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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 150-163, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919564

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to apply doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticle microbubble (Dox-NP-MB) therapy in an orthotopic rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and investigate the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM-DWI) for response evaluation. @*Methods@#Twenty-eight N1S1 HCC model rats were treated with either Dox-NP-MB (group [G] 1, n=8), doxorubicin (Dox) alone (G2, n=7), nanoparticle microbubbles alone (G3, n=7), or saline (G4, control, n=6) on days 0 and 7, and were sacrificed on day 11. IVIM-DWI and CEUS were performed before each treatment and before euthanasia. Efficacy was estimated by the percentage of tumor volume growth inhibition compared with control. Toxicity was assessed by body weight changes and blood tests. Post-treatment changes in IVIM-DWI and CEUS parameters were analyzed. @*Results@#Tumor volume growth was inhibited by 48.4% and 90.2% in G1 and G2 compared to G4, respectively. Compared to G2, G1 had a significantly lower degree of body weight change (median, 91.0% [interquartile range, 88.5%-97.0%] vs. 88.0% [82.5%-88.8%], P<0.05) and leukopenia (1.75×103 cells/μL [1.53-2.77] vs. 1.20×103 cells/μL [0.89-1.51], P<0.05). After the first treatment, an increase in peak enhancement, wash-in rate, and wash-in perfusion index on CEUS was observed in G3 and G4 but suppressed in G1 and G2; the apparent diffusion coefficients, true diffusion coefficients, and perfusion fractions significantly increased in G1 and G2 compared to baseline (P<0.05). @*Conclusion@#Dox-NP-MB showed reduced Dox toxicity. Early changes in some CEUS and IVIM-DWI parameters correlated with the therapeutic response.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#In Vitro follicular maturation (IVFM) of ovarian follicles is an emerging option for fertility preservation. Many paracrine factors and two-dimensional or three-dimensional (3D) environments have been used for optimization. However, since most studies were conducted using the murine model, the physiological differences between mice and humans limit the interpretation and adaptation of the results. Marmoset monkey is a non-human primate (NHPs) with more similar reproductive physiology to humans. In this study, we attempted to establish a 3D matrix (Matrtigel)-based IVFM condition for marmoset ovarian follicles in combination with anti-apoptotic factor, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). @*METHODS@#Marmoset follicles were isolated as individual follicles and cultured in a single drop with the addition of 0, 10, and 100 lg/mL of XIAP molecules. Matured oocytes and granulosa cells from mature follicles were collected and analyzed. The average number of isolated follicles was less than 100, and primordial and antral follicles were abundant in the ovaries. @*RESULTS@#IVFM of marmoset follicles in 3D matrix conditions with XIAP increased the rates of survival and In Vitro follicle development. Furthermore, oocytes from the 3D cultures were successfully fertilized and developed In Vitro. The addition of XIAP increased the secretion of estradiol and aromatase. Furthermore, expression of granulosa-specific genes, such as bone morphogenetic protein 15, Oct4, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor were upregulated in the In Vitro-matured follicles than in normal, well-grown, and atretic follicles. Apoptosis-related B-cell lymphoma-2 was highly expressed in the atretic follicles than in the XIAP-treated follicles, and higher caspase-3 was localized in the XIAP-treated follicles. @*CONCLUSION@#In this study, we attempted to establish a 3D-matrix-based marmoset IVFM condition and demonstrated the synergistic effects of XIAP. The use of a 3D matrix may be applied as an optimal culture condition for marmoset ovarian follicles.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919377

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that stem cells or stem cell-derived cells may contribute to tissue repair, not only by replacing lost tissue but also by delivering complex sets of secretory molecules, called secretomes, into host injured tissues. In recent years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have gained much attention for their diverse and important roles in a wide range of pathophysiological processes. EVs are released from most types of cells and mediates cell–cell communication by activating receptors on target cells or by being taken up by recipient cells. EVs, including microvesicles and exosomes, encapsulate and carry proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids in the lumen and on the cell surface. Thus, EV-mediated intercellular communication has been extensively studied across various biological processes. While a number of investigations has been conducted in different tissues and body fluids, the field lacks a systematic review on stem cell-derived EVs, especially regarding their roles in stemness and differentiation. Here, we provide an overview of the pathophysiological roles of EVs and summarize recent findings focusing on EVs released from various types of stem cells. We also highlight emerging evidence for the potential implication of EVs in self-renewal, differentiation, and reprograming and discuss the benefits and limitations in translational approaches.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919335

ABSTRACT

Phosphorylation levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) negatively correlated with psychomotor stimulant-induced locomotor activity. Locomotor sensitization induced by psychomotor stimulants was previously shown to selectively accompany the decrease of GSK3β phosphorylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) core, suggesting that intact GSK3β activity in this region is necessary for psychomotor stimulants to produce locomotor sensitization. Similarly, GSK3β in the NAcc was also implicated in mediating the conditioned effects formed by the associations of psychomotor stimulants. However, it remains undetermined whether GSK3β plays a differential role in the two sub-regions (core and shell) of the NAcc in the expression of drug-conditioned behaviors. In the present study, we found that GSK3β phosphorylation was significantly lower in the NAcc shell obtained from rats expressing amphetamine (AMPH)-induced conditioned locomotor activity. Further, we demonstrated that these effects were normalized by treatment with lithium chloride, a GSK3β inhibitor. These results suggest that the behavior produced by AMPH itself and a conditioned behavior formed by associations with AMPH are differentially mediated by the two sub-regions of the NAcc.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918236

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Our study aimed to evaluate the quality of radiomics studies on brain metastases based on the radiomics quality score (RQS), Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) checklist, and the Image Biomarker Standardization Initiative (IBSI) guidelines. @*Materials and Methods@#PubMed MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched for articles on radiomics for evaluating brain metastases, published until February 2021. Of the 572 articles, 29 relevant original research articles were included and evaluated according to the RQS, TRIPOD checklist, and IBSI guidelines. @*Results@#External validation was performed in only three studies (10.3%). The median RQS was 3.0 (range, -6 to 12), with a low basic adherence rate of 50.0%. The adherence rate was low in comparison to the “gold standard” (10.3%), stating the potential clinical utility (10.3%), performing the cut-off analysis (3.4%), reporting calibration statistics (6.9%), and providing open science and data (3.4%). None of the studies involved test-retest or phantom studies, prospective studies, or cost-effectiveness analyses. The overall rate of adherence to the TRIPOD checklist was 60.3% and low for reporting title (3.4%), blind assessment of outcome (0%), description of the handling of missing data (0%), and presentation of the full prediction model (0%). The majority of studies lacked pre-processing steps, with bias-field correction, isovoxel resampling, skull stripping, and gray-level discretization performed in only six (20.7%), nine (31.0%), four (3.8%), and four (13.8%) studies, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The overall scientific and reporting quality of radiomics studies on brain metastases published during the study period was insufficient. Radiomics studies should adhere to the RQS, TRIPOD, and IBSI guidelines to facilitate the translation of radiomics into the clinical field.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918229

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to explore the myelin volume change in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with post-concussion syndrome (PCS) using a multidynamic multiecho (MDME) sequence and automatic whole-brain segmentation. @*Materials and Methods@#Forty-one consecutive mTBI patients with PCS and 29 controls, who had undergone MRI including the MDME sequence between October 2016 and April 2018, were included. Myelin volume fraction (MVF) maps were derived from the MDME sequence. After three dimensional T1-based brain segmentation, the average MVF was analyzed at the bilateral cerebral white matter (WM), bilateral cerebral gray matter (GM), corpus callosum, and brainstem. The Mann–Whitney U-test was performed to compare MVF and myelin volume between patients with mTBI and controls. Myelin volume was correlated with neuropsychological test scores using the Spearman rank correlation test. @*Results@#The average MVF at the bilateral cerebral WM was lower in mTBI patients with PCS (median [interquartile range], 25.2% [22.6%–26.4%]) than that in controls (26.8% [25.6%–27.8%]) (p = 0.004). The region-of-interest myelin volume was lower in mTBI patients with PCS than that in controls at the corpus callosum (1.87 cm3 [1.70–2.05 cm3 ] vs. 2.21 cm3 [1.86– 3.46 cm3 ]; p = 0.003) and brainstem (9.98 cm3 [9.45–11.00 cm3 ] vs. 11.05 cm3 [10.10–11.53 cm3 ]; p = 0.015). The total myelin volume was lower in mTBI patients with PCS than that in controls at the corpus callosum (0.45 cm3 [0.39–0.48 cm3 ] vs. 0.48 cm3 [0.45–0.54 cm3 ]; p = 0.004) and brainstem (1.45 cm3 [1.28–1.59 cm3 ] vs. 1.54 cm3 [1.42–1.67 cm3 ]; p = 0.042). No significant correlation was observed between myelin volume parameters and neuropsychological test scores, except for the total myelin volume at the bilateral cerebral WM and verbal learning test (delayed recall) (r = 0.425; p = 0.048). @*Conclusion@#MVF quantified from the MDME sequence was decreased at the bilateral cerebral WM in mTBI patients with PCS. The total myelin volumes at the corpus callosum and brainstem were decreased in mTBI patients with PCS due to atrophic changes.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918219

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare core needle biopsy (CNB) and repeat fine-needle aspiration (rFNA) to reduce the rate of diagnostic surgery and prevent unnecessary surgery in nodules initially diagnosed as atypia/follicular lesions of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS). @*Materials and Methods@#This study included 231 consecutive patients (150 female and 81 male; mean age ± standard deviation, 51.9 ± 11.7 years) with 235 thyroid nodules (≥ 1 cm) initially diagnosed as AUS/FLUS, who later underwent both rFNA and CNB. The nodules that required diagnostic surgery after the biopsy were defined using three different scenarios according to the rFNA and CNB results: criterion 1, surgery for low-risk indeterminate (categories I and III); criterion 2, surgery for high-risk indeterminate (categories IV and V); and criterion 3, surgery for all indeterminate nodules (categories I, III, IV, and V). We compared the expected rates of diagnostic surgery between CNB and rFNA in all 235 nodules using the three surgical criteria. In addition, the expected rates of unnecessary surgery (i.e., surgery for benign pathology) were compared in a subgroup of 182 nodules with available final diagnoses. @*Results@#CNB showed significantly lower rates of nondiagnostic, AUS/FLUS, and suspicious for malignancy diagnoses (p ≤ 0.016) and higher rates of follicular neoplasm or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (p < 0.001) and malignant diagnoses (p = 0.031). CNB showed a significantly lower expected rate of diagnostic surgery than rFNA for criterion 1 (29.8% vs. 48.1%, p < 0.001) and criterion 3 (46.4% vs. 55.3%, p = 0.029), and a significantly higher rate for criterion 2 (16.6% vs. 7.2%, p = 0.001). CNB showed a significantly lower expected rate of unnecessary surgery than rFNA for criterion 1 (18.7% vs. 29.7%, p = 0.024). @*Conclusion@#CNB was superior to rFNA in reducing the rates of potential diagnostic surgery and unnecessary surgery for nodules initially diagnosed as AUS/FLUS in a scenario where nodules with low-risk indeterminate results (categories I and III) would undergo surgery.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915808

ABSTRACT

Background@#Radiation-induced organizing hematoma (RIOH) is a sporadic form of cavernous hemangioma (CH) that occurs after cerebral radiation. RIOH lesions are distinct histologically from de novo CH; however, detailed research on this subject is lacking. In the present study, the clinical and histological features of RIOHs were evaluated based on causative lesions. @*Methods@#The present study included 37 RIOHs confirmed by surgical excision from January 2009, to May 2020, in Yonsei Severance Hospital. All cases were divided into subgroups based on type of radiation treatment (gamma knife surgery [GKS], n = 24 vs. conventional radiation therapy [RT], n = 13) and pathology of the original lesion (arteriovenous malformation, n = 14; glioma, n = 12; metastasis, n = 4; other tumors, n = 7). The clinicopathological results were compared between the groups. @*Results@#Clinical data of multiplicity, latency, and size and wall thickness of the original tumors and RIOHs were analyzed. The GKS group showed shorter latency (5.85 ± 4.06 years vs. 11.15 ± 8.27 years, p = .046) and thicker tumor wall (693.7 ± 565.7 μm vs. 406.9 ± 519.7 μm, p = .049) than the conventional RT group. Significant difference was not found based on original pathology. @*Conclusions@#RIOH is more likely to occur earlier with thick tumor wall in subjects who underwent GKS than in patients who underwent conventional RT. These results indicate the clinical course of RIOH differs based on type of treatment and might help determine the duration of follow-up.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915523

ABSTRACT

Background@#The use of organs from donors with infection is limited because of the possibility of transmission. We aimed to investigate the transmission after deceased donor transplantation with bloodstream infection (BSI). @*Methods@#A retrospective study of patients undergoing kidney or pancreas transplantation at five tertiary centers in Korea from January 2009 and November 2019 was performed. We analyzed the outcomes after transplantation from deceased donors with BSI. @*Results@#Eighty-six recipients received transplantation from 69 donors with BSI. The most common isolated pathogens from donors were Gram-positive bacteria (72.0%), followed by Gram-negative bacteria (22.7%), and fungi (5.3%). Appropriate antimicrobial agents were used in 47.8% of donors before transplantation. Transmission occurred only in 1 of 83 recipients (1.2%) from bacteremic donors and 1 of 6 recipients (16.7%) from fungemic donors. One-year patient and graft survival was 97.5%and 96.3%, respectively. There was no significant difference in graft and patient survival between patients who received organs from infected donors and noninfected donors. @*Conclusion@#Using organs from donors with bacteremia seems to be a safe option with low transmission risk. The overall prognosis of using organs from donors with BSI is favorable.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915513

ABSTRACT

Background@#Some reports have suggested that the clinical and economic burdens of asthma are associated with blood eosinophil levels. The association between clinical burden and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated in a Korean adult asthma cohort. @*Methods@#Clinical information including blood eosinophil counts that were not affected by systemic corticosteroids were extracted from the Cohort for Reality and Evolution of Adult Asthma in Korea database. Clinical burden was defined as 1) asthma control status, 2) medication demand and 3) acute exacerbation (AE) events during 1 consecutive year after enrollment. All patients were divided into atopic and non-atopic asthmatics. The associations between asthma outcomes and the blood eosinophil count were evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 302 patients (124 atopic and 178 non-atopic asthmatics) were enrolled. In all asthmatics, the risk of severe AE was higher in patients with blood eosinophil levels < 100 cells/µL than in patients with levels ≥ 100 cells/µL (odds ratio [OR], 5.406; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.266–23.078; adjusted P = 0.023). Among atopic asthmatics, the risk of moderate AE was higher in patients with blood eosinophil levels ≥ 300 cells/µL than in patients with levels < 300 cells/µL (OR, 3.558; 95% CI, 1.083–11.686; adjusted P = 0.036). Among non-atopic asthmatics, the risk of medication of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) steps 4 or 5 was higher in patients with high blood eosinophil levels than in patients with low blood eosinophil levels at cutoffs of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cells/µL. @*Conclusion@#The baseline blood eosinophil count may predict the future clinical burden of asthma.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914874

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Diagnosing ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is often challenging, and performing several short segmental studies have been suggested for achieving this. We aimed to determine the utility of ulnar nerve segmental studies at the wrist (UNSWs) in patients with suspected UNW. @*Methods@#Fourteen patients with typical symptoms of unilateral UNW were evaluated using conventional electrophysiological tests, UNSWs, and ultrasonography (US). In UNSWs, the ulnar nerve was stimulated at three sites (3 cm distal, just lateral, and 2 cm proximal to the pisiform), and recordings were made at the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle and the fifth digit. Four types of UNW were identified by conventional ulnar nerve conduction studies based on motor and sensory fiber involvement. UNW was also categorized as either a proximal or distal lesion relative to the pisiform based on the UNSWs. The relationships between the conventional electrophysiological type, UNSW categorization results, and lesion location as verified by US were analyzed. @*Results@#Proximal UNW lesions were associated with involvement of the entire deep motor and the superficial sensory fibers (type I). Distal lesions were more closely related to deep motor fibers that innervated the FDI (type III). All five proximal and six distal lesions seen in US matched the lesion locations found on UNSWs. @*Conclusions@#Motor and sensory UNSW are considered useful assistive techniques for diagnosing UNW and localizing its lesion sites.

12.
Intestinal Research ; : 31-42, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914732

ABSTRACT

The role of gut microbiome-intestinal immune complex in the development of colorectal cancer and its progression is well recognized. Accordingly, certain microbial strains tend to colonize or vanish in patients with colorectal cancer. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics are expected to exhibit both anti-tumor effects and chemopreventive effects during cancer treatment through mechanisms such as xenometabolism, immune interactions, and altered eco-community. Microbial modulation can also be safely used to prevent complications during peri-operational periods of colorectal surgery. A deeper understanding of the role of intestinal microbiota as a target for colorectal cancer treatment will lead the way to a better prognosis for colorectal cancer patients.

13.
Gut and Liver ; : 129-137, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914385

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is increasingly utilized in patients with borderline or locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, the pathologic evaluation of tumor regression is not routinely performed or well established. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of three tumor regression grading systems frequently used in LAPC and to determine the correlation between pathologic and clinical response. @*Methods@#We included a total of 38 patients with LAPC who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequent resection. Pathologic tumor regression was graded based on the College of American Pathologists (CAP), Evans, and MD Anderson grading systems. @*Results@#One out of 38 patients (2.6%) achieved a pathologic complete response. Unlike other grading systems (Evans, p=0.063; MD Anderson, p=0.110), the CAP grading system was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (p=0.043). Pathologic N stage (p=0.023), margin status (p=0.044), and radiologic response (p=0.016) correlated with overall survival. In the multivariate analysis, CAP 3 was an independent predictor of shorter overall survival (p=0.026). The CAP grading system correlated with the radiologic response (p=0.007) but not the carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level (p=0.333). @*Conclusions@#The four-tier CAP pathologic tumor regression grading system predicted the clinical outcome in LAPC patients who underwent resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Therefore, a more comprehensive pathologic evaluation is warranted in these patients.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913825

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aims to evaluate the prognosis of pathologically node-positive bladder cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in these patients, and the value of preoperative clinical evaluation for lymph node metastases. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by partial/radical cystectomy and had pathologically confirmed lymph node metastases between January 2007 and December 2019 were identified and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 53 patients were included in the study. The median age was 61 years (range, 34 to 81 years) with males comprising 86.8%. Among the 52 patients with post-neoadjuvant/pre-operative computed tomography results, only 33 patients (63.5%) were considered positive for lymph node metastasis. Sixteen patients (30.2%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (AC group), and 37 patients did not (no AC group). With the median follow-up duration of 67.7 months, the median recurrence-free survival (RFS) and the median overall survival (OS) was 8.5 months and 16.2 months, respectively. The 2-year RFS and OS rates were 23.3% and 34.6%, respectively. RFS and OS did not differ between the AC group and no AC group (median RFS, 8.8 months vs. 6.8 months, p=0.772; median OS, 16.1 months vs. 16.3 months, p=0.479). Thirty-eight patients (71.7%) experienced recurrence. Distant metastases were the dominant pattern of failure in both the AC group (91.7%) and no AC group (76.9%). @*Conclusion@#Patients with lymph node-positive disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery showed high recurrence rates with limited survival outcomes. Little benefit was observed with the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913781

ABSTRACT

Background@#Extraventricular neurocytoma (EVN) is an extremely rare neuronal neoplasm that arises outside the ventricle. The clinical implication of the heterogenous prognosis of this rare tumor has not yet been clarified. Herein, we analyzed our institutional series of EVN. @*Methods@#A total of eight consecutive cases were enrolled and investigated. The prognosis of EVN was analyzed and compared to that of central neurocytoma (CN). @*Results@#There were two male and six female patients, and the median age was 36.5 years. The median tumor size was 38 mm, and the most common location of the tumor was the frontal lobe (3, 37.5%), followed by the parietal and temporal lobes. In brain imaging, four (50%) tumors showed peritumoral edema and three (37.5%) tumors showed calcification. All patients underwent gross total resection, and two (25%) underwent adjuvant radiotherapy. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 55.6%, and the 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 42.9%. The OS and PFS of EVN were poor compared to those of CN. Although EVN is a single disease entity, individual patients showed varying prognosis. One patient showed no recurrence during the 7-year follow-up period; however, another patient had a recurrence 4 months after surgery and died 2 years later. @*Conclusion@#EVN may be a heterogenous disease entity. Additional cases with long-term followup are needed to develop optimal management protocols.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913713

ABSTRACT

GPR43 (also known as FFAR2), a metabolite-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor stimulated by short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) ligands is involved in innate immunity and metabolism. GPR43 couples with Gα i/o and Gα q/11 heterotrimeric proteins and is capable of decreasing cyclic AMP and inducing Ca2+ flux. The GPR43 receptor has additionally been shown to bind β-arrestin 2 and inhibit inflammatory pathways, such as NF-κB. However, GPR43 shares the same ligands as GPR41, including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and determination of its precise functions in association with endogenous ligands, such as SCFAs alone, therefore remains a considerable challenge. In this study, we generated novel synthetic agonists that display allosteric modulatory effects on GPR43 and downregulate NF-κB activity. In particular, the potency of compound 187 was significantly superior to that of preexisting compounds in vitro. However, in the colitis model in vivo, compound 110 induced more potent attenuation of inflammation. These novel allosteric agonists of GPR43 clearly display anti-inflammatory potential, supporting their clinical utility as therapeutic drugs.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913531

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#There are increased therapeutic usages of rituximab in kidney transplantation (KT). However, few studies have evaluated the effect of rituximab on cancer development following KT. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of rituximab on the cancer occurrence and mortality rate according to each type of cancer. @*Methods@#Five thousand consecutive recipients who underwent KT at our center were divided into era1 (1990–2007) and era2-rit– (2008–2018), and era2-rit+ (2008–2018) groups. The era2-rit+ group included patients who received single-dose rituximab (200–500 mg) as a desensitization treatment 1–2 weeks before KT. @*Results@#The 5-year incidence rates of malignant tumors after KT were 3.1%, 4.3%, and 3.5% in the era1, era2-rit–, and era2-rit+ group, respectively. The overall incidence rate of cancer after transplantation among the 3 study groups showed no significant difference (P = 0.340). The overall cancer-related mortality rate was 17.1% (53 of 310). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) had the highest mortality rate (61.5%) and relative risk of cancer-related death (hazard ratio, 8.29; 95% confidence interval, 2.40–28.69; P = 0.001). However, we found no significant association between rituximab and the incidence of any malignancy. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that single-dose rituximab for desensitization may not increase the risk of malignant disease or cancer-related mortality in KT recipients. HCC was associated with the highest risk of cancer-related mortality in an endemic area of HBV infection.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913335

ABSTRACT

An allergy skin test is used to diagnose certain allergies by identifying sensitized allergens. In other words, it is a test for patients who are already sensitized to certain allergens. Because of the prevailing perception that beta-lactam allergy can be dangerous and potentially lethal, the intradermal test has long been routinely performed before use to screen beta-lactam allergy in Korea. The prevalence of penicillin allergy is estimated to be 1% to 2%. However, only 14% of the subjects with perceived penicillin allergy is considered to have true penicillin allergy. Moreover, it is difficult to justify performing a skin test on subjects who are very unlikely to be sensitized to beta-lactam, such as those who never used beta-lactam or never experienced allergy after previous use of beta-lactam.Therefore, allergists recommend beta-lactam skin testing in those who have allergy after the use of beta-lactam. Nevertheless, many hospitals in Korea are conducting routine skin tests on patients regardless of a history of beta-lactam allergy, which are not clinically validated but consume considerable human and material resources. False-positive results can consequently result in inappropriate labeling of beta-lactam allergy, leading to the unnecessary restriction of medication prescriptions and the increase in medical expenses. Herein, the drug allergy working group affiliated with the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology announces an expert opinion on the preuse beta-lactam skin test for subjects without a history of beta-lactam allergy based on the objective evidence from the literature and clinical relevance.

19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 470-479, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927165

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Access block due to the lack of hospital beds causes crowding of emergency departments (ED). We initiated the “boarding restriction protocol” that limits the time of stay in the ED for patients awaiting hospitalization to 24 hours from arrival. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the boarding restriction protocol on ED crowding. @*Materials and Methods@#The primary outcome was ED occupancy rate, which was calculated as the ratio of the number of occupying patients to the total number of ED beds. Time factors, such as length of stay (LOS), treatment time, and boarding time, were investigated. @*Results@#The mean of the ED occupancy rate decreased from 1.532±0.432 prior to implementation of the protocol to 1.273±0.353 after (p<0.001). According to time series analysis, the absolute effect caused by the protocol was -0.189 (-0.277 to -0.110) (p=0.001). The proportion of patients with LOS exceeding 24 hours decreased from 7.6% to 4.0% (p<0.001). Among admitted patients, ED LOS decreased from 770.7 (421.4–1587.1) minutes to 630.2 (398.0–1156.8) minutes (p<0.001); treatment time increased from 319.6 (198.5–482.8) minutes to 344.7 (213.4–519.5) minutes (p<0.001); and boarding time decreased from 298.9 (109.5–1149.0) minutes to 204.1 (98.7–545.7) minutes (p<0.001). In pre-protocol period, boarding patients accumulated in the ED during the weekdays and resolved on Friday, but this pattern was alleviated in post-period. @*Conclusion@#The boarding restriction protocol was effective in alleviating ED crowding by reducing the accumulation of boarding patients in the ED during the weekdays

20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 317-324, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927136

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The incidence of stroke and/or systemic thromboembolism (SSE) has not been properly evaluated in well-anticoagulated atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. This study investigated the incidence of SSE according to CHA2DS2-VASc score in contemporary well-anticoagulated Korean AF patients. @*Materials and Methods@#From the prospective multicenter COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of Atrial Fibrillation (CODE-AF) registry, we identified 9503 patients with non-valvular AF (mean age, 68±8 years; female 35.5%) enrolled between June 2016 and May 2020 with eligible follow-up visits. Stroke incidence in the CODE-AF registry was compared with that in an oral anticoagulant (OAC)-naïve AF cohort from the Korean National Health Insurance database. @*Results@#The usage rates of OACs and antiplatelet agents were 73.5% (non-vitamin K OACs, 56.4%; warfarin, 17.1%) and 23.8%, respectively. During a mean follow-up period of 26.3±9.6 months, 163 (0.78 per 100 person-years) patients had SSE. The incidence rate (per 100 person-years) of SSE was 0.77 in the total population, 0.26 in low-risk patients [CHA2DS2-VASc score 0 (male) or 1 (female)], and 0.88 in high-risk patients (CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2). Contemporary AF patients had a stroke rate that was about one-fifth the stroke rate reported in a Korean OAC-naïve AF cohort. In this cohort, most risk factors for CHA2DS2-VASc score showed significant associations with SSE. Female sex was not associated with an increased risk of stroke/SSE in well-anticoagulated AF patients. @*Conclusion@#Contemporary AF patients have a stroke rate about one-fifth that in OAC-naïve AF patients and exhibit different stroke risk factors.

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