Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 39
Filter
Add filters








Year range
1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1977-1982, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a common childhood disease that seriously affects the patient's physical and mental health. This study aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) values were associated with symptom improvement after metoprolol therapy for children and adolescents with POTS.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study evaluated 51 children and adolescents with POTS who received metoprolol therapy at the Peking University First Hospital between November 2010 and July 2019. All patients had completed a standing test or basic head-up tilt test and cardiac echocardiography before treatment. Treatment response was evaluated 3 months after starting metoprolol therapy. The pre-treatment baseline LVEF and LVFS values were evaluated for correlations with decreases in the symptom score after treatment (ΔSS). Multivariable analysis was performed using factors with a P value of  0.050). However, responders had significantly higher baseline LVEF (71.09% ± 4.44% vs. 67.17% ± 4.88%, t = -2.789, P = 0.008) and LVFS values (40.00 [38.00, 42.00]% vs. 36.79% ± 4.11%, Z = -2.542, P = 0.010) than the non-responders. The baseline LVEF and LVFS were positively correlated with ΔSS (r = 0.378, P = 0.006; r = 0.363, P = 0.009), respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that LVEF was independently associated with the response to metoprolol therapy in children and adolescents with POTS (odds ratio: 1.201, 95% confidence interval: 1.039-1.387, P = 0.013).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Pre-treatment baseline LVEF was associated with symptom improvement after metoprolol treatment for children and adolescents with POTS.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Metoprolol/therapeutic use , Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 463-468, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Vasovagal syncope (VVS) greatly impairs quality of life. The therapeutic efficacy of oral rehydration saline (ORS) for unselected VVS patients is not satisfactory due to the diverse mechanisms of the disease. Body mass index (BMI) was demonstrated to reflect blood volume to a certain extent. Therefore, the present study explored the capability of BMI to predict the therapeutic response of children with VVS to ORS treatment.@*METHODS@#Seventy-four children with VVS who visited the Syncope Unit of Pediatrics at Peking University First Hospital from November 2010 to June 2019 receiving ORS treatment were enrolled for this retrospective case-control study. A comparison of demographic, clinical, and hemodynamic characteristics was performed between responders and non-responders. The correlation between baseline BMI and response time was analyzed. To determine the value of baseline BMI in predicting the therapeutic efficacy of ORS in children with VVS, a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed.@*RESULTS@#Fifty-two children were identified as responders, and the remaining 22 children were identified as non-responders. The baseline BMI of the responders was much lower than that of the non-responders (16.4 [15.5, 17.8] kg/m2vs. 20.7 ±e6 kg/m2, P < 0.001), and baseline BMI was positively correlated with response time in the head-up tilt test after adjusting for sex (r = 0.256, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.067-0.439, P = 0.029). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of baseline BMI was 0.818 (95% CI: 0.704-0.932, P < 0.001), and an optimal cut-off value of 18.9 kg/m2 yielded a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 73% to predict the efficacy of ORS in VVS.@*CONCLUSION@#Prior to treatment, baseline BMI is a promising predictor of response to ORS in children with VVS.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Child , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Syncope, Vasovagal/drug therapy
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 411-419, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is common in children and greatly affect both physical and mental health. But the mechanisms have not been completely explained. This study was designed to analyze the gut microbiota in children with VVS and explore its clinical significance.@*METHODS@#Fecal samples from 20 VVS children and 20 matched controls were collected, and the microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The diversity and microbiota compositions of the VVS cases and controls were compared with the independent sample t test or Mann-Whitney U test. The correlation between the predominant bacteria and clinical symptoms was analyzed using Pearson or Spearman correlation test.@*RESULTS@#No significant differences in diversity were evident between VVS and controls (P > 0.05). At the family level, the relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae was significantly higher in VVS children than in controls (median [Q1, Q3]: 22.10% [16.89%, 27.36%] vs. 13.92% [10.31%, 20.18%], Z = -2.40, P  4, P < 0.05). The relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae in VVS patients was positively correlated with the frequency of syncope (r = 0.616, P < 0.01). In terms of its correlation with hemodynamics, we showed that relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae was negatively correlated with the systolic and diastolic pressure reduction at the positive response in head-up tilt test (HUTT; r = -0.489 and -0.448, all P < 0.05), but was positively correlated with the mean pressure drop and decline rate (r = 0.489 and 0.467, all P < 0.05) as well as diastolic pressure drop and decline rate at the HUTT positive response (r = 0.579 and 0.589, all P < 0.01) in VVS patients.@*CONCLUSION@#Ruminococcaceae was the predominant gut bacteria and was associated with the clinical symptoms and hemodynamics of VVS, suggesting that gut microbiota might be involved in the development of VVS.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Metabolism , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Male , Ruminococcus , Physiology , Syncope, Vasovagal , Microbiology
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 435-439, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342020

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>The pathogenesis of postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the changes and significance of sulfur dioxide (SO) in patients with POTS.</p><p><b>Methods</b>The study included 31 children with POTS and 27 healthy children from Peking University First Hospital between December 2013 and October 2015. A detailed medical history, physical examination results, and demographic characteristics were collected. Hemodynamics was recorded and the plasma SOwas determined.</p><p><b>Results</b>The plasma SOwas significantly higher in POTS children compared to healthy children (64.0 ± 20.8 μmol/L vs. 27.2 ± 9.6 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05). The symptom scores in POTS were positively correlated with plasma SOlevels (r = 0.398, P < 0.05). In all the study participants, the maximum heart rate (HR) was positively correlated with plasma levels of SO(r = 0.679, P < 0.01). The change in systolic blood pressure from the supine to upright (ΔSBP) in POTS group was smaller than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The ΔSBP was negatively correlated with baseline plasma SOlevels in all participants (r = -0.28, P < 0.05). In the control group, ΔSBP was positively correlated with the plasma levels of SO(r = 0.487, P < 0.01). The change in HR from the supine to upright in POTS was obvious compared to that of the control group. The area under curve was 0.967 (95% confidence interval: 0.928-1.000), and the cutoff value of plasma SOlevel >38.17 μmol/L yielded a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 92.6% for predicting the diagnosis of POTS.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>Increased endogenous SOlevels might be involved in the pathogenesis of POTS.</p>

5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1715-1723, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688054

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Myocardial fibrosis is an important pathological change in many heart diseases, but its pathogenesis is very complex and has not yet been fully elucidated. The study was designed to examine whether endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO) is a novel myocardial fibroblast proliferation and migration inhibitor.</p><p><b>Methods</b>Primary rat myocardial fibroblasts were isolated and transfected with aspartate aminotransferase (AAT1 and AAT2) knockdown lentivirus or empty lentivirus. SO content in the supernatant was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography, and the expressions of AAT1, AAT2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK), and total ERK (T-ERK) in the cells were detected. Cell migration was detected by wound healing test. Independent sample t-test (for two groups) and one-way analysis of variance (three or more groups) were used to analyze the results.</p><p><b>Results</b>Both AAT1 and AAT2 knockdown significantly reduced SOlevels (F = 31.46, P < 0.01) and AAT1/2 protein expression (AAT1, t = 12.67, P < 0.01; AAT2, t = 9.61, P < 0.01), but increased PCNA expression and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) activity as well as the migration in rat primary myocardial fibroblasts (P < 0.01). Supplementation of SOrather than pyruvate significantly inhibited the increase in proliferation and migration caused by AAT knockdown (P < 0.01). Mechanistically, the ratio of p-ERK to T-ERK was significantly increased in the AAT1/2 knockdown groups compared with that in the empty lentivirus group (AAT1, t = -7.36, P < 0.01; AAT2, t = -10.97, P < 0.01). Whereas PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK activation, successfully blocked AAT knockdown-induced PCNA upregulation (F = 74.01, P > 0.05), CCK-8 activation (F = 50.14, P > 0.05), and migration augmentation in myocardial fibroblasts (24 h, F = 37.08, P > 0.05; 48 h, F = 58.60, P > 0.05).</p><p><b>Conclusion</b>Endogenous SOmight be a novel myocardial fibroblast proliferation and migration inhibitor via inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway.</p>

6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 839-844, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687031

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Objective</b>Hydrogen sulfide (HS), a gaseous signal molecule, plays a crucial role in many pathophysiologic processes in the cardiovascular system. Autophagy has been shown to participate in the occurrence of many cardiac diseases. Increasing evidences indicated that HS regulates myocardial structure and function in association with the altered autophagy and plays a "switcher" role in the autophagy of myocardial diseases. The aim of this review was to summarize these insights and provide the experimental evidence that HS targets cardiomyocyte autophagy to regulate cardiovascular function.</p><p><b>Data Sources</b>This review was based on data in articles published in the PubMed databases up to October 30, 2017, with the following keywords: "hydrogen sulfide," "autophagy," and "cardiovascular diseases."</p><p><b>Study Selection</b>Original articles and critical reviews on HS and autophagy were selected for this review.</p><p><b>Results</b>When autophagy plays an adaptive role in the pathogenesis of diseases, HS restores autophagy; otherwise, when autophagy plays a detrimental role, HS downregulates autophagy to exert a cardioprotective function. For example, HS has beneficial effects by regulating autophagy in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion and plays a protective role by inhibiting autophagy during the operation of cardioplegia and cardiopulmonary bypass. HS postpones cardiac aging associated with the upregulation of autophagy but improves the left ventricular function of smoking rats by lowering autophagy.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>HS exerts cardiovascular protection by regulating autophagy. Cardiovascular autophagy would likely become a potential target of HS therapy for cardiovascular diseases.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Cell Biology , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide , Therapeutic Uses , Myocytes, Cardiac , Cell Biology
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2778-2784, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324740

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is the most common cause of syncope in children. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure (BP), as well as myocardial contractility. This study aimed to explore the role of plasma NPY in VVS in children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty-six children who were diagnosed with VVS (VVS group) using head-up tilt test (HUT) and 31 healthy children who were selected as controls (control group) were enrolled. Plasma NPY concentrations were detected. The independent t-test was used to compare the data of the VVS group with those of the control group. The changes in plasma NPY levels in the VVS group during the HUT, as well as hemodynamic parameters, such as heart rate (HR), BP, total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR), and cardiac output (CO), were evaluated using the paired t-test. Furthermore, the correlations between plasma NPY levels and hemodynamic parameters were analyzed using bivariate correlation analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The BP, HR, and plasma NPY (0.34 ± 0.12 pg/ml vs. 0.46 ± 0.13 pg/ml) levels in the supine position were statistically low in the VVS group compared to levels in the control group (all P < 0.05). Plasma NPY levels were positively correlated with the HR (Pearson, R = 0.395, P < 0.001) and diastolic BP (Pearson, R = 0.311, P = 0.003) when patients were in the supine position. When patients in the VVS group were in the supine position, elevated TPVR (4.6 ± 3.7 mmHg·min-1·L-1 vs. 2.5 ± 1.0 mmHg·min-1·L-1, respectively, P < 0.001; 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) and reduced CO (1.0 ± 0.7 L/min vs. 2.4 ± 1.3 L/min, respectively, P < 0.001) were observed in the positive-response period compared with baseline values. The plasma NPY levels were positively correlated with TPVR (Spearman, R = 0.294, P = 0.028) but negatively correlated with CO in the positive-response period during HUT (Spearman, R = -0.318, P = 0.017).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Plasma NPY may contribute to the pathogenesis of VVS by increasing the TPVR and decreasing the CO during orthostatic regulation.</p>

8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2857-2862, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-248975

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble molecules that are structurally similar to steroids. Emerging data have led to the hypothesis that Vitamin D plays a role in the regulation of many physiological processes beyond calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. With this review, we aimed to summarize the changes in Vitamin D levels in children with cardiovascular diseases based on the literature. In addition, we also reviewed the potential mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases associated with Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency.</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>The articles in English were searched from PubMed (1968-2016) and EMBASE (1991-2016), with the keywords of "Vitamin D AND cardiovascular diseases" and "Vitamin D AND children."</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>Original articles and critical reviews about Vitamin D and cardiovascular risk in children were selected for review. Researches focused on adults were excluded.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Studies have shown that several pediatric cardiovascular diseases may be associated with Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, including hypertension, orthostatic intolerance, and Kawasaki disease.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Vitamin D may play a role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. Further investigation would hopefully disclose the usefulness of Vitamin D as a biomarker for cardiovascular diseases in children.</p>

9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2226-2232, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307437

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Clarifying the mechanisms underlying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is important for the prevention and treatment of vascular remodeling and the reverse of hyperplastic lesions. Previous research has shown that the gaseous signaling molecule sulfur dioxide (SO2) inhibits VSMC proliferation, but the mechanism for the inhibition of the angiotensin II (AngII)-induced VSMC proliferation by SO2has not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate if SO2inhibited VSMC proliferation in mice with hypertension induced by AngII.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-six male C57 mice were randomly divided into control, AngII, and AngII + SO2groups. Mice in AngII group and AngII + SO2group received a capsule-type AngII pump implanted under the skin of the back at a slow-release dose of 1000 ng·kg-1·min-1. In addition, mice in AngII + SO2received intraperitoneal injections of SO2donor. Arterial blood pressure of tail artery was determined. The thickness of the aorta was measured by elastic fiber staining, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK) were detected in aortic tissues. The concentration of SO2 in serum and aortic tissue homogenate supernatant was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence determination. In the in vitro study, VSMC of A7R5 cell lines was divided into six groups: control, AngII, AngII + SO2, PD98059 (an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation), AngII + PD98059, and AngII + SO2 + PD98059. Expression of PCNA, ERK, and P-ERK was determined by Western blotting.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In animal experiment, compared with the control group, AngII markedly increased blood pressure (P < 0.01) and thickened the aortic wall in mice (P < 0.05) with an increase in the expression of PCNA (P < 0.05). SO2, however, reduced the systemic hypertension and the wall thickness induced by AngII (P < 0.05). It inhibited the increased expression of PCNA and P-ERK induced by AngII (P < 0.05). In cell experiment, PD98059, an ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, blocked the inhibitory effect of SO2on VSMC proliferation (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>ERK signaling is involved in the mechanisms by which SO2inhibits VSMC proliferation in AngII-induced hypertensive mice via ERK signaling.</p>


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Pharmacology , Animals , Cell Proliferation , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Male , Mice , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Biology , Signal Transduction , Sulfur Dioxide , Therapeutic Uses
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2241-2245, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307435

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is one of the major causes of orthostatic intolerance in children. We systematically reviewed the pathogenesis and the progress of individualized treatment for POTS in children.</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>The data analyzed in this review are mainly from articles included in PubMed and EMBASE.</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>The original articles and critical reviews about POTS were selected for this review.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Studies have shown that POTS might be related to several factors including hypovolemia, high catecholamine status, abnormal local vascular tension, and decreased skeletal muscle pump activity. In addition to exercise training, the first-line treatments mainly include oral rehydration salts, beta-adrenoreceptor blockers, and alpha-adrenoreceptor agonists. However, reports about the effectiveness of various treatments are diverse. By analyzing the patient's physiological indexes and biomarkers before the treatment, the efficacy of medication could be well predicted.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The pathogenesis of POTS is multifactorial, including hypovolemia, abnormal catecholamine state, and vascular dysfunction. Biomarker-directed individualized treatment is an important strategy for the management of POTS children.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenergic alpha-Agonists , Therapeutic Uses , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists , Therapeutic Uses , Catecholamines , Metabolism , Humans , Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Therapeutics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279956

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gasotransmitter in cardiovascular regulation, plays an important protective role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis (AS). This study was designed to explore the effects of H2S donor on the production of adrenomedullin (ADM) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in AS rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (n=10), AS group (n=10), and AS+NaHS group (n=10). Rats in the AS and AS+NaHS groups were given 3-day intraperitoneal injections of vitamin D3 and 8-week high-fat diet to induce AS, and the rats in the AS+NaHS group were intraperitoneally injected with H2S donor NaHS. Oil red O staining was applied to detect changes in the areas of the atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic root and the coronary artery; sulfide-sensitive electrode method was used to measure the plasma concentration of H2S. ADM and ANP levels in plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control group, marked atherosclerotic plaques were observed in the aortic root and the coronary artery in AS rats. Moreover, plasma H2S level decreased significantly, ADM level increased, and ANP level decreased significantly in AS rats (P<0.01). However, after the treatment with H2S donor NaHS for 8 weeks, the above changes in AS rats were reversed, demonstrated by significantly reduced areas of the atherosclerotic plaques in both the aortic root and the coronary artery, significantly increased plasma H2S level, significantly decreased plasma ADM level, and significantly increased plasma ANP level (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>H2S plays an important regulatory effect on vasoactive peptides ADM and ANP in AS rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin , Animals , Atherosclerosis , Metabolism , Pathology , Atrial Natriuretic Factor , Hydrogen Sulfide , Pharmacology , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 930-936, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342272

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Skeletal muscle has recently been recognized as an endocrine organ that can express, synthesize and secrete a variety of bioactive molecules which exert significant regulatory effects. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is endogenously produced in mammalian tissues and participates in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes. We aimed to verify whether H2S could be endogenously generated and released by rat skeletal muscle, and determine the biological effects of H2S in rat skeletal muscle.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The study was divided into two parts: detection of endogenous H2S generation and release in rat skeletal muscle and determination of antioxidative activity of skeletal muscle-derived H2S. H2S content and production in tissues were detected by sensitive sulfur electrode method. The expressions of H2S producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase, cystathionine γ-lyase and mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting and their tissue distributions were observed by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analysis. Rat skeletal muscular ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury model was created and evaluated by histological analysis under microscope. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, hydrogen peroxide levels, superoxide anion and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were detected using spectrophotometer.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>H2S could be endogenously generated and released by skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats (H2S content: (2.06 ± 0.43) nmol/mg; H2S production: (0.17 ± 0.06) nmol×min(-1)×mg(-1)). Gene and protein expressions of the three H2S producing enzymes were detected in skeletal muscle, as well as the liver and kidney. Endogenous H2S content and production were decreased in skeletal muscles of rats with I-R skeletal muscle injury (P < 0.05). Furthermore, H2S significantly protected rat skeletal muscle against I-R injury and resulted in decreased MDA content, reduced hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion levels, but increased SOD activity and protein expression in skeletal muscles (all P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>H2S generation pathway exists in rat skeletal muscle and it acts as an antioxidant in skeletal muscle.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metabolism , Hydrogen Sulfide , Metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Physiology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Superoxides , Metabolism
13.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 839-842, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348526

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the clinical characteristics of orthostatic hypertension (OHT) in children.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>A total of 96 children with OHT who met the diagnostic criteria and clinical manifestations were recruited in the Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital. Age and sex distributions were observed. The duration of disease, the frequencies of symptoms and the predisposing factors were recorded. The hemodynamic changes from supine to up-right positions were also analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>There were 50 boys and 46 girls in the study group. The mean age was (11.8 ± 2.7) years. Thirty-two children were from 6 to 10 years old, accounting for 33.3% of all subjects, while 64 patients were from 11 to 17 years old, accounting for 66.7%. Durations of symptoms of OHT were less than 1 month in 22.9% children, from 1 month to 1 year in 51.1% children and longer than 1 year in 26.0% children. The most common clinical manifestations were syncope and dizziness. The incidence of them was 70.8% and 46.9%, respectively. Other clinical manifestations included transitional amaurosis, nausea and/or vomiting, pallor and so on. These clinical manifestations often occurred on position change (24.0%) and long-time standing (57.3%) in children. Other predisposing factors included exercise, emotion changes and fuggy environment. The baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressures were (103 ± 8) mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) and (59 ± 6) mm Hg, respectively, the up-right systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 3 min were (113 ± 8) mm Hg and (73 ± 6) mm Hg and the differences were significant (t = 27.674, P < 0.01; t = 17.936, P < 0.01). The baseline heart rate in supine position was (81 ± 11) bpm and the maximum heart rate in up-right position was (113 ± 12) bpm (t = 33.092, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>OHT is commonly seen in puberty of children. The chief complaints are syncope and dizziness. They were mostly induced by position change and long-time standing. Blood pressure was significantly increased from supine to up-right position.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Blood Pressure , Physiology , Child , Dizziness , Epidemiology , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Hypotension, Orthostatic , Epidemiology , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Posture , Risk Factors , Syncope , Epidemiology
14.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 117-120, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356326

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study aimed at analyzing the usefulness of a modified Calgary Syncope Syndrome Score in the differential diagnosis between cardiac syncope (CS) and vasovagal syncope (VVS) in children through a large sample clinical study.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Totally 189 children [112 males, 77 females, aged 2 - 18 yrs, mean age (12.4 ± 3.1) yrs] with CS and VVS who were at the syncope clinic or admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital from August 2002 to April 2011 were included in the study. The diagnosis was analyzed by a modified Calgary Syncope Syndrome Score and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to explore the predictive value of different Calgary Syncope Syndrome Scores in differential diagnosis between CS and VVS.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>There were significant differences in the score between CS [-5.00(-7, 1)] and VVS [1(-4, 6)] (P < 0.01). When the score was ≤ -2.5, the sensitivity and specificity of the differential diagnosis between CS and VVS were 95.4% and 67.7%, respectively. Since the modified Calgary Syncope Syndrome Score was integer number, CS should be considered when the score was less than -3.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The modified Calgary Syncope Syndrome Score might be used as an initial diagnostic method in differential diagnosis between CS and VVS, based on the history of the patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Heart Diseases , Humans , Male , Sensitivity and Specificity , Syncope , Diagnosis , Syncope, Vasovagal , Diagnosis , Tilt-Table Test
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1901-1905, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338569

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Sulfur dioxide was considered to be toxic and detrimental to human health. However, this review highlights recent advances that suggest sulfur dioxide might be a novel endogenous gaseous signaling molecule involved in the regulation of cardiovascular functions.</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>The data used in this review were mainly from the studies reported in Medline and PubMed published from 1986 to 2010.</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>Original articles and critical reviews selected were relevant to exogenous and endogenous sulfur dioxide.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The sulfur dioxide/aspartate amino transferase pathway is endogenously generated in the cardiovascular system, and sulfur dioxide shows broad bioactive effects, such as antihypertension, vasodilation, and amelioration of vascular remodeling. A disturbed sulfur dioxide/aspartate amino transferase pathway is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension, athrosclerosis, spontaneous hypertension and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, in experimental studies the prognosis of these cardiovascular diseases can be improved by targeting endogenous sulfur dioxide.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The findings suggest that sulfur dioxide is a novel endogenous gaseous signaling molecule involved in the regulation of cardiovascular functions.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Signal Transduction , Physiology , Sulfur Dioxide , Metabolism
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3450-3454, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336548

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Central nervous system leukemia (CNSL) is an important relapse in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We investigated the possible role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in predicting CNSL.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From August 2008 to December 2010, 380 children were enrolled in this study at Shijitan Hospital, China. These children were from 2 to 16 years old, and the median age was 6.5 years. They were divided into a CNSL group (7 cases), a leukemia group (307 cases), a non-leukemia group (26 cases) and a healthy group (40 children). CSF specimens were obtained from conventional lumbar punctured, then centrifuged and supernatants preserved for H(2)S detection. Leukemic cells precipitates from CSF were found in three cases, the hCSE and hCBS mRNA expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and H(2)S levels in serum were also measured. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under curve (AUC) were used to assess the predictive diagnosis role of CSF H(2)S in children with ALL and CNSL.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The serum H(2)S contents of the CNSL and leukemia groups were (96.98 ± 15.77) µmol/L and (93.35 ± 17.16) µmol/L respectively, much higher than those of healthy, (44.29 ± 2.15) µmol/L, and non-leukemia, (46.32 ± 6.54) µmol/L, groups (P < 0.01). Compared with the leukemia group, CSF H(2)S content of the CNSL group was significantly high (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, in contrast to the non-leukemia group, CSF H(2)S contents of the CNSL and leukemia groups were both significantly increased (P < 0.01). In addition, leukemic cells from CSF precipitations could express CBS and CSE mRNA. Furthermore, the ROC analysis showed the UAC was 0.929 (95%CI: 0.857 - 1.000), and the optimum cut-off value of CSF H(2)S was 12.08 µ mol/L, and the sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 97.2% respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>CSF H(2)S contents were significantly increased in children with CNSL. After treatment, H(2)S contents were decreased subsequently. Therefore, we speculated that H(2)S levels of CSF would predict CNSL in ALL children.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Metabolism , Pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cystathionine beta-Synthase , Genetics , Female , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Leukemia , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Lyases , Genetics , Male
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3460-3467, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336546

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Atherosclerosis is an important cardiovascular disease, becoming a major and increasing health problem in developed countries. However, the possible underlying mechanisms were not completely clear. In 2009, our research group first discovered that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) as a novel gastrotransmitter played an important anti-atherosclerotic role. The study was designed to examine the regulatory effect of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice fed a Western type diet.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>C57BL/6 mice and homozygous apoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western type diet. C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline (5 ml/kg per day) as control group. The apoE(-/-) mice were treated with the same dose of normal saline as the apoE(-/-) group, injected intraperitoneally with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H(2)S donor, 56 µmol/kg per day) as the apoE(-/-) + NaHS group and injected intraperitoneally with DL-propargylglycine (PPG, a cystathionine-γ-lyase inhibitor, 50 mg/kg, per day) as the apoE(-/-) + PPG group. After 10 weeks, the mice were sacrificed and the plasma lipids were detected. Sections of aortic root from these animals were examined for atherosclerotic lesions by HE and oil red O staining. The aortic ultrastructure and microstructure were analyzed with the help of light and electronic microscope. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), caspase-12, copper-andzinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) and Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein expression in aortic tissues were detected with immunohistochemistry. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by using a commercial assay kit.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with control mice, apoE(-/-) mice showed increased plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL), increased aortic plaque size, destroyed ultra-structure of aortic tissue, and increased expression of GRP78 and caspase-12 proteins. Compared with apoE(-/-) mice, H(2)S donor-treated apoE(-/-) mice showed a decreased plasma LDL level, lessened plaque necrosis and attenuated aortic ultra-structural disorder. H(2)S donor-treatment induced GRP78 expression but suppressed caspase-12 expression in aortic lesions. However, compared with apoE(-/-) mice, PPG treated apoE(-/-) mice showed enlarged plaque size, more severe ultrastructural disorder of the aortic tissue and reduced GRP78 staining in aortic lesions. The plasma lipids and the staining of caspase-12 in apoE(-/-) + PPG rats did not significantly differ from those in the apoE-/-mice. Consistently, H(2)S induced SOD expression, accompanied by a reduced level of ROS.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>H(2)S plays a regulatory role in aortic ERS and reduces atherosclerotic lesions in apoE(-/-) mice fed with a Western type diet.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apolipoproteins E , Genetics , Metabolism , Atherosclerosis , Blood , Body Weight , Cholesterol , Blood , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Hydrogen Sulfide , Metabolism , Lipoproteins, HDL , Blood , Lipoproteins, LDL , Blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Sulfides , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Triglycerides , Blood
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3285-3288, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319130

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a common clinical problem in children and adolescents. The previous diagnostic approach to POTS of children and adolescents is based on a series of tests to exclude all other causes, which is time and medical resource consuming. Recently, a new diagnostic approach has been developed. The present study was designed to statistically analyze the results of clinical investigation items and the cost for the diagnosis of POTS in children patients, and evaluate cost changes in the diagnosis of POTS.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 315 children patients were divided into two groups according to diagnosis period, including group I diagnosed in 2002 - 2006 (100 cases) and group II in 2007 - 2010 (215 cases) and the diagnostic item-based distribution of the cost was analyzed. The diagnostic costs were compared between two groups using SPSS17.0.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The per-capita cost of diagnosis in group I was (621.95 ± 21.10) Yuan, costs of diagnostic tests (head-up tilt test, standing test, etc) accounted for 8.68% and the exclusive tests for 91.32%. The per-capita cost of diagnosis in group II was (542.69 ± 23.14) Yuan, diagnostic tests accounted for 10.50% and exclusive tests for 89.50%. Comparison of the total cost of diagnostic tests between the two groups showed significant differences (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The cost of POTS diagnosis has been declined in recent years, but the cost of exclusive diagnosis is still its major part.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Economics , Female , Humans , Male , Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome , Diagnosis , Economics , Public Health , Economics
19.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 428-432, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277030

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study was designed to compare the short-term and long-term effects of oral rehydration salts, oral rehydration salts plus metoprolol or oral rehydration salts plus midodrine hydrochloride on the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) in children.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>A total of 118 children with POTS were divided into oral rehydration salts group (n = 39), metoprolol group (oral rehydration salts plus metoprolol, n = 10) or midodrine hydrochloride group (oral rehydration salts plus midodrine hydrochloride, n = 69). The patients were followed up in clinics or over telephone for 3 - 18 months, with a mean of (11.7 ± 4.1) months. The symptom scores were recorded before treatment, after 3 months and at the end of the follow-up. Reduction of the score by 2 points or more was considered that the treatment was effective. The effective rate in 3 months was applied to evaluate short-term effects of 3 different therapies by chi-square test. Taking futility as events, Kaplan-Meier curves were drawn to compare long-term effects of the 3 different therapies in treating POTS in children.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>No significant differences among the 3 groups were found in sex, age, body height, weight, the symptom scores before treatment or hemodynamic variables. Oral rehydration salts, metoprolol and midodrine hydrochloride improved clinical symptoms after 3 months. The symptom scores of the 3 groups before treatment and after 3 months were 2.4 ± 3.2 vs. 5.5 ± 2.9, 2.2 ± 3.0 vs. 6.1 ± 3.0 and 1.9 ± 1.6 vs. 5.9 ± 2.7, respectively. The difference was significant (P < 0.05). Descending order of the short-term effective rate was 91.3% in midodrine hydrochloride group, 80.0% in metoprolol group and 74.4% in oral rehydration salts group. The difference was significant (χ(2) = 5.85, P < 0.05). All the 3 different therapies improved clinical symptoms at the end of follow-up. The symptom scores were 2.6 ± 3.2 vs. 5.6 ± 2.9, 2.5 ± 3.1 vs. 6.1 ± 3.0 and 2.2 ± 2.1 vs. 6.0 ± 2.7, respectively. (P < 0.05). The result of the Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the long-term effect of midodrine hydrochloride was significantly superior to metoprolol group and oral rehydration salts group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the latter two groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Oral rehydration salts plus midodrine hydrochloride or plus metoprolol improved the efficacy of drugs in children with POTS. And the efficacy of midodrine hydrochloride was superior to that of metoprolol.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Metoprolol , Therapeutic Uses , Midodrine , Therapeutic Uses , Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3816-3819, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273969

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To review the vasorelaxant effects of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in arterial rings in the cardiovascular system under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the possible mechanisms involved.</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>The data in this review were obtained from Medline and Pubmed sources from 1997 to 2011 using the search terms "hydrogen sulfide" and "vascular relaxation".</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>Articles describing the role of hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of vascular activity and its vasorelaxant effects were selected.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>H(2)S plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular tone. The vasomodulatory effects of H(2)S depend on factors including concentration, species and tissue type. The H(2)S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), causes vasorelaxation of rat isolated aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was more pronounced than that observed in pulmonary arterial rings. The expression of K(ATP) channel proteins and mRNA in the aortic rings was increased compared with pulmonary artery rings. H(2)S is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Downregulation of the endogenous H(2)S pathway is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The vasorelaxant effects of H(2)S have been shown to be mediated by activation of K(ATP) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells and via the induction of acidification due to activation of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. It is speculated that the mechanisms underlying the vasoconstrictive function of H(2)S in the aortic rings involves decreased NO production and inhibition of cAMP accumulation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>H(2)S is an important endogenous gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and acts as a modulator of vascular tone in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiovascular System , Metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide , Metabolism , Vasodilation , Physiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL