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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913817

ABSTRACT

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming essential in the fields of precision oncology. With implementation of NGS in daily clinic, the needs for continued education, facilitated interpretation of NGS results and optimal treatment delivery based on NGS results have been addressed. Molecular tumor board (MTB) is multidisciplinary approach to keep pace with the growing knowledge of complex molecular alterations in patients with advanced solid cancer. Although guidelines for NGS use and MTB have been developed in western countries, there is limitation for reflection of Korea’s public health environment and daily clinical practice. These recommendations provide a critical guidance from NGS panel testing to final treatment decision based on MTB discussion.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926154

ABSTRACT

Microsatellite instability-high/deficient mismatch repair (MSI-H/dMMR) status has been approved as a tissue-agnostic biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in patients with solid tumors. We report the case of an MSI-H/dMMR diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) identified by targeted gene sequencing (TGS). A 90-year-old female who presented with vaginal bleeding and a large mass in the upper vagina was diagnosed with germinal center-B-cell-like DLBCL, which recurred at the uterine cervix at 9 months after chemotherapy. Based on TGS of 121 lymphoma-related genes and the LymphGen algorithm, the tumor was classified genetically as DLBCL of EZB subtype. Mutations in multiple genes, including frequent frameshift mutations, were detected by TGS and further suggested MSI. The MSI-H/dMMR and loss of MLH1 and PMS2 expression were determined in MSI-fragment analysis, MSI real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemical tests. This case demonstrates the potential diagnostic and therapeutic utility of lymphoma panel sequencing for DLBCL with MSI-H/dMMR.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875471

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Understanding leukemic stem cell (LSC) is important for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment. However, association of LSC with patient prognosis and genetic information in AML patients is unclear. @*Methods@#Here we investigated the associations between genetic information and the various LSC phenotypes, namely multipotent progenitor (MPP)-like, lymphoid primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP)-like and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMP)-like LSC in 52 AML patients. @*Results@#In secondary AML patients, MPP-like LSC was significantly higher than de novo AML (p = 0.0037). The proportion of MPP-like LSC was especially high in post-myeloproliferative neoplasm AML (p = 0.0485). There was no correlation between age and LSC phenotype. Mutations of KRAS and NRAS were observed in MPP-like LSC dominant patients, TP53 and ASXL1 mutations in LMPP-like LSC dominant patients, and CEBPA, DNMT3A and IDH1 mutations in GMP-like LSC dominant patients. Furthermore, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with MPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0540), and TP53 mutation with LMPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0276). When the patients were separated according to the combined risk including next generation sequencing data, the poorer the prognosis, the higher the LMPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0052). This suggests that the dominant phenotype of LSC is one of the important factors in predicting the prognosis and treatment of AML. @*Conclusions@#LSC phenotype in AML is closely associated with the recurrent mutations which has prognostic implication. Further research to confirm the meaning of LSC phenotype in the context of genetic aberration is warranted.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897426

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The treatment outcomes and genomic profiles of diffuse midline glioma (DMG) in adult patients are rarely characterized. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the clinicogenomic profiles of adult patients with brain DMG. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with brain DMG at Seoul National University Hospital were included. The clinicopathological parameters, treatment outcomes, survival, and genomic profiles using 82-gene targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) were analyzed. The 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) after radiotherapy and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. @*Results@#Thirty-three patients with H3-mutant brain DMG were identified. The median OS from diagnosis was 21.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.2 to not available [NA]) and involvement of the ponto-medullary area tended to have poor OS (median OS, 20.4 months [95% CI, 9.3 to NA] vs. 43.6 months [95% CI, 18.2 to NA]; p=0.07). Twenty-four patients (72.7%) received radiotherapy with or without temozolomide. The PFS6 rate was 83.3% (n=20). Patients without progression at 6 months showed significantly prolonged OS compared with those with progression at 6 months (median OS, 24.9 months [95% CI, 20.4 to NA] vs. 10.8 months [95% CI, 4.0 to NA]; p=0.02, respectively). Targeted NGS was performed in 13 patients with DMG, among whom nine (69.2%) harbored concurrent TP53 mutation. Two patients (DMG14 and DMG23) with PIK3CAR38S+E545K and KRASG12A mutations received matched therapies. Patient DMG14 received sirolimus with a PFS of 8.4 months. @*Conclusion@#PFS6 after radiotherapy was associated with prolonged survival in adult patients with DMG. Genome-based matched therapy may be an encouraging approach for progressive adult patients with DMG.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889722

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The treatment outcomes and genomic profiles of diffuse midline glioma (DMG) in adult patients are rarely characterized. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the clinicogenomic profiles of adult patients with brain DMG. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with brain DMG at Seoul National University Hospital were included. The clinicopathological parameters, treatment outcomes, survival, and genomic profiles using 82-gene targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) were analyzed. The 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) after radiotherapy and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. @*Results@#Thirty-three patients with H3-mutant brain DMG were identified. The median OS from diagnosis was 21.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.2 to not available [NA]) and involvement of the ponto-medullary area tended to have poor OS (median OS, 20.4 months [95% CI, 9.3 to NA] vs. 43.6 months [95% CI, 18.2 to NA]; p=0.07). Twenty-four patients (72.7%) received radiotherapy with or without temozolomide. The PFS6 rate was 83.3% (n=20). Patients without progression at 6 months showed significantly prolonged OS compared with those with progression at 6 months (median OS, 24.9 months [95% CI, 20.4 to NA] vs. 10.8 months [95% CI, 4.0 to NA]; p=0.02, respectively). Targeted NGS was performed in 13 patients with DMG, among whom nine (69.2%) harbored concurrent TP53 mutation. Two patients (DMG14 and DMG23) with PIK3CAR38S+E545K and KRASG12A mutations received matched therapies. Patient DMG14 received sirolimus with a PFS of 8.4 months. @*Conclusion@#PFS6 after radiotherapy was associated with prolonged survival in adult patients with DMG. Genome-based matched therapy may be an encouraging approach for progressive adult patients with DMG.

6.
Blood Research ; : 17-22, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is the most aggressive form of systemic mastocytosis disorders. Owing to its rarity, neither pathogenesis nor standard treatment is established for this orphan disease. Hence, we tried to treat a patient with MCL based on the exome and transcriptome sequencing results of the patient's own DNA and RNA. METHODS: First, tumor DNA and RNA were extracted from bone marrow at the time of diagnosis. Germline DNA was extracted from the patient's saliva 45 days after induction chemotherapy and used as a control. Then, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) using the DNA and whole transcriptome sequencing (WTS) using the RNA. Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were called using MuTect and GATK. Samtools, FusionMap, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis were utilized to analyze WTS results. RESULTS: WES and WTS results revealed mutation in KIT S476I. Fusion analysis was performed using WTS data, which suggested a possible RARα-B2M fusion. When RNA expression analysis was performed using WTS data, upregulation of PIK3/AKT pathway, downstream of KIT and mTOR, was observed. Based on our WES and WTS results, we first administered all-trans retinoic acid, then dasatinib, and finally, an mTOR inhibitor. CONCLUSION: We present a case of orphan disease where we used a targeted approach using WES and WTS data of the patient. Even though our treatment was not successful, use of our approach warrants further validation.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , DNA , Exome , Humans , Precision Medicine , Induction Chemotherapy , Leukemia , Leukemia, Mast-Cell , Mast Cells , Mastocytosis, Systemic , Rare Diseases , RNA , Saliva , Transcriptome , Tretinoin , Up-Regulation , Dasatinib
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