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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929241

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder of the nervous system where a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons exist. However, the pathogenesis of PD remains undefined, which becomes the main limitation for the development of clinical PD treatment. Demethylenetetrahydroberberine (DMTHB) is a novel derivative of natural product berberine. This study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effects and pharmacological mechanism of DMTHB on Parkinson's disease using C57BL/6 mice. A PD model of mice was induced by administration of MPTP (20 mg·kg-1) and probenecid (200 mg·kg-1) twice per week for five weeks. The mice were administered with DMTHB daily by gavage at the dose of 5 and 50 mg·kg-1 for one- week prophylactic treatment and five-week theraputic treatment. The therapeutic effects of DMTHB were evaluated by behavior tests (the open field, rotarod and pole tests), immunohistochemical staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), Nissl staining and biochemical assays. The molecular mechanisms of DMTHB on the key biomarkers of PD pathological states were analyzed by Western blot (WB) and qRT-PCR. DMTHB treatment alleviated the behavioral disorder induced by MPTP-probenecid. Nissl staining and TH staining showed that the damage of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was remarkably suppressed by DMTHB treatment. Western blot results showed that the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and TH increased, but the level of α-synuclein (α-syn) was remarkably reduced, which indicated that the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in mice was significantly reduced. The protein phosphorylation of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-mTOR also increased about 2-fold, compared with the model group. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results demonstrated that the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, were reduced, but the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased after DMTHB treatment. Finally, the cellular assay displayed that DMTHB was also a strong antioxidant to protect neuron cell line PC12 by scavenging ROS. In this study, we demonstrated DMTHB alleviates the behavioral disorder and protects dopaminergic neurons through multiple-target effects includubg anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dopaminergic Neurons/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Parkinsonian Disorders/chemically induced , Substantia Nigra
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928167

ABSTRACT

Through literature research and standard retrieval, Corydalis-derived medicinal materials, the origins, and related standards were summarized. Finally, 27 medicinal materials were screened out, involving 71 species(varieties). Among them, only 11 are recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020), National Standard for Chinese Patent Drugs·Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Standards, and other local standards, including Corydalis Bungeanae Herba and Corydalis Herba. The names and original plants of the medicinal materials are different in different standards, and the phenomena of "same medicinal material with different names" and "same name for different medicinal materials" are prominent. Most standards only include the traits, microscopic identification, and physico-chemical property identification, with unsound quality criteria. Thus, efforts should be made to strengthen the sorting of Corydalis medicinal plants, herbal textual research, and investigation of the resources and utilization. Moreover, via modern techniques, the chemical components and medicinal material basis of different original plants should be explored and sound quality standards should be established to improve the safety and quality of Corydalis-derived medicinal materials. Summarizing Corydalis medicinal plants, Corydalis-derived medicinal materials, and related standards, this study is expected to provide a reference for the standard formulation, quality evaluation, expansion of drug sources, and rational development and utilization of Corydalis resources.


Subject(s)
Corydalis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Reference Standards
3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 303-312, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922934

ABSTRACT

Cytochrome P450s (CYP450) is a superfamily of phase I metabolic enzymes, which participates in more than 90% of drug oxidation. The induction or inhibition of CYP450s is the main mechanism of drug-drug interaction. In recent years, in vitro metabolism studies conducted through isolated organs, cells, or enzyme systems have developed rapidly, due to their precision and simplicity. Therefore, profiles of the in vitro metabolism studies of traditional Chinese medicines can infer the possible metabolic pathways of drugs, predict the potential drug interactions, and may enhance the rational use of drugs in clinic. This article reviews the in vitro inhibitory effects of traditional Chinese medicine, ingredients, and extracts on the activities of CYP450 enzymes in the liver microsomes, which can provide a reference for further researches on the interaction between Chinese medicine and chemical medicine.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 615-626, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922898

ABSTRACT

The rational medication in pregnant women is a clinical issue that clinicians and pharmacists must take seriously. Most tissues and organs undergo anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy that affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs in vivo, which ultimately lead to changes in bioavailability. In order to achieve an effective therapeutic concentration, dose adjustment might be required during this period. In the past ten years, the application of modeling and simulation methods in the field of drug development and clinical therapy has continued to expand, for instance, using population pharmacokinetic (PPK) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to adjust dosage regimen in special populations. Rigorously designed and validated models will effectively make up for the deficiencies of clinical trials, provide valuable references for the design of clinical research, and even replace part of them. This article will introduce the physiological changes that affect the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug during pregnancy and review the progress in the application of PBPK modeling in pharmacokinetic studies in pregnant women.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873553

ABSTRACT

It is a major public health task to promote the construction of modern disease prevention and control system in the prevention and control of the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic. In this study, we identified the current situation and challenges in the construction of disease prevention and control system in Shanghai, including the infrastructures, disciplines, human resources, information system, operational mechanism, and legalization. It is proposed that we should promote the construction of modern disease prevention and control system in Shanghai, which is aimed to improve the capacity in the disease prevention and control services, response to the major epidemics and public health emergencies, and scientific research in public health, in accordance with municipal functional orientation large-scale metropolitan public health security requirements in Shanghai. Moreover, we should promote policy-making, including upgrading infrastructures, facilitating discipline construction and scientific research innovation, optimizing development environment for human resources, accelerating comprehensive information construction, improving systems and mechanisms, and strengthening legal governance.

7.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 627-632, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922370

ABSTRACT

Multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) is a specific type of asthenoteratozoospermia, presenting with multiple morphological anomalies in spermatozoa, such as absent, bent, coiled, short, or irregular caliber flagella. Previous genetic studies revealed pathogenic mutations in genes encoding cilia and flagella-associated proteins (CFAPs; e.g., CFAP43, CFAP44, CFAP65, CFAP69, CFAP70, and CFAP251) responsible for the MMAF phenotype in infertile men from different ethnic groups. However, none of them have been identified in infertile Pakistani males with MMAF. In the current study, two Pakistani families with MMAF patients were recruited. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of patients and their parents was performed. WES analysis reflected novel biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CFAP43 in both families (Family 1: ENST00000357060.3, p.Arg300Lysfs*22 and p.Thr526Serfs*43 in a compound heterozygous state; Family 2: ENST00000357060.3, p.Thr526Serfs*43 in a homozygous state). Sanger sequencing further confirmed that these mutations were segregated recessively in the families with the MMAF phenotype. Semiquantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was carried out to detect the effect of the mutation on mRNA of the affected gene. Previous research demonstrated that biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CFAP43 accounted for the majority of all CFAP43-mutant MMAF patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report CFAP43 biallelic loss-of-function mutations in a Pakistani population with the MMAF phenotype. This study will help researchers and clinicians to understand the genetic etiology of MMAF better.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Infertility, Male/epidemiology , Loss of Function Mutation/genetics , Male , Microtubule Proteins/genetics , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Sperm Tail/physiology
8.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 555-561, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922362

ABSTRACT

Meiosis is an essential step in gametogenesis which is the key process in sexually reproducing organisms as meiotic aberrations may result in infertility. In meiosis, programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation is one of the fundamental processes that are essential for maintaining homolog interactions and correcting segregation of chromosomes. Although the number and distribution of meiotic DSBs are tightly regulated, still abnormalities in DSB formation are known to cause meiotic arrest and infertility. This review is a detailed account of molecular bases of meiotic DSB formation, its evolutionary conservation, and variations in different species. We further reviewed the mutations of DSB formation genes in association with human infertility and also proposed the future directions and strategies about the study of meiotic DSB formation.


Subject(s)
DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , DNA Repair/genetics , Humans , Infertility/genetics , Meiosis/physiology
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1940-1944, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the distribution of Rh phenotype, irregular antibodies screenting and postpartum follow-up of RhD@*METHODS@#The samples of 313 RhD@*RESULTS@#The Rh serological phenotypes of 313 RhD@*CONCLUSION@#The Rh serological phenotype of RhD


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , Female , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Diagnosis , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906373

ABSTRACT

Codonopsis Radix, one of the bulk commodities, has been commonly used for tonification in clinical practice. Apart from the medicinal purpose, it can also be utilized as food. Among the multiple local varieties, the ones called "Luduiduoji" in Tibetan medicine cannot be neglected, which have frequently been adopted for diminishing inflammation and swelling, invigorating spleen and stomach, and tonifying Qi, etc. Considering its complex origins and frequent substitution by or confusion with other medicinal materials, this paper reviewed the Si Bu Yi Dian, Jingzhu Bencao, ministerial and local standards, modern literature on Tibetan medicine, and the results of field investigation in major Tibetan medicine hospitals and medicinal material markets of Sichuan, Qinghai and Tibet to figure out the name, original plants, medicinal parts, effects, and local varieties of Codonopsis Radix in Tibetan medicine. The results showed that the names of local varieties were diverse, many of which were transliterated into Tibetan, with "Luduiduoji" being most well-known. It was derived from 14 species in genus Codonopsis and one in Adenophora of family Campanulaceae, with Codonopsis foetens subsp. nervosa, C. thalictrifolia var. mollis, C. canescens, C. alpina, and C. pilosula being the main species. According to literature records, the roots, aerial parts, and whole plants could all be employed as medicine, but there were certain differences in their clinical applications. At present, in order to protect the medicinal resources, Tibetan medical workers mostly collect the aerial parts, which are applicable to patients with yellow water, rheumatism, Gamba disease, and leprosy. This literature review of local varieties for Codonopsis Radix and textual research on their original plants are of great significance for elevating the standard, accelerating the pharmacodynamic research, expanding the sources and promoting the rational use of Codonopsis Radix.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905079

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the resources and medicinal use of Tibetan medicine Codonopsis canescens,analyze its suitable habitat,and protect its wild resources,in order to provide an important reference basis for further rational development and utilization. Method:Combined investigation methods of literature textual research,visiting investigation and on-the-spot investigation were adopted. Result:In this paper,we investigated the resources and medicinal use of C. canescens in 27 cities and counties of Sichuan,Qinghai and Tibet. Compared with historical records of C. canescens,the results showed that there was no obvious change in the distribution range,and the distribution was uneven in different places. Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan, boasts rich resources; in particular, Luhuo county has as high as 90-120 plants/100 m2, it is estimated that the reserves per unit area of root C. canescens in this area were 3 445.32 g·m-2,which totaled 1 279.18 ton(1 ton=1 000 kg). In history,the root is the main medicinal part. However, in recent years,in order to protect resources,the aboveground part is frequently used. The clinical efficacy of Tibetan medicine is mainly to tonify Qi and activate blood circulation. It can be combined with other drugs to treat rheumatism,sores,furuncle,carbuncle and other diseases. However,the plants of Codonopsis are mixed with C. canescens in each Tibetan area,and the mixed varieties are determined according to the growing varieties of the same genus in this area. Conclusion:The reserves of wild resources of C. canescens are decreasing with the increase of clinical use and market demand of Tibetan medicine. There is serious mixture of Codonopsis plants in Tibetan areas. It is suggested paying attention to resource protection,carrying out artificial planting,establishing the standard for the medicinal use of Tibetan medicine,and promote rational and sustainable utilization of resources.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911757

ABSTRACT

Multimorbidity has become a great challenge to the health service system in China,and cardiometabolic multimorbidity is one of the major multimorbidity patterns worldwide. The mechanisms of the bidirectional relationship between cardiometabolic multimorbidity and depression are complex. Their co-occurrence significantly increases the burden of diseases and the risk of adverse prognosis for patients. This review focuses on the implication of reciprocal interaction between cardiometabolic multimorbidity and depression for general practice to provide insights to the health management of multimorbidity populations.

13.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 479-483, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888459

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is emerging as a global health threat and shows a higher risk for men than women. Thus far, the studies on andrological consequences of COVID-19 are limited. To ascertain the consequences of COVID-19 on sperm parameters after recovery, we recruited 41 reproductive-aged male patients who had recovered from COVID-19, and analyzed their semen parameters and serum sex hormones at a median time of 56 days after hospital discharge. For longitudinal analysis, a second sampling was obtained from 22 of the 41 patients after a median time interval of 29 days from first sampling. Compared with controls who had not suffered from COVID-19, the total sperm count, sperm concentration, and percentages of motile and progressively motile spermatozoa in the patients were significantly lower at first sampling, while sperm vitality and morphology were not affected. The total sperm count, sperm concentration, and number of motile spermatozoa per ejaculate were significantly increased and the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm was reduced at the second sampling compared with those at first in the 22 patients examined. Though there were higher prolactin and lower progesterone levels in patients at first sampling than those in controls, no significant alterations were detected for any sex hormones examined over time following COVID-19 recovery in the 22 patients. Although it should be interpreted carefully, these findings indicate an adverse but potentially reversible consequence of COVID-19 on sperm quality.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthenozoospermia/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , China , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Humans , Male , Progesterone/blood , Prolactin/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen/physiology , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa/physiology , Time Factors
14.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 421-428, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888434

ABSTRACT

Sperm morphology was once believed as one of the most predictive indicators of pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART). However, the impact of teratozoospermia on in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes and its offspring remains inconclusive. In order to evaluate the influence of teratozoospermia on pregnancy outcome and newborn status after IVF and ICSI, a retrospective study was conducted. This was a matched case-control study that included 2202 IVF cycles and 2574 ICSI cycles and was conducted at the Reproductive and Genetic Hospital of CITIC-Xiangya in Changsha, China, from June 2013 to June 2018. Patients were divided into two groups based on sperm morphology: teratozoospermia and normal sperm group. The pregnancy outcome and newborn outcome were analyzed. The results indicated that couples with teratozoospermia had a significantly lower optimal embryo rate compared to those with normal sperm morphology in IVF (P = 0.007), while there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the fertilization rate, cleavage rate, implantation rate, and pregnancy rate (all P > 0.05). Additionally, teratozoospermia was associated with lower infant birth weight in multiple births after IVF. With regard to ICSI, there was no significant difference in both pregnancy outcome and newborn outcome between the teratozoospermia and normal groups (both P > 0.05). Furthermore, no increase in the risk of birth defects occurred in the teratozoospermia group after IVF/ICSI. Consequently, we believe that teratozoospermia has limited predictive value for pregnancy outcomes in IVF/ICSI, and has little impact on the resulting offspring if multiple pregnancy is avoided.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887750

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to explore the role of osteoclast differentiation in the occurrence of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA).@*METHODS@#A mouse TMJOA model was constructed. Micro-CT was used to observe the changes in condylar bone during the development of TMJOA. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the histological structure changes of the condyle of TMJOA mice. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was used to observe the presence of osteoclasts in TMJOA joint tissue. The synovial fluid of patients with TMJ-OA was collected to determine the effect on osteoclast differentiation.@*RESULTS@#Micro-CT revealed that the condyle of the TMJOA group had the most obvious damage in the second and third weeks, and the shape of the condyles also changed in a beak-like manner. HE staining showed that the condyle cartilage and subchondral bone structure of TMJOA mice were disordered in the second week. TRAP tissue staining showed that the number of osteoclasts of the TMJOA group obviously increased in the second week. Results of cell experiments showed that the number of osteoclast differentiation significantly increased after stimulation of synovial fluid from TMJOA patients, and the cell volume increased.@*CONCLUSIONS@#TMJOA animal models and TMJOA patient synovial cell experiments could induce osteoclast differentiation, indicating that osteoclast differentiation plays an important role in TMJOA occurrence.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Mice , Osteoarthritis , Osteoclasts , Temporomandibular Joint , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885375

ABSTRACT

Shanghai East Hospital has built a general practice residency training information system based on "Internet +" technology since 2017. This training system effectively promoted the training quality, improved the clinical and research ability of general practitioners, and strengthened the supervision of the training. It has improved the training satisfaction, increased passing rate of national medical licensing examination and graduation comprehensive examination of trainees. This training system can largely break the time and space limitations, and has strong replicability. It may provide reference to optimize the general practice standardized residency training for other institutions.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883101

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the feasibility of using anastomotic stoma as a long-term vascular access to maintain hemodialysis in patients who cannot establish an effective vascular access after ACUSEAL graft occlusion.Methods:A rare case of brachial artery-right atrium ACUSEAL artificial blood vessel fistula bypass to establish vascular access occlusion, the use of artificial blood vessel anastomosis stoma to establish buttonhole puncture as a long-term vascular access and the corresponding nursing methods.Results:At present, the patients were treated with regular dialysis for 32 months and blunt needle puncture for 23 months.Conclusions:Brachial artery-right atrium ACUSEAL graft is a rare vascular access surgery. As a new type of access with depleted autologous vascular resources, the efficacy is not certain. Because it is different from the traditional vascular prosthesis surgery, once the thrombotic occlusion of the graft fails, the risk and difficulty of reopening by interventional or surgical methods are great. Therefore, it is a challenging and reasonable method to use the limited residual cavity of the anastomosis as a long-term vascular access after occlusion to prolong the service life of the graft.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881483

ABSTRACT

Objective:To retrospectively characterize the perinatal birth defects in the latest 5 years in Minhang District of Shanghai, and provide the evidence to improve the preventive strategies. Methods:The data of perinatal birth defects was retrieved from “Shanghai information reporting system for children with birth defects and disabilities” ,which was recorded by five sentinel hospitals in Minhang District from January 2014 to December 2018. Average proportion of perinatal birth defects in the recent 5 years, annual variation, comparison with municipal data in the same period, difference between registered population and migrant population, difference between male and female, and common birth defects were determined. Results:The average proportion of perinatal birth defects in the recent 5 years was determined to be 6.24‰, which increased from 5.32‰ in 2014 to 7.90‰ in 2018. It was lower than the municipal proportion in Shanghai with an average of 11.02 ‰ (from 9.7 ‰ in 2014 to 14.00 ‰ in 2018). The proportion was higher in resident population (9.15‰) than that in migrant population (5.57‰). In addition, the proportion was higher in male infants (6.81‰) than that in female infants (5.59‰). The first two common defects were congenital heart disease and polydactyly, while cleft lip and cleft lip with palate showed a decreasing trend. Conclusion:In the recent 5 years, the proportion of birth defect increases, which is consistent with the whole city. There remain challenges in the maternal and children healthcare.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876715

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, so as to provide insights into the assessment of the risk of schistosomiasis transmission and the scientific formulation of the schistosomiasis surveillance strategy. Methods From 2015 to 2019, a total of 19 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, including 4 fixed sites and 15 mobile sites. Snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling in combination with environmental sampling, and the infection of Schistosoma japonicum was detected by the crushing method combined with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Results From 2015 to 2019, snail habitats were detected at areas of 17 040 to 39 527 m2, including 6 214 m2 emerging snail habitats and 16 563 m2 re-emerging snail habitats. The overall mean density of living snails was 0.019 2 snails/0.1 m2 and the occurrence of frames with snails was 1.11% in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites; however, no S. japonicum infection was identified in snails. The area of snail habitats increased by 121.46% in the national surveillance sites in 2019 as compared to that in 2015; however, 50.34% (Z = −0.422, P > 0.05) and 42.85% (χ2 = 130.41, P < 0.01) reductions were seen in the overall means density of living snails and the occurrence of frames with snails. All snail habitats were distributed in the 4 fixed surveillance sites, and were mainly found in ditches, paddy fields and dry lands, with weeds as the primary vegetation type. Conclusions There are still risk factors leading to re-emergent transmission of schistosomiasis in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, such as local snail spread, and the monitoring of schistosomiasis remains to be reinforced to further consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination in the region.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909342

ABSTRACT

Alanyl-glutamine dipeptide is an important component in parenteral nutrition, which can be decomposed into alanine and L-glutamine in vivo. It plays multiple functions including maintaining intestinal barrier, improving immunity, promoting protein synthesis, and regulating the production and release of inflammatory mediators. Substantial clinical evidences have demonstrated its favorable effectiveness and safety. Rational application of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide can reduce postoperative complications, shorten hospital stay and save medical costs. There are still controversies at home and abroad on the applicable population and dosage of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide. Chinese Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition organized China's experts of related disciplines to compile international standards in accordance with the latest guidelines and consensus, so as to achieve the goal of standardized application and patient benefits.

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