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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1064-1067, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833330

ABSTRACT

Hemoglobin M (HbM) is a group of abnormal hemoglobin variants that form methemoglobin, which leads to cyanosis and hemolytic anemia. HbM-Milwaukee-2 is a rare variant caused by the point mutation CAC>TAC on codon 93 of the hemoglobin subunit beta (HBB) gene, resulting in the replacement of histidine by tyrosine. We here report the first Korean family with HbM-Milwaukee-2, whose diagnosis was confirmed by gene sequencing. A high index of suspicion for this rare Hb variant is necessary in a patient presenting with cyanosis since childhood, along with methemoglobinemia and a family history of cyanosis.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the outcome of stem cell transplantation (SCT), including overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS) and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)-free/failure-free survival (GFFS), and to analyze prognostic factors in children with aplastic anemia (AA).METHODS: From 1991 to 2018, 43 allogeneic SCT recipients were enrolled in the study to investigate the demographic characteristics, survival outcomes and prognostic factors.RESULTS: With the median follow-up of 7.1 years, the estimated 10-year OS, FFS, GFFS were 86.0%, 60.5%, and 51.2%, respectively. Matched related donors (MRD, n = 28) showed better 10-year OS than unrelated donors (n = 15) (96.4% vs. 66.7%; P = 0.006). Engraftment failure was seen in 13 patients (30.2%). Donor-type aplasia was seen in 13.8% (4/29) after fludarabine (Flu)-based conditioning (Flu-group), while in 42.6% (6/14) after cyclophosphamide (Cy)-based regimen (Cy-group) (P = 0.035). Six patients died. The 10-year OS in Cy-group was 92.9% (n = 14, all MRD), while that of Flu-group was 82.1% (n = 29; P = 0.367). But Flu-group tended to have better FFS and GFFS than Cy-group, although Flu-group had less MRDs (41.4% vs. 100%; P = 0.019), and higher proportion of previous immunosuppressive treatment (IST; 62% vs. 21.4%, P = 0.012). In MRD transplants, OS was similar between Flu-group (100%, n = 14) and Cy-group (92.9%, n = 14), while FFS (100.0% vs. 42.9%; P = 0.001) and GFFS (85.7% vs. 35.7%; P = 0.006) were significantly better in Flu-group. Stem cell sources, irradiation in the conditioning, and method of GvHD prophylaxis did not significantly influence the outcome.CONCLUSION: This study reviewed SCT outcomes for pediatric AA with changes of transplant strategies over the last 25 years. The FFS and GFFS were higher in Flu-group than in Cy-group, especially in matched related transplantation. Graft failure including donor-type aplasia remains troublesome even with Flu-based conditioning. Further refinement of transplant strategies to ensure better quality-of-life should be pursued.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , Child , Cyclophosphamide , Follow-Up Studies , Graft vs Host Disease , Humans , Methods , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Unrelated Donors
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexrazoxane has been used as an effective cardioprotector against anthracycline cardiotoxicity. This study intended to analyze cardioprotective efficacy and secondary malignancy development, and elucidate risk factors for secondary malignancies in dexrazoxane-treated pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected from 15 hospitals in Korea. Patients who received any anthracyclines, and completed treatment without stem cell transplantation were included. For efficacy evaluation, the incidence of cardiac events and cardiac event-free survival rates were compared. Data about risk factors of secondary malignancies were collected. RESULTS: Data of total 1,453 cases were analyzed; dexrazoxane with every anthracyclines group (D group, 1,035 patients) and no dexrazoxane group (non-D group, 418 patients). Incidence of the reported cardiac events was not statistically different between two groups; however, the cardiac event-free survival rate of patients with more than 400 mg/m2 of anthracyclines was significantly higher in D group (91.2% vs. 80.1%, p=0.04). The 6-year cumulative incidence of secondary malignancy was not different between both groups after considering follow-up duration difference (non-D, 0.52%±0.37%; D, 0.60%±0.28%; p=0.55). The most influential risk factor for secondary malignancy was the duration of anthracycline administration according to multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Dexrazoxane had an efficacy in lowering cardiac event-free survival rates in patients with higher cumulative anthracyclines. As a result of multivariate analysis for assessing risk factors of secondary malignancy, the occurrence of secondary malignancy was not related to dexrazoxane administration.


Subject(s)
Anthracyclines , Cardiotoxicity , Dexrazoxane , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Risk Factors , Stem Cell Transplantation
5.
Blood Research ; : 63-73, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute leukemia (AL), not clearly assigned to myeloid, B-lymphoid, or T-lymphoid lineage, is classified as either biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) based on the European Group for Immunological Classification of Leukemias (EGIL) or acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage (ALAL) encompassing acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) and mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. METHODS: Medical records of children newly diagnosed with BAL or ALAL, based on the EGIL or the 2008/2016 WHO criteria, respectively, admitted at Chonnam National University Hospital in 2001–2017 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Twelve (3.2%) of 377 AL patients satisfied the BAL or ALAL definitions based on the EGIL or the WHO criteria, respectively. Among 12 patients including 11 with BAL and another with undefined case based on the EGIL criteria, 7 (1.9%) had ALAL based on more stringent 2016 WHO criteria (AUL, 2; MPAL, 5). One patient had MPAL with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), BCR-ABL+, and two had MLL gene abnormality. ALL-directed regimen was associated with better complete remission rate compared with AML-directed regimen (100.0% vs. 16.7%; P=0.015). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 51.1±15.8% and 51.9±15.7%, respectively. AUL was associated with poor OS and EFS compared with MPAL (0.0% vs. 75.0±21.7%; P=0.008). CONCLUSION: Due to the rarity of the cases, future multicenter, prospective studies incorporating large number of cases are urgently warranted to identify the clinical, biologic, and molecular markers for the prediction of prognosis and determine the best tailored therapy for each patient.


Subject(s)
Child , Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia , Leukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute , Medical Records , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , World Health Organization
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763512

ABSTRACT

Hepatic osteodystrophy is frequent complication in patients with chronic liver disease, particularly with chronic cholestasis. We report a male infant with congenital hepatoblastoma, who had osteodystrophy complicated by multiple bone fractures despite adequate supplementation of fat-soluble vitamins including vitamin D. He was born by Caesarean section because of a 7 cm–sized abdominal mass detected by prenatal ultrasonography. The pathologic diagnosis was hepatoblastoma, PRETEXT staging III or IV. Whole body bone scan at the time of diagnosis showed no abnormal uptake. Oral vitamin D3 of 2,000 IU/day was administered with other fat-soluble vitamins. Serum direct bilirubin level gradually increased up to 28.9 mg/dL at postnatal 6 days and was above 5 mg/dL until 110 days of age. Bony changes consistent with rickets became apparent in left proximal humerus since 48 days of age, and multiple bone fractures developed thereafter. With resolving cholestasis by chemotherapy, his bony lesions improved gradually after add-on treatment of bisphosphonate and parenteral administration of vitamin D with calcium. High level of suspicion and prevention of osteodystrophy is needed in patients with hepatoblastoma, especially when cholestasis persists.


Subject(s)
Bilirubin , Calcium , Cesarean Section , Cholecalciferol , Cholestasis , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Female , Fractures, Bone , Hepatoblastoma , Humans , Humerus , Infant , Liver Diseases , Male , Pregnancy , Rickets , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Vitamin D , Vitamins
7.
Blood Research ; : 25-34, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has recently improved. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology, changes in treatment strategies, and improvement of outcomes in Gwangju-Chonnam children with AML over 2 decades. METHODS: Medical records of 116 children with newly diagnosed AML were retrospectively reviewed for demographic characteristics, prognostic groups including cytogenetic risks, treatment protocols, and survival rates over the periods between 1996 and 2005 (Period I, N=53), and 2006 and 2015 (Period II, N=38). RESULTS: The annual incidence of AML has decreased with reduced pediatric population. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier (K-M) estimated overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates in 110 AML patients were 53.2±5.1% and 43.8±5.1%, respectively. The 5-year OS rate significantly improved during period II (70.3±7.0%) as compared to that during period I (40.0±6.8%) (P =0.001). The 5-year OS was not significantly different among cytogenetic risk groups (P =0.11). Fifty-eight patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The K-M 5-year estimated survival for transplanted patients was 53.7±7.0%, while that for chemotherapy-only patients was 30.1±9.1% (P =0.014). Among the prognostic factors, treatment modality was the only independent factor. The chemotherapy-only group had a relative risk of 2.06 for death compared with the transplantation group (P=0.015). CONCLUSION: The survival of Korean children with AML has improved to a level comparable with that of developed countries over 2 decades, owing to a change in induction strategy, better supportive care with economic growth, refinement of HSCT techniques including a better selection of patients based on prognostic groups, and stem cell donor selection.


Subject(s)
Child , Clinical Protocols , Cytogenetics , Developed Countries , Disease-Free Survival , Donor Selection , Economic Development , Epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Incidence , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Medical Records , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cells , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788690

ABSTRACT

Surgery and radiotherapy are mainstays of treatment for ependymomas (EPNs). Recent molecular subgrouping could be superior to histopathological grading for predicting the prognosis of patients with EPNs. Gross total resection is an effective treatment approach regardless of its locations or pathologic grades. Adjuvant therapeutic strategies could be decided based on molecular subgrouping with risk-stratification. Information of histologic-molecular biology is now providing clues to therapeutic insights.


Subject(s)
Biology , Ependymoma , Global Health , Humans , Molecular Medicine , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714956

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between eye position and anesthesia depth using the bispectral index (BIS) value, a parameter derived from electroencephalography data. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between BIS value and eye position in 32 children who underwent surgery for epiblepharon under general anesthesia. BIS values were recorded continuously throughout the procedure (from induction to awakening). Eye positions were video-recorded and analyzed after surgery. The vertical position of each eye was scored according to its height in relation to the medial canthus. An eye position in which the upper eyelid covered one-third of the cornea was defined as a significant ocular elevation. RESULTS: The BIS value correlated inversely with the end-tidal concentration of each anesthetic agent, whereas it correlated positively with the eye elevation score (eye position = 0.014 × BIS + 0.699, p = 0.011). The mean eye position score was significantly greater in patients whose BIS values were over 65. Eleven patients (34.4%) had significant ocular elevation; their mean concurrent BIS value was 61.6. Two of these patients had elevation during surgery and 9 had elevation during emergence from anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: We found that high BIS values were correlated with low levels of anesthetic concentration and high eye position, suggesting that BIS monitoring may be useful for predicting eye position during anesthesia. Particular attention must be given to eye position during ophthalmic surgery. Anesthesia depth can be maintained by assuring that the BIS value remains below 65.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Child , Cornea , Electroencephalography , Electrophysiology , Eyelids , Humans , Lacrimal Apparatus
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765260

ABSTRACT

Surgery and radiotherapy are mainstays of treatment for ependymomas (EPNs). Recent molecular subgrouping could be superior to histopathological grading for predicting the prognosis of patients with EPNs. Gross total resection is an effective treatment approach regardless of its locations or pathologic grades. Adjuvant therapeutic strategies could be decided based on molecular subgrouping with risk-stratification. Information of histologic-molecular biology is now providing clues to therapeutic insights.


Subject(s)
Biology , Ependymoma , Global Health , Humans , Molecular Medicine , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies of high dose dexamethasone (HD-DXM) therapy in children with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) have been reported. The purpose of this study is to investigate efficacy and safety of repeated HD-DXM therapy as second-line treatment of ITP in childhood. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients < 18 years of age with primary ITP who received more than 2 cycles of HD-DXM therapy from May 2004 to January 2018. HD-DXM was given orally in 4-day pulses every 28 days as a 20–40 mg/1.73 m² daily dose. RESULTS: A total of 26 patients (male, 19; female, 7) were enrolled and their median age was 6 years (range, 1–15). All patients had received previous treatment for ITP. A median 6 cycles (range, 2–19) of HD-DXM was given. On the beginning of HD-DXM therapy, three patients satisfied the criteria for newly diagnosed ITP, 16 for persistent ITP and 7 for chronic ITP. Relapse-free survival (RFS) of responders (n=9) after the last HD-DXM cycle was estimated to be 38.1±17.2%, lasting for a median 9.1 months (range, 5.6–46.2). According to response after the 2nd cycle, RFS of responders (n=13) was significantly higher than non-responders (23.1±11.7% vs. 7.7%±7.4%, P=0.001). The most common adverse event was irritability (30.8%), followed by fatigue (19.2%). CONCLUSION: HD-DXM therapy in children was relatively tolerated and response after therapy was acceptable. More courses of HD-DXM may be feasible in responders after two cycles of HD-DXM.


Subject(s)
Child , Dexamethasone , Fatigue , Female , Humans , Medical Records , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Retrospective Studies
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the overall survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approaches 85-90%, the prognosis of relapsed or refractory (R/R) ALL is grave. This study aimed to identify the treatment pattern, treatment response, and overall survival of these patients.METHODS: We reviewed data of 64 patients with R/R ALL whose initial diagnosis of ALL had been made between 1 and 21 years of age. Patients who received clofarabine as part of an induction regimen were excluded. Relapsed patients were limited to those who relapsed after ≥2 prior induction regimens. Treatment patterns, response rates, and overall survival were analyzed.RESULTS: Patients' median age was 15.0 years (range, 6.0-25.0) at the diagnosis of R/R ALL. The most frequently used agents other than steroid were vincristine (54.0%), cytarabine (44.6%), and idarubicin (36.5%), while L-asparaginase was used in only one patient. The complete remission (CR) and overall response (OR) rates were 38.1 and 42.9%, respectively. Sixteen patients (25.4%) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The 5-year overall survival was 6.7%. The survival of patients with HSCT was significantly higher compared with those without HSCT (35.2% vs 0%, P=0.0097). Among 14 patients who achieved CR or CR without platelet recovery (CRp) before HSCT, the 3-year survival was 46.9%.CONCLUSION: The survival of Korean patients with R/R childhood ALL was dismal despite a reasonable CR rate, whereas that of those who received HSCT after CR or CRp was excellent. More treatment options are needed to improve the overall outcome of R/R childhood ALL.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Cytarabine , Diagnosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Idarubicin , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Vincristine
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the overall survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approaches 85-90%, the prognosis of relapsed or refractory (R/R) ALL is grave. This study aimed to identify the treatment pattern, treatment response, and overall survival of these patients. METHODS: We reviewed data of 64 patients with R/R ALL whose initial diagnosis of ALL had been made between 1 and 21 years of age. Patients who received clofarabine as part of an induction regimen were excluded. Relapsed patients were limited to those who relapsed after ≥2 prior induction regimens. Treatment patterns, response rates, and overall survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 15.0 years (range, 6.0-25.0) at the diagnosis of R/R ALL. The most frequently used agents other than steroid were vincristine (54.0%), cytarabine (44.6%), and idarubicin (36.5%), while L-asparaginase was used in only one patient. The complete remission (CR) and overall response (OR) rates were 38.1 and 42.9%, respectively. Sixteen patients (25.4%) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The 5-year overall survival was 6.7%. The survival of patients with HSCT was significantly higher compared with those without HSCT (35.2% vs 0%, P=0.0097). Among 14 patients who achieved CR or CR without platelet recovery (CRp) before HSCT, the 3-year survival was 46.9%. CONCLUSION: The survival of Korean patients with R/R childhood ALL was dismal despite a reasonable CR rate, whereas that of those who received HSCT after CR or CRp was excellent. More treatment options are needed to improve the overall outcome of R/R childhood ALL.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Cytarabine , Diagnosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Idarubicin , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Vincristine
14.
Blood Research ; : 254-263, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21833

ABSTRACT

Management options for patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) have evolved substantially over the past decades. The American Society of Hematology published a treatment guideline for clinicians referring to the management of ITP in 2011. This evidence-based practice guideline for ITP enables the appropriate treatment of a larger proportion of patients and the maintenance of normal platelet counts. Korean authority operates a unified mandatory national health insurance system. Even though we have a uniform standard guideline enforced by insurance reimbursement, there are several unsolved issues in real practice in ITP treatment. To optimize the management of Korean ITP patients, the Korean Society of Hematology Aplastic Anemia Working Party (KSHAAWP) reviewed the consensus and the Korean data on the clinical practices of ITP therapy. Here, we report a Korean expert recommendation guide for the management of ITP.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , Clothing , Consensus , Evidence-Based Practice , Hematology , Humans , Insurance , National Health Programs , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1160-1169, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15477

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to identify and to functionally characterize genetic variants in ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1 in Korean patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic analyses were conducted using DNA samples from TAO patients (n=50) and healthy subjects (n=48) to identify TAO-specific genetic variants of ST3GAL5 or ST8SIA1. The effect of each genetic variant on the transcription or expression of these genes was examined. Additionally, correlations between functional haplotypes of ST3GAL5 or ST8SIA1 and clinical characteristics of the patients were investigated. RESULTS: Six promoter variants and one nonsynonymous variant of ST3GAL5 were identified, and four major promoter haplotypes were assembled. Additionally, three promoter variants and two major haplotypes of ST8SIA1 were identified. All ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1 variants identified in TAO patients were also found in healthy controls. Promoter activity was significantly decreased in three promoter haplotypes of ST3GAL5 and increased in one promoter haplotype of ST8SIA1. Transcription factors activating protein-1, NKX3.1, and specificity protein 1 were revealed as having roles in transcriptional regulation of these haplotypes. The nonsynonymous variant of ST3GAL5, H104R, did not alter the expression of ST3GAL5. While no differences in clinical characteristics were detected in patients possessing the functional promoter haplotypes of ST3GAL5, exophthalmic values were significantly lower in patients with the ST8SIA1 haplotype, which showed a significant increase in promoter activity. CONCLUSION: These results from genotype-phenotype analysis might suggest a possible link between the ST8SIA1 functional promoter haplotype and the clinical severity of TAO. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.


Subject(s)
DNA , Exophthalmos , Graves Ophthalmopathy , Haplotypes , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Korea , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sample Size , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sialyltransferases , Transcription Factors , Troleandomycin
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is rare in children, accounting for 5-7% of all acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases. This study aimed to review clinical and laboratory characteristics of pediatric APL patients, and to analyze the therapeutic outcomes.METHODS: Twenty pediatric patients with APL, diagnosed from January 1998 to April 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and laboratory findings were collected, and morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular characteristics were evaluated. Therapeutic outcomes and prognostic factors of patients were analyzed.RESULTS: The number of pediatric APL patients was 20, which was 18.5% of all the cases of AML. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 88.5±7.6% and 83.0±9.0%, respectively. As compared to typical APL patients, patients with microgranular variants (M3v) (n=4, 20%) showed a tendency for a younger age, low white blood cell counts, and a shorter prothrombin time (P=0.045), but their 5-year OS and EFS were not significantly different. Better survival was observed in ATRA plus chemotherapy group both for 5-year OS (100% vs. 60.0±21.9%, P=0.018), and for 5-year EFS (60.0±21.9% vs. 91.7±8.0%, P=0.080) than ATRA only group. Stem cell transplantations were given to 3 patients and they are alive without disease for 8.3-16.5 years of follow-up. One death after relapse, another death in remission and development of secondary leukemia were encountered during the study period.CONCLUSION: This study analyzed clinical characteristics of pediatric APL and demonstrated very good outcome with the combination of ATRA and chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Cytogenetics , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Leukocyte Count , Prothrombin Time , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cell Transplantation
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been established as an important curative method in genetic rare diseases in children. However, adverse effects have been obstacles for successful outcomes. This study aims to review the transplant outcomes of genetic rare diseases over the last 2 decades, to analyze the prognostic factors that may affect outcome, and to suggest future perspective of HSCT in these diseases.METHODS: Seventeen patients younger than 18 years who were transplanted at Department of Pediatrics, Chonnam National University Hospital and Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital from 1996 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcomes were analyzed by donor source, intensity of conditioning [myeloablative conditioning (MAC) vs. reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC)], and disease type.RESULTS: The 5-year Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS), and event-free survival (EFS) was 64.7±14.3% and 52.9±12.9%, respectively. Among subgroups, the 5-year OS was 61.5±15.8% after RIC as compared to 28.6±17.1% after MAC (P=0.27). The 5-year EFS was 60.0±25.0% after matched sibling donor transplants, 62.5±20.4% after mismatched related/unrelated bone marrow/peripheral blood stem cell transplants, and 28.6±17.1% after unrelated umbilical cord blood transplants, respectively. The 5-year OS according to disease type was as follows: 60.0±21.9% for Fanconi anemia, 50.0±25.0% for familial hemophagocytic lymphohisticytosis. All patients with primary immunodeficiency survived, but none with adrenoleukodystrophy.CONCLUSION: Although definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the limited number of cases, RIC may be preferred in select, genetic rare diseases. Better strategies are required to improve outcomes after cord blood transplantation. Moreover, special attention should be given to minimize late complications in children.


Subject(s)
Adrenoleukodystrophy , Child , Disease-Free Survival , Fanconi Anemia , Fetal Blood , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Methods , Pediatrics , Rare Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Siblings , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received stem cell transplantation from different donor groups.METHODS: This study included 37 pediatric AML patients who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation from March 1996 to December 2012 at Chonnam National University Hospital and Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital. The overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), cumulative incidence (CI) of graft versus host disease (GvHD), relapse and transplant-related mortality (TRM) were compared between different donor groups.RESULTS: Transplant donor groups included matched sibling donor (MSD, n=15), unrelated donor (URD=13), unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB, n=7), or haploidentical donor (HD, n=2). Twenty-six patients survived with a median follow-up of 7.3 years. The 7-year EFS rates were 80.0±10.3% in MSD, 69.2±12.8% in URD and 57.1±18.7% in UCB, and 0% in HD, respectively (P=0.019). The CI of relapse at 5 years was 20.0%, 15.4%, 33.3%, 50%, respectively (P=0.721). The CI of TRM at 2 years was 0%, 15.4%, 16.7%, 50.0%, respectively in each donor group (P=0.017). The CI of grade II-IV acute and extensive chronic GvHD were higher in UCB (P=0.003, P=0.020, respectively). There were no significant differences in OS, EFS, and CI of TRM and relapse between allele-mismatched URD and UCB.CONCLUSION: Despite the limitation of small number of patients, the comparable outcome of pediatric AML patients transplanted from alternative donor with those transplanted from MSD are encouraging. Especially, if a matched donor is not available, allele-mismatched URD or UCB transplant may offer the advantage of prompt availability for patients who urgently require transplantation.


Subject(s)
Child , Disease-Free Survival , Fetal Blood , Follow-Up Studies , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Incidence , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Mortality , Recurrence , Siblings , Stem Cell Transplantation , Tissue Donors , Unrelated Donors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143633

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in survivors of childhood cancer from multiple institutions in Korea. A total of 102 patients from 11 institutions who developed SMN after childhood cancer treatment between 1998 and 2011 were retrospectively enrolled. The most common primary malignant neoplasms (PMNs) were central nervous system (CNS) tumors (n = 17), followed by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 16), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 13), and osteosarcoma (n = 12). The most common SMNs were therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs; acute myeloid leukemia [AML], 29 cases; myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS], 12 cases), followed by thyroid carcinomas (n = 15) and CNS tumors (n = 10). The median latency period was 4.9 years (range, 0.5-18.5 years). Among 45 patients with solid tumors defined as an SMN, 15 (33%) developed the lesion in a field previously subjected to radiation. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of patients with an SMN was 45% with a median follow-up time of 8.6 years. Patients with AML, MDS, and CNS tumors exhibited the poorest outcomes with 5-year OS rates of 18%, 33%, and 32%, respectively, whereas those with second osteosarcoma showed comparable outcomes (64%) to patients with primary counterpart and those with second thyroid carcinoma had a 100% OS rate. Further therapeutic efforts are recommended to improve the survival outcomes in patients with SMNs, especially in cases with t-MNs and CNS tumors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease-Free Survival , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Second Primary/diagnosis , Osteosarcoma/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cell Transplantation , Survival Rate , Transplantation, Autologous , Young Adult
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143624

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in survivors of childhood cancer from multiple institutions in Korea. A total of 102 patients from 11 institutions who developed SMN after childhood cancer treatment between 1998 and 2011 were retrospectively enrolled. The most common primary malignant neoplasms (PMNs) were central nervous system (CNS) tumors (n = 17), followed by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 16), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 13), and osteosarcoma (n = 12). The most common SMNs were therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs; acute myeloid leukemia [AML], 29 cases; myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS], 12 cases), followed by thyroid carcinomas (n = 15) and CNS tumors (n = 10). The median latency period was 4.9 years (range, 0.5-18.5 years). Among 45 patients with solid tumors defined as an SMN, 15 (33%) developed the lesion in a field previously subjected to radiation. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of patients with an SMN was 45% with a median follow-up time of 8.6 years. Patients with AML, MDS, and CNS tumors exhibited the poorest outcomes with 5-year OS rates of 18%, 33%, and 32%, respectively, whereas those with second osteosarcoma showed comparable outcomes (64%) to patients with primary counterpart and those with second thyroid carcinoma had a 100% OS rate. Further therapeutic efforts are recommended to improve the survival outcomes in patients with SMNs, especially in cases with t-MNs and CNS tumors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease-Free Survival , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Second Primary/diagnosis , Osteosarcoma/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cell Transplantation , Survival Rate , Transplantation, Autologous , Young Adult
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