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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878884

ABSTRACT

Protein kinase C(PKC) is a type of protein kinase widely involved in cell proliferation and development, but the developmental mechanism in the gonads of androgynous animals is still unclear. In order to explore the role of protein kinase C in the development of Whitmania pigra germ cells, the Wh. pigra PKC(Wp-PKC) gene was cloned, bioinformatics analysis was conducted, and fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of female and male gonads. The results showed that:(1)The cloned Wp-PKC had a full length of 2 580 bp, a relative molecular weight of 76 555.19, and contains an open reading frame encoding 670 amino acids, Wp-PKC was closely related to Danio rerio PKC-α and rat PKC-γ. The similarity of amino acid sequence was 55% and 58%.(2)The protein encoded by Wp-PKC had no signal peptide and was a hydrophilic protein. The secondary structure is mainly composed of random coils, α-helices, extended chains, folds and folds, with the largest proportion of random coils and α-helices. Wp-PKC protein does not contain a transmembrane domain. Multiple sequence alignment and domain prediction analysis show that Wp-PKC contains 4 conserved domains of classical protein kinase C.(3)Fluorescence quantitative results showed that the expression of Wp-PKC in Wh. pigra gonads was positively correlated with the development of germ cells, and the expression in male gonads was significantly higher than that in female gonads. In summary, Wp-PKC is a classic PKC, and Wp-PKC may promote the development of Wh. pigra, especially the development of male gonads, and provide references for further research on the developmental mechanisms of Wh. pigra.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cloning, Molecular , Female , Gonads , Leeches/genetics , Male , Ovary , Protein Kinase C/genetics , Rats
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879041

ABSTRACT

Protein kinase C(PKC) is a kind of kinase which is widely involved in cell proliferation and development. PKC(Wp-PKC) in Whitmania pigra body belongs to classic PKC. In order to investigate the effect of Wp-PKC on the development of Wh. pigra germ cells, 17β-estradiol(17β-E2)(100 ng·mL~(-1)) and methyltestosterone(MT)(150 μg·L~(-1)), 150 μg·L~(-1)(MT)+0.5 mg·L~(-1) PKC, 0.5 mg·L~(-1) PKC inhibitor were added to Wh. pigra culture water, and no addition group(control group) was added, and the effects on the development of Wh. pigra germ cells and the expression of Wp-PKC were observed. The results showed that: Wp-PKC in male gonads was always higher than that in female gonads; MT promoted the development of male gonads in Wh. pigra, while the expression of Wp-PKC was significantly higher than that in the control; 17β-E2 promoted the development of female gonads in Wh. pigra and Wp-PKC expression significantly lower than that of the control; while the development of the female and male gonads in the PKC inhibitor group was inhibited, the expression of Wp-PKC was significantly lower than that of the control. In summary, Wp-PKC may promote the development of Wh. pigra, especially the development of male gonads.


Subject(s)
Animals , Estradiol , Female , Gonads , Leeches , Male , Methyltestosterone , Ovary
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828381

ABSTRACT

The current study was conducted to explore the effects of light intensity in cultivating environment on the cleaning away heat property of Viola yedoensis. In the present study, we established the acute inflammation model of ICR mice by injecting carrageenan. We compared the effects of V. yedoensis grown under different light intensities(100%, 80%, 50%, 35% and 5% of full sunlight) on mice body temperature, thermal radiation and the swelling degree of foot tissue before and after modeling observing by thermal infrared imaging technique and weighing method. The changes of energy metabolism related enzymes in liver were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). In addition, the effects of V. yedoensis grown under different light intensities on human lung cancer cell A549 proliferation were explored with MTT method. The results showed that the body temperature of all groups of mice in V. yedoensis group were significantly lower than that of the blank group, except 5% full sunlight group, and the body temperature declined in positive proportion to light intensity. V. yedoensis group could alleviate foot swelling, reduce SDH activity in liver tissue(especially 100% full sunlight group and 80% full sunlight group were significantly lower than model group), and the degree of alleviating and reducing was positively correlated with light intensity. There was no significant difference in the activity of Na~+-K~+-ATPase and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase in liver tissue among treatments. The contents of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, PGE_2 in foot tissue of mice in V. yedoensis groups were significantly lower than those in model group. Among them, the lowest levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, PGE_2 were found in 80% full sunlight group, and there was no significant difference in TNF-α among different groups. The effects of V. yedoensis aqueous extract on A549 cell line proliferation inhibition rate increased with the light intensities of V. yedoensis cultivating environment. And the effects of V. yedoensis grown under 100% of full sunlight showed significantly higher A549 cell line proliferation inhibition rate compared with other groups(P<0.05). In summary, the light intensity of V. yedoensis cultivating environment is positively correlated with the cleaning away heat property of V. yedoensis, which conforms to the "light-cold and heat property" hypothesis,The V. yedoensis should be planted under full light according.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hot Temperature , Inflammation , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Viola
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878855

ABSTRACT

Light energy is an important factor affecting plant growth. The hypothesis of "light-cold and heat property" holds that the original plants of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) with cold property can obtain more energy to maintain growth in high light intensity environment, whereas the original plants of TCM with heat property prefer weak light environment. The current experiment investigated the effects of different light intensities on primary metabolites levels, energy levels, cell apoptosis, and leaves ultrastructure of Viola yedoensis, the original plants of TCM Violae Herba with cold property. There were five treatment groups of V. yedoensis, which was planted under Li1(8 500 lx),Li2(7 250 lx),Li3(6 000 lx),Li4(4 750 lx),Li5(3 500 lx)LEDs light intensity conditions, respectively. After harvest, primary metabolites levels, contents of ATP, ADP, AMP, activities of ATP synthesis and hydrolysis related enzyme, as well as cell apoptosis activation degree were measured, and transmission electron microscopy technique was used to observe leaves ultrastructure. The results showed that the total sugar, total protein, contents of ATP, ADP and AMP, activities of NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome C reductase, ATP synthase and ATP hydrolase were positively correlated with light intensities(P<0.05). The crude fat content, activities of SDH and CCO enzyme showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing, the highest value were found in Li2 group and Li3 group respectively(P<0.05). The vitality of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was negatively correlated with light intensities(P<0.05). The structure of chloroplast and mitochondria were normal and intact in Li1-Li3 groups, and the damage degree of Li4 and Li5 groups increased with the decrease of light intensities. The analysis of results indicated that the structure of chloroplast and mitochondria of V. yedoensis is normal under the light intensity of 6 000-8 500 lx, which can obtain more energy to maintain its growth and metabolism. When the light intensity is lower than 4 750 lx, the chloroplast morphology and mitochondrial membrane are damaged, affecting the metabolism of material and energy. There was no significant difference in energy charge of V. yedoensis in the light intensity range of 3 500~8 500 lx. The effect of light intensity on energy metabolism of V. yedoensis accords with the hypothesis of "light-cold and heat property".


Subject(s)
Chloroplasts , Energy Metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Leaves , Viola
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774581

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed to investigate the effects of light intensities on growth,photosynthetic physiology,antioxidant systems and chemical composition of Viola yedoensis and provide cultivation references for V.yedoensis.Five groups of V.yedoensis were planted under five light intensities conditions,namely 100%,80%,50%,35%,5%of full sunlight,and then morphological index,growth,chlorophyll fluorescence parameters,photosynthetic parameters and antioxidant enzyme system indexes were measured during harvest.The results showed that there was no significant difference in the biomass of V.yedoensis among 35% -100%full sunlight,but the biomass of those were significantly higher than that in the 5%full sunlight treatment(P<0.05).The net photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stomatal conductance,intercellular CO_2 concentration and water use efficiency increased firstly and then decreased with the decrease of light intensity;F_m,F_v/F_mand Yield in 5% full sunlight treatment were significantly lower than those in the other four groups(P<0.05).The structure of chloroplast was normal under light intensity ranged from 50%to 100% full sunlight.The lamellar concentration of chloroplast matrix decreased and the starch granules decreased in 35% full sunlight treatment,and the margin of lamellar layer of chloroplast and substrate were blurred,and the starch granules were small and the number of starch granules decreased significantly under 5% full sunlight.MDA content in 5%full sunlight treatment was significantly higher than those in the other four groups(P<0.05).The total coumarin content and total flavonoid content decreased with the decrease of light intensity.In summary,the light in-tensity range suitable for the growth of V.yedoensis is wide(ranging from 35% to 100% full sunlight).The content of flavonoids and coumarins is positively correlated with light intensity.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Chlorophyll , Chloroplasts , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Sunlight , Viola
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773727

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to explores the effects of short-term addition of 17β-E2 on the growth,gonad development and internal quality of overwintering Whitmania pigra. Before overwintering,0. 0,1. 0,10. 0,25. 0,50. 0,100. 0 μg·L~(-1) of 17β-E2 were added to the aquaculture water for 6 weeks and then hibernated for 60 days. The changes of growth performance,gonad index,morphological structure of spermary( ovary),endogenous steroid hormones level and internal quality were measured. The results showed that the body weight,weight gain rate,specific growth rate,female gonad index,oocyte development and endogenous estrogen level of the leech increased first and then decreased with the increase of the concentration of exogenous 17β-E2,which were higher than those of the control group. The body weight,weight gain rate and specific growth rate of the leech at the concentration of 25 μg·L~(-1)17β-E2 were significantly higher than those of the other groups( P<0. 05),oocyte development and endogenous estrogen levels were significantly higher than those of other groups at the concentration of 50 μg·L~(-1)( P<0. 05). When the concentration of exogenous 17β-E2 was higher than 50 μg·L~(-1),the levels of male gonad index,spermatocyte development,endogenous androgen and progesterone were significantly inhibited( P< 0. 05). There was no significant difference in endogenous corticosteroid levels among the groups. In conclusion,short-term addition of exogenous 17β-E2 of 10-25 μg·L~(-1) could promote the growth of overwintering leeches,oocyte development and antithrombin activity without inhibiting the development of male gonads.


Subject(s)
Androgens , Animals , Estradiol , Pharmacology , Estrogens , Female , Gonads , Hibernation , Leeches , Male , Progesterone
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690678

ABSTRACT

The current study was conducted to explore the relationship between property of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and the light conditions of their original plant in habitats and advance a "light-cold and heat property" hypothesis under the guidance of theory of TCM. In the present study, we selected 127 common Chinese herbs. Association rules mining method was used to find out the association relationship between the cold-heat properties of different TCM and the habitats of their original plant, while using statistical methods to analyze the correlation between light condition and cold-heat property of TCM based on the description of the habitats in the Flora of China and investigation. The results showed that the habitats associated to TCM with cold property are in the order of grassland>curb>hillside>wasteland>gully>farmland>riverside. The habitats that associated to TCM with heat property are: undergrowth>shrub>gully>jungle. For 68 TCMs with cold property, 81.2% of their original plants are light-demanding, 8.7% are shade-demanding, and 8.7% of them showed no obvious light preference. For 59 TCMs with heat property, 62.7% of their original plants are shade-demanding, 20.3% are shade-demanding, and 17.0% of them showed no obvious light preference. Meanwhile, Chi-square test showed that there was a significant difference between the cold-heat property and light preference (<0.01). In summary, there is a significant correlation between the light preference of TCM original plants and their cold-heat properties. In order to ensure the pharmacological effect of TCM, the relationship between the light conditions and the properties of TCM should be considered in the cultivation of medicinal plants for TCM.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690537

ABSTRACT

To study the effects of ingestion on antithrombin activities in different tissues of Whitmania pigra, the salivary glands, ingluvies, intestine and muscle of adult leeches were weighted on the 1st d, 3rd d, 5th d, 7th d and 11th d after feeding, respectively, and meanwhile antithrombin activity was measured by antithrombin titration method. The results showed that the antithrombin activity of salivary glands in different stages was significantly higher than that in other tissues (<0.05). The activity of antithrombin in muscle tissue increased initially and then decreased with the prolongation of the time after feeding, and the peak was observed on the 5th day after feeding (<0.05). The activity of antithrombin in the salivary glands, gluvies and intestine were found the highest on the 1st day after feeding(<0.05), and then gradually decreased with the prolongation of the time of stopping the diet. The total amount of antithrombin activity on the 5th day was increased by 49.5%, 73.5%, 69.1% and 126.0% comparing with the 1st, 3rd, 7th and 11th day after feeding, respectively (<0.05). In summary, both the feeding behavior and the food can induce the secretion of anticoagulant substances in the salivary glands and the digestive tract. The total amount of antithrombin activity was the highest on the 5th day after feeding and the 5th day after feeding was suggested as harvesting time.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689872

ABSTRACT

The present study cloned wpGuamerin gene from a non-bloodsucking leech (Whitmania pigra), and the bioinformatics analysis of the sequence was performed. Additionally, the effects of feeding duration on the expression profile of the wp Guamerin gene were explored. The results showed that its sequence consisted of 295 nucleotides encoding a peptide of 83 amino acids(Genbank: KX768545), and its relative molecular weight is 9 145.95 Da. wp Guamerin does not encode proteins with a signal peptide, belonging to the hydrophilic protein. Its secondary structure is mainly composed of α-helix, extending chain, folding and random curl. Its similarity with other blood-sucking leeches ranges from 29% to 65%. The results revealed that wpGuamerin mRNA was detected higher expression in muscle than in salivary glands of Wh. pigra, and did not expressed in ingluvies and intestine. Its expression in muscle and salivary glands showed a single peak curve after feeding and the peak was observed in the 1st and 3rd after feeding, respectively. In summary, wp Guamerin in Wh. pigra is a small molecule polypeptide protein and is different from the Guamerin in blood-sucking leeches. wpGuamerin does not express in the digestive tract of Wh. pigra, and mainly express in muscle. Feeding behavior would stimulate the expression of wpGuamerin gene in muscle and salivary glands, but not in digestive tract.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689871

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect and mechanism of Astragali Radix on growth and immunity of Whitmania pigra, 0, 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.07%, 0.09% of Astragali Radix were added to the daily feeding of Wh. pigra. After 60 days of feeding, the growth performance, activities of digestive enzyme and anti-reverse enzyme, inner quality, the expression levels of GH, IGF-1 and digestive enzyme-related genes were measured. Meanwhile, the effects of heat stress on the living conditions of Wh. pigra were observed and counted, and the expression levels of HSP70 and immune related genes were measured. The results showed that the final weight, weight gain rate, specific growth rate, activities of digestive enzyme and anti-reverse enzyme, the expression levels of GH, IGF-1 and digestive enzyme-related genes in the Astragali Radix group were higher than those in the control group, and with the increase of Astragali Radix concentration, the above-mentioned indexes increased initially and then decreased, and significantly higher in the 0.05% of Astragali Radix group than in the other groups (<0.05). There was no significant difference in the inner quality of Wh. pigra between the Astragali Radix and control groups. The survival rate of Wh. pigra was negatively correlated with heat stress treatment duration. With the prolongation of heat stress treatment duration, the expression levels of HSP70 and immune related genes were increased first and then decreased, and peaked at 24 h. The survival rate and the expression levels of HSP70 and immune related genes in the Astragali Radix group were higher than those in the control group, and was significantly higher in the 0.05% of Astragali Radix group than in the other groups (<0.05). In conclusion, Astragali Radix can increase the activities of digestive enzyme and anti-reverse enzyme, the expression levels of related genes, growth performance, and immunity to heat stress of Wh. pigra. It is suggested to add 0.05% of Astragali Radix in the actual production of Wh. pigra to improve the production profit.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689870

ABSTRACT

To study the suitable arousal modes of hibernating Whitmania pigra, the biological characteristics, activity of amylase, lipase, and protease as well as morphologic structure of digestive tract were investigated by direct observational method and 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid colorimetry, p-nitrophenyl palmitate ester(p-NPP)colorimetry, folin-phenol and histological methods. The results revealed that Wh. pigra activity was increased with increases of the water temperature and prolonging treating duration. Except for the feeding groups of direct arousal mode at 24 h and 48 h, none of the other Wh. pigra groups died. Compared with that of normal groups, the digestive tract structure of hibernating Wh. pigra was looser and the mucosal folds of craw were more sparse. No obvious recovery was observed for the structure of the digestive tract before 48 h of direct arousal mode or the 5th day of 15 °C gradient arousal mode. The mucosal folds of craw increased and the muscularis were incrassated after 72 h of direct arousal mode or the 8th day of 20 °C gradient arousal mode, that indicated the tissue structure was approximately restored to the normal state. The digestive enzyme activities were increased with prolonging treating duration. And the feeding groups recovered faster than that of the no feeding groups. Additionally, the enzyme activities of feeding groups were significantly higher than that of no feeding groups (<0.05) and approximately restored to the normal level after 48 h in the direct arousal mode or 20 °C in the gradient arousal mode. In conclusion, both of the two modes can be applied to the arouse of hibernating Wh. pigra, and it should be fed when the temperature is recovered to 15 °C or 20 °C at 2 °C·d⁻¹ in the gradient arousal mode after 72 h in the direct arousal mode to reduce the death ratio and improve effectively the economic profit of Wh. pigra aquaculture.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689869

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the effects of Cu²⁺enrichment and release on the growth and internal quality of Whitmania pigra, and the regularity of enrichment and release in different tissues of Wh. pigra. In the range of safe concentration(SC), a certain concentration of Cu²⁺ was added to the Wh. pigra for 50 days, and stopped adding for another 50 days. The growth index of Wh. pigra, Cu²⁺ content in different tissues, and the internal quality were determined. The results showed that the average body weight of Wh. pigra in 0.014 mg·L⁻¹ of Cu²⁺ group was significantly higher than that in control group during the experimental period (<0.05), and the mortality rate was lower than that in the control group. The specific growth rate, digestive enzyme activity, growth and digestive enzyme related gene expression of Wh. pigra in Cu²⁺ group were significantly higher than that in the control group (<0.05) during the early 40 days of enrichment, and there was no significant difference in the release period. In Cu²⁺ group, the expression of immune enzyme and immune enzyme related gene of Wh. pigra increased first and then decreased compared with control group (<0.05). The ability of enriched Cu²⁺ in different tissues of Wh. pigra was digestive tract>muscle>skin. The ability of release Cu²⁺ was muscle>digestive tract>skin. There was no significant difference in the internal quality and hirudin gene expression between Cu²⁺ group and control group. In conclusion, Cu²⁺ can improve the expression of digestive enzymes, immune enzyme and related genes of Wh. pigra, promote the growth of Wh. pigra and enhance their immunity, but it doesn't affect the internal quality of Wh. pigra. The Wh. pigra can completely release Cu²⁺ within 30 days.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689868

ABSTRACT

In this paper, on the contrast of healthy leech, the bacterial diversities were analyzed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis of the bacteria of muscle and intestinal tract of Whitmania pigra, the environment water and sediment of cultivating the diseased Wh. pigra in high temperature by high-throughput sequencing to determine the possible pathogenic bacteria of bacterial diseases of Leech in high temperature. The results showed that the original sequence reached over 83 000, and the effective sequences accounted for more than 87%. The GC contents ranged from 52% to 54% and the bacterial diversities were abundant. Bacterial relative abundance analysis showed that the bacterial content of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes was the most abundant in all treatments. Compared with healthy leech muscles and intestines, the muscle and intestinal tract of pathogenic leech relative abundance of Bacteroides, Pseudomonas, and Desulfovibrio was significantly increased, and it was abundant in water and sediment of diseased leeches, Lead to the possibility that the pathogenic bacteria of this bacterial disease may be Bacteroides, Pseudomonas, Desulfovibrio.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689867

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to investigate the rule of sex steroid hormones dynamic in the periodic development of Whitmania pigra gonad. The dynamic of sex steroid hormones in different age of Wh. pigra were detected by enzymolysis, extraction and UPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that the concentrations of estrone, estriol, testosterone and progesterone in the Wh. pigra showed M-type curve and peaked in 6-month-old Wh. pigra. The concentrations of above-mentioned four steroid hormones were the lowest in 9-month-old and then increased slightly. The another peaks of testosterone and progesterone were found in 2-month-old and the another peaks of estrone and estriol were obtained in 8-month-old. The concentrations of testosterone and progesterone are slightly higher than estriol during 1-month-old to 4-month-old, and thereafter strone and estriol showed higher concentration than testosterone and progesterone. In summary, the concentrations of four sex steroid hormones in Wh. pigra increased gradually with the maturation of gonads and decreased rapidly after the discharge period, which indicated that the ratio between estrogen, androgen and progesterone may be greatly related to the specificity of gonad development.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776388

ABSTRACT

The reproductive system and gonad development and germ cell occurrence of Whitmania pigra have been studied by using tissue section electron microscope techniques. W. pigra has completely independent male and female reproduction system, which lasts 11 months. The development of spermary started before the development of ovary. When egg cell is only a primordial germ cell, sperm has an initially complete form. Meanwhile, sperm cells and egg cells orderly development and synchronously mature. According to the development of sperm cells and egg cells, the development of cycle of the spermary could be divided into 6 stages: proliferating stage (1-3 months of age), growing stage (4-5 months of age), resting stage (6-8 months of age), maturing stage (9 months of age), spawning stage (10 months of age) and degradation stage (11 months of age). The development of cycle of the ovary could be divided into 6 stages: forming stage (1-2 months of age), proliferating stage (3-4 months of age), growing stage (5-8 months of age), maturing stage (9 months of age), spawning stage (10 months of age) and resting stage (11 months of age). W. pigra is a synchronous hermaphrodite animal, the development of cycle of the spermary and ovary each has six stages, sperm cells and egg cells orderly development and synchronously mature.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Gonads , Cell Biology , Leeches , Male , Ovary , Cell Biology , Ovum , Cell Biology , Reproduction , Spermatocytes , Cell Biology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335768

ABSTRACT

In this study, four light color treatments (red blue, white, natural light) were tested to determine effects of light spectrum on the growth of larval Whitmania pigra (30 days old) at the same intensity. The experiment lasted for 50 days. The specific growth rate (SGR) under blue light condition was significantly higher during 30 days to 40 days. At the end of the experiment, specific growth rate (SGR) and weight gain rate under red light condition were higher (P<0.05) than those under other groups. Meanwhile, the enzymes activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase) were higher under red light condition. However, the enzymes activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, ALP) were lower under white light condition compared with the other treatments(P<0.05). In addition, no significant changes were observed for water content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, pH and antithrombin activity in the all treatments. After 50 days, the digestive enzymes and growth rate were higher under red light condition but antioxidant enzymes were lower under white light condition. Furthermore, light spectrum has no significant effect on the internal quality of Wh. pigra.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258497

ABSTRACT

Effects of different water temperature, stocking density and feeding cycle on growth, feeding and survival of Hirudo nipponica have been studied, six temperature gradients were set: 18, 22, 26, 30, 34 and 38 ℃, five stocking density gradients were set: 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 leech/L, four feeding cycle gradients were set: 2, 5, 10 and 20 d, respectively. The results showed that there exists a significant regression relationship between water temperature and specific growth rate: y=-0.016 5x²+0.836 9x-6.847 5(R²=0.990 8)(P<0.05), a regression analysis indicated that specific growth rate reached the maximum (3.76) at 25.36 ℃. When water temperature was beyond 30 ℃, the survival rate significantly decreased as water temperature increased (P<0.05). The specific growth rate and survival rate decreased as stocking density increased. A linear relationship exists between the feeding cycle and the SGR: y=-0.094 1x+3.832 9(R²=0.992 7). From this study, it can be concluded that the optimal water temperature and stocking density for the growth of H. nipponica is 22-26 ℃ and 30-120 leech/L, respectively.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230046

ABSTRACT

The effects of stocking density and exchanging water frequency on growth, digestive enzyme activity, anti-oxidative enzyme and inner quality of Whitmania pigra Whitman were evaluated with corresponding measures. The results showed that the eventual biomass, specific growth rate, gained weight rate, activities of amylase, lipase, protease, SOD, CAT, and ALP correlated positively with stocking density and negatively with exchanging water frequency (P<0.05). Exchanging water frequency had negative correlation with ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, and hydrogen sulfide while revealed positive correlation with dissolved oxygen in the water. Stocking density and exchanging water frequency showed no significant effects on the contents of moisture, total ash, and acid-insoluble ash. It suggested that the optimum stocking density was 7.5 million per hectare and the appropriate exchanging water interval was 72 h.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236066

ABSTRACT

The effects of harvest and different processing methods on the anti-thrombin activity of Poecilobdella manillensis were respectively studied. The indicators included processing methods (vacuum freeze drying, fresh homogenate, drying under sunlight, freezing, scalding, baking under different temperatures), different parts (entire body, cephalon, pygidium, exudate) and body weights (≤10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, ≥40 g). The anti-thrombin activities of P. manillensis with different processing methods were evaluated by direct anti-thrombin titration. The results indicated that the processing methods significantly affected the anti-thrombin activities of P. manillensis. Among the 11 groups, the anti-thrombin activity of P. manillensis processed with vacuum freeze drying (1 303.56 U•g⁻¹) was significantly highest than the other groups (P<0.05), and that processed with baking under 90 ℃ (15.44 U•g⁻¹) was the lowest. The anti-thrombin activity of the cephalon of P. manillensis (226.42 U•g⁻¹) was the highest, and that of the pygidium (102.12 U•g⁻¹) was lowest; the anti-thrombin activities for different body weights were significantly different (P<0.05); and among the five groups, the body weight of ≤10 g (328.86 U•g⁻¹) was the highest (P<0.05), and the body weight of ≥40 g (87.71 U•g⁻¹) was the lowest. In conclusion, harvest and different processing methods had a significant impact on the anti-thrombin activities of P. manillensis. In the study, for the optimal processing method for P. manillensis, the body weight between 20-30 g is recommended, and the vacuum freeze drying is preferred, which is followed by the drying under sunlight.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307112

ABSTRACT

The biological characteristics, oxygen consumption, oxygen consumption rate, and activities of amylase, lipase and protease of Whitmania pigra at different temperature were studied by using direct observational method, the still water method and 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid colorimetry, right-nitrophenyl palmitate ester(ρ-NPP)colorimetry and folin-phenol method.The results revealed that with decreasing water temperature, the daily activity and the daily feeding ration were decreased. As the temperature was lowered to 4 ℃, the head and tail of Wh.pigra curved, showing a crescent-shape without feeding and daily activity. Oxygen consumption, oxygen consumption rate and digestive enzyme activities reduced along with temperature drops. The downward trend slowed below 10 ℃, began to stabilize below 4 ℃ and doesn't change with the decrease of temperature since then. During the 40 days treatment at 4 ℃, the changes of amylase were not significant, the lipase and protease activity decreased at the 20th day, and the lipase showed an slightly increase after the decrease and finally remained at a low level.In conclusions, the pivotal temperature of hibernation of Wh.pigra is 4 ℃ and the crescent shape can be considered as a symbol of hibernation.

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