7,018 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. An additional 2,001 patients were accepted, due to the absence of a fundus photo or having a fundus photo of poor quality. @*Results@#Among 7,018 patients, 183 patients were diagnosed with AMD. We diagnosed 104 patients with early-phase, 75 patients with intermediate-phase, and 4 patients with late-phase AMD. The AMD groups were compared to a control group using one-way analysis of variance. The control, early, and intermediate groups showed meaningful differences with respect to age. In propensity score matching for age and sex, no differences were observed with respect to blood pressure, body mass index, or weight; however, significant differences were evident for the parameters of hepatitis B surface antigen, alkaline phosphatase, platelet, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, gamma glutamyl transferase, high density lipoprotein (HDL), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), C-reactive protein (CRP), status of exercise, drinking, and smoking between the control and AMD groups. In multiple logistic regression analyses with relevant factors, a strong positive relationship was established for hepatitis B surface antigen, HDL, CRP and CEA elevation, absence of exercise, and current smoking in AMD patients. @*Conclusions@#Risk for AMD was strongly correlated with hepatitis B surface antigen, elevation of HDL, CEA and CRP in blood tests, the absence of exercise, and a history of smoking.

9.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1042-1054, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914261

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is metabolically heterogeneous in terms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Previously, the triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index has been considered for identifying metabolic health and future risk of T2D. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of incident T2D according to obesity status and metabolic health, categorized by four different criteria and the TyG index. @*Methods@#The study included 39,418 Koreans without T2D at baseline. The risk of T2D was evaluated based on four different definitions of metabolic health and obesity status and according to the baseline TyG index within each metabolic health and obesity group. @*Results@#During the median follow-up at 38.1 months, 726 individuals developed T2D. Compared with the metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO) group with low TyG index, the MHO group with high TyG index showed increased risk of T2D in all four definitions of metabolic health with multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of 2.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76 to 3.75), 3.72 (95% CI, 2.15 to 6.43), 4.13 (95% CI, 2.67 to 6.38), and 3.05 (95% CI, 2.24 to 4.15), when defined by Adult Treatment Panel III, Wildman, Karelis, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) criteria, respectively. @*Conclusion@#MHO subjects with high TyG index were at an increased risk of developing T2D compared with MHNO subjects, regardless of the definition of metabolic health. TyG index may serve as an additional factor for predicting the individual risk of incident T2D in MHO subjects.

10.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1161-1174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914236

ABSTRACT

Although age-related changes in skeletal muscles are closely associated with decreases in muscle strength and functional decline, their associations with cardiometabolic diseases in the literature are inconsistent. Such inconsistency could be explained by the fact that muscle quality—which is closely associated with fatty infiltration of the muscle (i.e., myosteatosis)—is as important as muscle quantity in cardiometabolic health. However, muscle quality has been less explored compared with muscle mass. Moreover, the standard definition of myosteatosis and its assessment methods have not been established yet. Recently, some techniques using single axial computed tomography (CT) images have been introduced and utilized in many studies, as the mass and quality of abdominal muscles could be measured opportunistically on abdominal CT scans obtained during routine clinical care. Yet, the mechanisms by which myosteatosis affect metabolic and cardiovascular health remain largely unknown. In this review, we explore the recent advances in the assessment of myosteatosis and its changes associated with aging. We also review the recent literature on the clinical implication of myosteatosis by focusing on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Finally, we discuss the challenges and unanswered questions that need addressing to set myosteatosis as a therapeutic target for the prevention or treatment of cardiometabolic diseases.

11.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 365-373, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898170

ABSTRACT

Background@#Serum calcitonin measurement contains various clinical and methodological aspects. Its reference level is wide and unclear despite sensitive calcitonin kits are available. This study aimed to identify the specific reference range in the healthy Korean adults. @*Methods@#Subjects were ≥20 years with available calcitonin (measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay) data by a routine health checkup. Three groups were defined as all eligible subjects (group 1, n=10,566); subjects without self or family history of thyroid disease (group 2, n=5,152); and subjects without chronic kidney disease, autoimmune thyroid disease, medication of proton pump inhibitor/H2 blocker/steroid, or other malignancies (group 3, n=4,638). @*Results@#This study included 6,341 male and 4,225 female subjects. Males had higher mean calcitonin than females (2.3 pg/mL vs. 1.9 pg/mL, P<0.001) in group 1. This gender difference remained similar in groups 2 and 3. Calcitonin according to age or body mass index was not significant in both genders. Higher calcitonin in smoking than nonsmoking men was observed but not in women. Sixty-nine subjects had calcitonin higher than the upper reference limit (10 pg/mL) and 64 of them had factors associated with hypercalcitoninemia besides medullary thyroid cancer. Our study suggests the reference intervals for men who were non, ex-, current smokers, and women (irrespective of smoking status) as <5.7, <7.1, <7.9, and <3.6 pg/mL, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Specific calcitonin reference range should be provided considering for sex and smoking status. Taking account for several factors known to induce hypercalcitoninemia can help interpret the gray zone of moderately elevated calcitonin.

12.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 365-373, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890466

ABSTRACT

Background@#Serum calcitonin measurement contains various clinical and methodological aspects. Its reference level is wide and unclear despite sensitive calcitonin kits are available. This study aimed to identify the specific reference range in the healthy Korean adults. @*Methods@#Subjects were ≥20 years with available calcitonin (measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay) data by a routine health checkup. Three groups were defined as all eligible subjects (group 1, n=10,566); subjects without self or family history of thyroid disease (group 2, n=5,152); and subjects without chronic kidney disease, autoimmune thyroid disease, medication of proton pump inhibitor/H2 blocker/steroid, or other malignancies (group 3, n=4,638). @*Results@#This study included 6,341 male and 4,225 female subjects. Males had higher mean calcitonin than females (2.3 pg/mL vs. 1.9 pg/mL, P<0.001) in group 1. This gender difference remained similar in groups 2 and 3. Calcitonin according to age or body mass index was not significant in both genders. Higher calcitonin in smoking than nonsmoking men was observed but not in women. Sixty-nine subjects had calcitonin higher than the upper reference limit (10 pg/mL) and 64 of them had factors associated with hypercalcitoninemia besides medullary thyroid cancer. Our study suggests the reference intervals for men who were non, ex-, current smokers, and women (irrespective of smoking status) as <5.7, <7.1, <7.9, and <3.6 pg/mL, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Specific calcitonin reference range should be provided considering for sex and smoking status. Taking account for several factors known to induce hypercalcitoninemia can help interpret the gray zone of moderately elevated calcitonin.

13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 624-633, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902400

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the reliability of CT measurements of muscle quantity and quality using variable CT parameters. @*Materials and Methods@#A phantom, simulating the L2–4 vertebral levels, was used for this study. CT images were repeatedly acquired with modulation of tube voltage, tube current, slice thickness, and the image reconstruction algorithm. Reference standard muscle compartments were obtained from the reference maps of the phantom. Cross-sectional area based on the Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds of muscle and its components, and the mean density of the reference standard muscle compartment, were used to measure the muscle quantity and quality using different CT protocols. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated in the images acquired with different settings. @*Results@#The skeletal muscle area (threshold, -29 to 150 HU) was constant, regardless of the protocol, occupying at least 91.7% of the reference standard muscle compartment. Conversely, normal attenuation muscle area (30–150 HU) was not constant in the different protocols, varying between 59.7% and 81.7% of the reference standard muscle compartment. The mean density was lower than the target density stated by the manufacturer (45 HU) in all cases (range, 39.0–44.9 HU). The SNR decreased with low tube voltage, low tube current, and in sections with thin slices, whereas it increased when the iterative reconstruction algorithm was used. @*Conclusion@#Measurement of muscle quantity using HU threshold was reliable, regardless of the CT protocol used. Conversely, the measurement of muscle quality using the mean density and narrow HU thresholds were inconsistent and inaccurate across different CT protocols. Therefore, further studies are warranted in future to determine the optimal CT protocols for reliable measurements of muscle quality.

14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 301-314, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899004

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Trastuzumab is effective in early and advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. However, few studies have reported the effect of trastuzumab on ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), whose incidence is higher in the HER2-positive subtype than in other subtypes. @*Methods@#We retrospectively investigated 959 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy for HER2-positive breast cancer between 2000 and 2017. IBTR was compared between the patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant trastuzumab (Tmab group) for a total duration of 1 year and those who received no trastuzumab (N-Tmab group). @*Results@#Propensity score matching designated 426 and 142 patients in the Tmab and N-Tmab groups, respectively. The median follow-up period for all patients after matching was 73.79 months. The IBTR-free survival rate was significantly higher in the Tmab group than in the N-Tmab group (10-year IBTR-free survival rate, 92.9% vs. 87.3%; p = 0.002). The multivariate analysis showed a significant association between the N-Tmab and Tmab group (hazard ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–8.59) and IBTR in addition to close or positive resection margin and hormone receptor (HR) positivity. The subgroup analysis showed that adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab significantly reduced IBTR among the patients with HR-negative or lymph node-negative breast cancer. @*Conclusion@#Significantly reduced IBTR after BCS was observed in the patients who received 1 year of adjuvanteoadjuvant trastuzumab treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer.

15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 63-74, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898997

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a standard axillary staging surgery for early breast cancer, and the proportion of patients requiring axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is decreasing. We aimed to evaluate the association between the number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) retrieved and the risk of lymphedema of the ipsilateral arm. @*Methods@#Prospectively collected medical records of 910 patients were reviewed.Lymphedema was defined as a difference in circumference > 2 cm compared to the contralateral arm and/or having clinical records of lymphedema treatment in the rehabilitation clinic. @*Results@#Together with an objective and subjective assessment of lymphedema, 36 patients (6.1%) had lymphedema in the SLNB group and 85 patients (27.0%) had lymphedema in the ALND group (p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis of the whole cohort, risk factors significantly associated risk with the development of lymphedema were body mass index, mastectomy (vs.breast-conserving surgery), ALND, and radiation therapy. In logistic regression models in the SLNB group only, there was no correlation between the number of retrieved SLNs and the incidence of lymphedema. In addition, in the Pearson correlation analysis, no correlation was observed between the number of retrieved SLNs and the difference in circumference between the ipsilateral and contralateral upper extremities (correlation coefficients = 0.067, p = 0.111). @*Conclusion@#The risk of lymphedema in breast cancer surgery and adjuvant treatments is multifactorial. The number of retrieved lymph nodes during sentinel biopsy was not associated with the incidence of lymphedema.

16.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 624-633, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894696

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the reliability of CT measurements of muscle quantity and quality using variable CT parameters. @*Materials and Methods@#A phantom, simulating the L2–4 vertebral levels, was used for this study. CT images were repeatedly acquired with modulation of tube voltage, tube current, slice thickness, and the image reconstruction algorithm. Reference standard muscle compartments were obtained from the reference maps of the phantom. Cross-sectional area based on the Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds of muscle and its components, and the mean density of the reference standard muscle compartment, were used to measure the muscle quantity and quality using different CT protocols. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated in the images acquired with different settings. @*Results@#The skeletal muscle area (threshold, -29 to 150 HU) was constant, regardless of the protocol, occupying at least 91.7% of the reference standard muscle compartment. Conversely, normal attenuation muscle area (30–150 HU) was not constant in the different protocols, varying between 59.7% and 81.7% of the reference standard muscle compartment. The mean density was lower than the target density stated by the manufacturer (45 HU) in all cases (range, 39.0–44.9 HU). The SNR decreased with low tube voltage, low tube current, and in sections with thin slices, whereas it increased when the iterative reconstruction algorithm was used. @*Conclusion@#Measurement of muscle quantity using HU threshold was reliable, regardless of the CT protocol used. Conversely, the measurement of muscle quality using the mean density and narrow HU thresholds were inconsistent and inaccurate across different CT protocols. Therefore, further studies are warranted in future to determine the optimal CT protocols for reliable measurements of muscle quality.

17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 301-314, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891300

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Trastuzumab is effective in early and advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. However, few studies have reported the effect of trastuzumab on ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), whose incidence is higher in the HER2-positive subtype than in other subtypes. @*Methods@#We retrospectively investigated 959 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy for HER2-positive breast cancer between 2000 and 2017. IBTR was compared between the patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant trastuzumab (Tmab group) for a total duration of 1 year and those who received no trastuzumab (N-Tmab group). @*Results@#Propensity score matching designated 426 and 142 patients in the Tmab and N-Tmab groups, respectively. The median follow-up period for all patients after matching was 73.79 months. The IBTR-free survival rate was significantly higher in the Tmab group than in the N-Tmab group (10-year IBTR-free survival rate, 92.9% vs. 87.3%; p = 0.002). The multivariate analysis showed a significant association between the N-Tmab and Tmab group (hazard ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–8.59) and IBTR in addition to close or positive resection margin and hormone receptor (HR) positivity. The subgroup analysis showed that adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab significantly reduced IBTR among the patients with HR-negative or lymph node-negative breast cancer. @*Conclusion@#Significantly reduced IBTR after BCS was observed in the patients who received 1 year of adjuvanteoadjuvant trastuzumab treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer.

18.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 63-74, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891293

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a standard axillary staging surgery for early breast cancer, and the proportion of patients requiring axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is decreasing. We aimed to evaluate the association between the number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) retrieved and the risk of lymphedema of the ipsilateral arm. @*Methods@#Prospectively collected medical records of 910 patients were reviewed.Lymphedema was defined as a difference in circumference > 2 cm compared to the contralateral arm and/or having clinical records of lymphedema treatment in the rehabilitation clinic. @*Results@#Together with an objective and subjective assessment of lymphedema, 36 patients (6.1%) had lymphedema in the SLNB group and 85 patients (27.0%) had lymphedema in the ALND group (p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis of the whole cohort, risk factors significantly associated risk with the development of lymphedema were body mass index, mastectomy (vs.breast-conserving surgery), ALND, and radiation therapy. In logistic regression models in the SLNB group only, there was no correlation between the number of retrieved SLNs and the incidence of lymphedema. In addition, in the Pearson correlation analysis, no correlation was observed between the number of retrieved SLNs and the difference in circumference between the ipsilateral and contralateral upper extremities (correlation coefficients = 0.067, p = 0.111). @*Conclusion@#The risk of lymphedema in breast cancer surgery and adjuvant treatments is multifactorial. The number of retrieved lymph nodes during sentinel biopsy was not associated with the incidence of lymphedema.

19.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1909-1917, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918199

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Muscle quantity and quality can be measured with an automated system on CT. However, the effects of contrast phases on the muscle measurements have not been established, which we aimed to investigate in this study. @*Materials and Methods@#Muscle quantity was measured according to the skeletal muscle area (SMA) measured by a convolutional neural network-based automated system at the L3 level in 89 subjects undergoing multiphasic abdominal CT comprising unenhanced phase, arterial phase, portal venous phase (PVP), or delayed phase imaging. Muscle quality was analyzed using the mean muscle density and the muscle quality map, which comprises normal and low-attenuation muscle areas (NAMA and LAMA, respectively) based on the muscle attenuation threshold. The SMA, mean muscle density, NAMA, and LAMA were compared between PVP and other phases using paired t tests. Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate the inter-phase variability between PVP and other phases. Based on the cutoffs for low muscle quantity and quality, the counts of individuals who scored lower than the cutoff values were compared between PVP and other phases. @*Results@#All indices showed significant differences between PVP and other phases (p < 0.001 for all). The SMA, mean muscle density, and NAMA increased during the later phases, whereas LAMA decreased during the later phases. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean differences between PVP and other phases ranged -2.1 to 0.3 cm2 for SMA, -12.0 to 2.6 cm2 for NAMA, and -2.2 to 9.9 cm2 for LAMA.The number of patients who were categorized as low muscle quantity did not significant differ between PVP and other phases (p ≥ 0.5), whereas the number of patients with low muscle quality significantly differed (p ≤ 0.002). @*Conclusion@#SMA was less affected by the contrast phases. However, the muscle quality measurements changed with the contrast phases to greater extents and would require a standardization of the contrast phase for reliable measurement.

20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 520-530, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914823

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery (OPS) technique, combined with the principles of oncological safety and plastic surgery, results in complete tumor resection while preserving the natural appearance of the breast. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term oncological results after OPS compared with conventional breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for early breast cancer. @*Methods@#The medical records of patients who underwent breast cancer surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy at Seoul National University Hospital between 2011 and 2014 were reviewed. Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR)-free survival rate and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were compared between the OPS and BCS groups. @*Results@#One-to-one propensity score matching was conducted, yielding 371 patients in each group. The mean tumor distance from the nipple was shorter, and the mean retrieved specimen size and pathologic tumor size, including ductal carcinoma in situ, were larger in the OPS group than in the conventional BCS group (p < 0.001). Surgical margin positivity was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.777). The surgical technique was not significantly associated with IBTR (OPS versus conventional BCS, 5-year survival rate, 96.9% vs. 98.6%; p = 0.355) and RFS (5-year survival rate, 92.9% vs. 94.5%; p = 0.357) on the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis revealed that OPS versus conventional BCS was not significantly associated with survival outcomes. @*Conclusion@#We observed no significant differences in long-term IBTR and RFS between the OPS and conventional BCS groups in this retrospective analysis. OPS can be an oncologically and surgically safe alternative option for conventional BCS for early breast cancer.

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