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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 507-513, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922927

ABSTRACT

The key factors for producing the best quality Chinese herbal medicines are high-quality germplasm, suitable cultivation area and the proper processing methods for herbal raw materials. Gentiana crassicaulis in Gentiana (Sect. Cruciata), Gentianaceae is one of the original plants of the Chinese herb Qinjiao (Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix), and its type specimen was collected in Lijiang, Yunnan. There is a long planting history of the herb in this area. In this study a sampling plot was designated in these traditional planting areas. G. crassicaulis was planted and herbal raw materials were harvested from the plot. The raw materials were prepared locally and at a pharmaceutical factory in Shanghai using processing methods such as "sweating" or "no sweating", "slicing" or "no slicing" (whole root), and "stoving" or "no stoving" (air drying). The quality of all processed samples was evaluated. In addition, molecular markers were determined for identifying cultivated and wild samples from Lijiang, Yunnan. The results are as follows: ① Samples from the sampling plot and the field are taxonomically identified as Gentiana crassicaulis. ② A total of 270 sequences of trnC-GCA-petN, atpB-rbcL, psbN, ndhB-rps7 and ycf1 were obtained, and three genotypes were determined from the cultivated samples; the type III was shared by both cultivated and wild plants. Based on the molecular markers, a DNA barcoding method to identify cultivated and wild samples of G. crassicaulis from Lijiang, Yunnan was established. ③ Total content of loganic acid and gentiopicroside in all samples was ≥ 2.5%, and above the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020) limit. ④ In HPLC fingerprinting, 9 common peaks were assigned and similarity between all samples was > 0.999; and ⑤ In a PCA score plot all slice samples were clustered, while whole root samples were scattered. Therefore, our studies could provide basic data for optimizing the processing method, producing best quality Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, and evaluating the quality of different ecotype varieties and the multiple origin of herbal medicines.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913800

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Current variability in methods for tumor mutational burden (TMB) estimation and reporting demonstrates the urgent need for a homogeneous TMB assessment approach. Here, we compared TMB distributions in different cancer types using two customized targeted panels commonly used in clinical practice. @*Materials and Methods@#TMB spectra of 295- and 1021-gene panels in multiple cancer types were compared using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). The TMB distributions across a diverse cohort of 2,332 cancer cases were then investigated for their associations with clinical features. Treatment response data were collected for 222 patients who received immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and their homologous recombination DNA damage repair (HR-DDR) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression were additionally assessed and compared with the TMB and response rate. @*Results@#The median TMB between gene panels was similar despite a wide range in TMB values. The highest TMB was 8 and 10 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal carcinoma according to the classification of histopathology and cancer types, respectively. Twenty-three out of 103 patients (22.3%) were HR-DDR‒positive and could benefit from ICI therapy; out of those 23 patients, seven patients had high TMB (p=0.004). Additionally, PD-L1 expression was not associated with TMB or treatment response among patients receiving ICIs. @*Conclusion@#Targeted NGS assays demonstrated the ability to evaluate TMB in pan-cancer samples as a tool to predict response to ICIs. In addition, TMB integrated with HR-DDR‒positive status could be a significant biomarker for predicting ICI response in patients.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910165

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the risk factors of adverse pregnancy outcomes for induced abortion of cesarean scar pregnancy in midtrimester.Methods:A national multicenter retrospective study was conducted. A total of 154 singletons pregnant women with cesarean scar pregnancy during the second trimester induced abortion by various reasons in 12 tertiary A hospitals were selected, their pregnant outcomes were observed and the risk factors of serious adverse outcomes were analyzed with univariate and multivariate logstic regression; the role of ultrasound and MRI in predicting placenta accreta and severe adverse outcomes was evaluated, the effectiveness of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in preventing hemorrhage in pregnant women with and without placenta accreta was compared.Results:Among 154 subjects, the rate of placenta accreta was 42.2% (65/154), the rate of postpartum hemorrhage≥1 000 ml was 39.0% (60/154), the rate of hysterectomy was 14.9% (23/154), the rate of uterine rupture was 0.6% (1/154). The risk factor of postpartum hemorrhage≥1 000 ml and hysterectomy was placenta accreta ( P<0.01). For each increase in the number of parity, the risk of placenta accreta increased 2.385 times (95% CI: 1.046-5.439; P=0.039); and the risk of placenta accreta decreased with increasing ultrasound measurement of scar myometrium thickness ( OR=0.033, 95% CI: 0.001-0.762; P=0.033). The amount of postpartum hemorrhage and hysterectomy rate in the group with placenta accreta diagnosed by ultrasound combined with MRI were not significantly different from those in the group with placenta accreta diagnosed by ultrasound only or MRI only (all P>0.05). For pregnant women with placenta accreta, there were no significant difference in the amount of bleeding and hysterectomy rate between the UAE group [median: 1 300 ml; 34% (16/47)] and the non-embolization group (all P>0.05); in pregnant women without placenta accreta, the amount of bleeding in the UAE group was lower than that in the non-embolization group (median: 100 vs 600 ml; P<0.01), but there was no significant difference in hysterectomy rate [2% (1/56) vs 9% (3/33); P>0.05]. Conclusions:(1) Placenta accreta is the only risk factor of postpartum hemorrhage≥1 000 ml with hysterectomy for induced abortion of cesarean scar pregnancy in midtrimester; multi-parity and ultrasound measurement of scar myometrium thickness are risk factors for placenta accreta. (2) The technique of using ultrasound and MRI in predicting placenta accreta of cesarean scar pregnancy needs to be improved. (3) It is necessary to discuss of UAE in preventing postpartum hemorrhage for induced abortion of cesarean scar pregnancy in midtrimester.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910019

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the effect of systematic exercise with a self-designed foot-ankle exerciser on postoperative ankle function in patients with tibial pilon fracture.Methods:A retrospective study was conducted of the 84 patients with tibial pilon fracture who had been treated by open reduction and internal fixation at Nanhua Hospital Affiliated to Nanhua University from May 2018 to January 2020. According to the difference in rehabilitation, they were divided into a control group ( n=42) which were subjected to staged functional rehabilitation after operation and an observation group ( n=42) which was subjected to systematic exercise with a self-designed foot-ankle exerciser. In the control group there was 26 males and 16 females with an age of (36.6±4.8) years (from 20 to 55 years); in the observational group there were 27 males and 15 females with an age of (36.4±4.5) years (from 21 to 57 years). The 2 groups were compared in terms of postoperative recovery, ankle functional recovery, postoperative quality of life, and rate of complications. Results:The 2 groups were comparable due to the insignificant differences in their preoperative general data ( P>0.05). The time for first ambulation [(3.7±0.3) weeks], time for fracture union [(9.1±0.8) weeks], and time for full-weight bearing [(6.5±0.9) weeks] in the observational group were all significantly shorter than those in the control group [(4.1±0.5) weeks, (10.9±1.2) weeks and (7.2±1.1) weeks] ( P<0.05). The good to excellent rate of ankle functional recovery was 92.9% (39/42) for the observational group, significantly higher than that for the control group (73.8%, 31/42) ( P<0.05). The scores for postoperative quality of life in the observational group were significantly higher than those in the control group in dimensions of material, psychology, society and body ( P<0.05). The rate of total postoperative complications in the observational group was 2.4% (1/42), significantly lower than that in the control group (10.9%, 8/42) ( P<0.05). Conclusions:For patients with tibial pilon fracture undergoing the same surgical procedures, systematic exercise with our self-designed foot-ankle exerciser can promote functional recovery of the ankle joint, improve postoperative quality of life, and reduce incidence of postoperative complications.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909342

ABSTRACT

Alanyl-glutamine dipeptide is an important component in parenteral nutrition, which can be decomposed into alanine and L-glutamine in vivo. It plays multiple functions including maintaining intestinal barrier, improving immunity, promoting protein synthesis, and regulating the production and release of inflammatory mediators. Substantial clinical evidences have demonstrated its favorable effectiveness and safety. Rational application of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide can reduce postoperative complications, shorten hospital stay and save medical costs. There are still controversies at home and abroad on the applicable population and dosage of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide. Chinese Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition organized China's experts of related disciplines to compile international standards in accordance with the latest guidelines and consensus, so as to achieve the goal of standardized application and patient benefits.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907984

ABSTRACT

The clinical data of a case of neonatal bacterial meningitis complicated with posterior fossa subdural empyema in the West China Second University Hospital in December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed.The 3-day-old male newborn was admitted for jaundice with decreased intake for 1 day.Examinations on admission showed increased C-reactive protein.The count of karyocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) significantly increased, which were mainly neutrophils, and pyocytes could be found.The protein content in CSF increased, while that of glucose decreased.Both CSF culture and blood culture detected the presence of Escherichia coli.Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head indicated large abnormal signals in bilateral occipital extra-cerebellar spaces.T1-weighted images presented mixed low and high signals, and T2-weighted images presented high signals, and marginal enhancement was observed after enhancement.After 6 weeks of antibiotic treatment using Meropenem combined with Ceftazidime, the CSF index of the newborn patient returned to normal, and the subdural empyema of the posterior fossae subsided.Bacterial meningitis complicated with subdural empyema of posterior fossa is a rare and critical disease of the central nervous system.It is easily misdiagnosed due to the atypical clinical manifestations and early imaging features.The disease requires an adequate course of anti-infective treatment.Surgical removal of the empyema should be performed if the anti-infective treatment is unresponsive.

7.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 223-229, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of pneumoconiosis among migrant workers without liability subject(hereinafter referred to as Pneumoconiosis without Liability Subject) in Hunan Province. METHODS: The cases of pneumoconiosis without liability subject from 2017 to 2019 in Hunan Province were selected as the research subjects using typical sampling method. They were clinical diagnosis by occupational disease diagnostic institutions. The distributions of age, gender, length of service, area, type of work, type of pneumoconiosis, pneumoconiosis stage and the situation of poor households with filing and registration card were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 18 870 cases of pneumoconiosis without liability subject were clinically diagnosed in Hunan Province from 2017 to 2019. The patients were mainly males(accounting for 99.8%), with the age ranged 50-65 years old(64.7%). Most of them had dust exposure service length of 5-29 years(78.4%). The cases of stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ pneumoconiosis accounted for 32.2%, 26.0% and 41.8% respectively. The main types of disease were coal workers′ pneumoconiosis and silicosis(accounted for 99.3%). The first five geographical distributions were Chenzhou City, Zhuzhou City, Hengyang City, Yiyang City and Shaoyang City, accounting for 17.9%, 14.6%, 14.1%, 11.8% and 9.2% respectively. The distribution of work types were mainly mine-related jobs(91.3%). There were 1 774 cases who had complications(9.4%), of which the top three complications were emphysema, pulmonary and bronchial infection and tuberculosis. There were 3 662 cases with poor households archives and cards(19.4%). CONCLUSION: The hazards of pneumoconiosis among migrant workers in Hunan Province should not be ignored. In 2017, Hunan Province took the lead in launching a large-scale basic medical treatment and rescue operation for migrant workers with pneumoconiosis, which helped solve the problem of pneumoconiosis in migrant workers who had no professional history certification and responsible employer.

8.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 858-876, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922480

ABSTRACT

There remains a significant gap in our quantitative understanding of crosstalk between apoptosis and necroptosis pathways. By employing the SWATH-MS technique, we quantified absolute amounts of up to thousands of proteins in dynamic assembling/de-assembling of TNF signaling complexes. Combining SWATH-MS-based network modeling and experimental validation, we found that when RIP1 level is below ~1000 molecules/cell (mpc), the cell solely undergoes TRADD-dependent apoptosis. When RIP1 is above ~1000 mpc, pro-caspase-8 and RIP3 are recruited to necrosome respectively with linear and nonlinear dependence on RIP1 amount, which well explains the co-occurrence of apoptosis and necroptosis and the paradoxical observations that RIP1 is required for necroptosis but its increase down-regulates necroptosis. Higher amount of RIP1 (>~46,000 mpc) suppresses apoptosis, leading to necroptosis alone. The relation between RIP1 level and occurrence of necroptosis or total cell death is biphasic. Our study provides a resource for encoding the complexity of TNF signaling and a quantitative picture how distinct dynamic interplay among proteins function as basis sets in signaling complexes, enabling RIP1 to play diverse roles in governing cell fate decisions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 8/metabolism , GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Necroptosis , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3553-3566, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922424

ABSTRACT

Rescuing cells from stress damage emerges a potential therapeutic strategy to combat myocardial infarction. Protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA) is a major phenolic acid in Chinese herb Danshen (

10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1582-1588, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922299

ABSTRACT

METHODS@#The clinical data of 53 COVID-19 patients were collected from a single center in Wuhan from February 8, 2020 to March 25, 2020. The patients were divided into severe type group (38 patients) and critical type group (15 patients). The clinical characteristics, indexes of liver function, coagulation function and inflammatory markers were analyzed retrospectively. According to the degree of abnormal liver function in the process of diagnosis and treatment, the patients were divided into three groups: combined liver injury, mild abnormal liver function and normal liver function group. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square test.@*RESULTS@#Among the 53 patients, 29 were male (54.7%) and 24 were female (45.3%), the median age was 57(27-80) years old. The time from onset to admission was (11.5±7.7) days. The levels of AST, TBIL, DBIL, ALP, GGT, LDH, D-dimer, PCT and hsCRP in critical patients were higher than those in severe patients (P<0.05). The levels of Alb in critical patients was lower than those in severe patients (P<0.05). Among the 53 patients, 34 (64%) patients showed abnormal elevation of ALT, AST or TBIL, while 4 (7.5%) patients showed the criteria of COVID-19 with liver injury. After the patients were grouping according to the degree of liver dysfunction, the levels of ALP, GGT and D-dimer of the patients in the liver injury group were significantly higher than those in the normal liver function group, D-dimer levels of the patients in the liver injury group was significantly higher than those in the mild abnormal liver function group, while the levels of ALP and GGT in the mild abnormal liver function group were significantly higher than those in the normal liver function group, and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In this group, the patients with COVID-19 severe/critical type have a certain proportion of liver injury accompanied by significantly increased D-dimer levels, critical type patients have more severe liver function and coagulation dysfunction, which may promote the progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921817

ABSTRACT

Tongsaimai Tablets/Capsules are composed of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Codonopsis Radix, Dendrobii Caulis, Astragali Radix, Scrophulariae Radix, and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and are effective in promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, supplementing Qi, and nourishing Yin. It is widely used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. With 40 years of clinical application, it has accumulated substantial research data and application experience. Its good clinical efficacy and pharmacoeconomic benefits in improving the clinical symptoms of peripheral vascular diseases have been confirmed by relevant research. Meanwhile, this drug has also been recommended by many expert consensus, guidelines, and teaching materials, serving as one of the most commonly used Chinese patent medicines in clinical practice. To further improve the understanding of the drug among clinicians and properly guide its clinical medication, the China Association of Chinese Medicine took the lead and organized experts to jointly formulate this expert consensus. Based on the questionnaire survey of clinicians and the systematic review of research literature on Tongsaimai Tablets/Capsules with clinical problems in the PICO framework, the consensus, combined with expert experience, concludes recommendations or consensus suggestions by GRADE system with the optimal evidence available through the nominal group technique. This consensus defines the indications, usage, dosage, course of treatment, medication time, combined medication, and precautions of Tongsaimai Tablets/Capsules in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases, and explains the safety of its clinical application. It is recommended for clinicians and pharmacists in the peripheral vascular department(vascular surgery), traditional Chinese medicine surgery(general surgery), and endocrinology department of hospitals at all levels in China.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Consensus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Tablets
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921742

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the quality and safety problems have been limiting the internationalization of Chinese medicine. The pollutants in Chinese medicine, particularly the exogenous harmful pollutants mainly including mycotoxins, pesticide residues, heavy metals, harmful elements, and sulfur dioxide, are of high risks for people. Therefore, the World Health Organization(WHO) and relevant national organizations have clearly defined the maximum residue limits(MRLs) of such pollutants. Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition, volume Ⅳ) also demonstrates the detection methods, MRLs and preliminary risk assessment methods for four typical exogenous harmful pollutants in Chinese medicine. Therefore, continuous optimization of the health risk assessment system can further help further raise the quality and safety of Chinese medicine. This paper reviews the research on the health risk assessment of four typical exogenous harmful pollutants in Chinese medicine and discusses the problems of and challenges for the assessment system, which is expected to lay a scientific basis for the establishment of the risk warning mode and response measures suitable for specific types of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Risk Assessment
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921707

ABSTRACT

The indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ic-ELISA) and direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(dc-ELISA) were performed for the rapid detection of aflatoxin B_1(AFB_1) in Astragali Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Jujubae Fructus, and Nelumbinis Semen with self-made antigens and antibodies. Different extraction methods were investigated to reduce the matrix effects of different medicinal parts in Chinese herbal medicines. The sensitivity of dc-ELISA method was improved by optimizing the molar ratio of AFB_1 to horseradish peroxidase(HRP). In this study, the sensitivity(IC_(50)) of ic-ELISA and dc-ELISA was 0.046 and 0.023 ng·mL~(-1), with the limit of detection(LOD) of 0.007 and 0.004 ng·mL~(-1), respectively. The detection time was 3 h and 50 min for ic-ELISA and dc-ELISA, respectively. The recovery rates were within the range of 62.96%-104.4%, with RSDs of less than 10%. Confirmed by LC-MS/MS, three positive samples of Nelumbinis Semen were detected from 53 samples. Two ELISA methods established in this study were accurate, rapid and sensitive, and can be used for rapid screening of AFB_1 in Chinese herbal medicines such as Astragali Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Jujubae Fructus, and Nelumbinis Semen. In addition, the advantages and limitations of the two methods were compared and discussed, which can provide a reference for the testing institutions to choose the proper method.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxin B1/analysis , China , Chromatography, Liquid , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920749

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the effectiveness of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and microscopic examinations for detection of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania hupensis in transmission-interrupted regions, so as to provide insights into the optimization of snail surveillance tools in these regions. Methods Four hilly schistosomiasis-endemic villages where transmission interruption was achieved were selected in Heqing County of Yunnan Province as the study villages, including Xinzhuang and Gule villages in hilly regions and Lianyi and Yitou villages in dam regions. Snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling combined with environmental sampling in July 2018. All captured snails were identified for S. japonicum infections using microscopy. In addition, 10 to 20 snails were randomly sampled from each snail habitat following microscopy, numbered according to environments and subjected to LAMP assay. The positive rate of settings with S. japonicum-infected snails was compared among villages. Results A total of 7 949 living snails were captured from 83 snail habitats in 4 villages, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. There were 226 mixed samples containing 1 786 snails subjected to LAMP assay, and positive LAMP assay was found in 3 mixed samples from 3 snail habitats in 2 dam villages. The positive rates of settings with S. japonicum-infected snails were comparable between Lianyi Village (one setting) and Yitou Village (2 set tings) (5.89% vs. 14.29%, P = 0.344). However, the overall positive rate of settings with S. japonicum-infected snails was significantly higher in dam villages (9.67%, 3/31) than in hilly villages (0) (P = 0.048). Conclusions LAMP assay is more sensitive to detect S. japonicum infections in O. hupensis than conventional microcopy method, which may serve as a supplementary method for detection of S. japonicum infections in O. hupensis in high-risk snail habitats in hilly transmission-interrupted regions.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888786

ABSTRACT

Candida is an intractable life-threatening pathogen. Candida infection is extremely difficult to eradicate, and thus is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Morevover, the rapid spread of drug-resistant fungi has led to significant decreases in the therapeutic effects of clinical drugs. New anti-Candida agents are urgently needed to solve the complicated medical problem. Natural products with intricate structures have attracted great attention of researchers who make every endeavor to discover leading compounds for antifungal agents. Their novel mechanisms and diverse modes of action expand the variety of fungistatic agents and reduce the emergence of drug resistance. In recent decades, considerable effort has been devoted to finding unique antifungal agents from nature and revealing their unusual mechanisms, which results in important progress on the development of new antifungals, such as the novel cell wall inhibitors YW3548 and SCY-078 which are being tested in clinical trials. This review will present a brief summary on the landscape of anti-Candida natural products within the last decade. We will also discuss in-depth the research progress on diverse natural fungistatic agents along with their novel mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888779

ABSTRACT

The tubers and roots of Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) are widely used as heart medicine or analgesic agents for the treatment of coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis and neuropathic pain since ancient times. As a type of natural products mainly extracted from Aconitum plants, Aconitum alkaloids have complex chemical structures and exert remarkable biological activity, which are mainly responsible for significant effects of Aconitum plants. The present review is to summarize the progress of the pharmacological, toxicological, and pharmacokinetic studies of Aconitum alkaloids, so as to provide evidence for better clinical application. Research data concerning pharmacological, toxicological and pharmacokinetic studies of Aconitum alkaloids were collected from different scientific databases (PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science) using the phrase Aconitum alkaloids, as well as generic synonyms. Aconitum alkaloids are both bioactive compounds and toxic ingredients in Aconitum plants. They produce a wide range of pharmacological activities, including protecting the cardiovascular system, nervous system, and immune system and anti-cancer effects. Notably, Aconitum alkaloids also exert strong cardiac toxicity, neurotoxicity and liver toxicity, which are supported by clinical studies. Finally, pharmacokinetic studies indicated that cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs) and efflux transporters (ETs) are closely related to the low bioavailability of Aconitum alkaloids and play an important role in their metabolism and detoxification in vivo.


Subject(s)
Aconitum/chemistry , Alkaloids/toxicity , Biological Availability , Phytochemicals/toxicity , Plant Roots/chemistry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881248

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To investigate the value of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score in evaluating the severity of hip fracture-induced early acute lung injury (ALI) in the elderly patients. Methods    The clinical data of 289 elderly hip fracture patients in Chongqing Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital from July 2014 to April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were divided into two groups, including an ALI group (n=114, 36 males and 78 females at age of 82.94±6.85 years) and a non-ALI group (n=175, 51 males and 124 females at age of 84.42±6.31 years). General information, chest HRCT scores and PaO2/FiO2 were compared between the two groups. Correlation analysis was used to compare the relationship between chest HRCT scores and PaO2/FiO2. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis was applied to evaluate the effective extent of the diffuse ground glass opacity (DGGO), intense parenchymal opacification (IPO), and reticulation HRCT scores to the overall HRCT scores. Results    The DGGO scores, IPO scores, reticulation scores, overall HRCT scores and PaO2/FiO2 were higher in the ALI group than those in the non-ALI group (P<0.001). In the ALI group, correlation analysis showed that DGGO, overall HRCT scores were in significantly negative correlation with PaO2/FiO2 (P<0.001). In addition, the correlation among PaO2/FiO2 and overall HRCT scores was more significant than that of DGGO scores. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that DGGO, IPO, and reticulation scores were independent influencing factors for overall HRCT scores. Among the influencing factors, DGGO scores had the greatest impact, then IPO scores and reticulation scores. The HRCT signs of DGGO, IPO, and reticulation appeared simultaneously had the greatest effects on the overall HRCT scores. Conclusion    The chest HRCT score, which is associated with PaO2/FiO2, also can be used in the severity assessment of elderly patients with early ALI caused by hip fracture.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 71-88, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881125

ABSTRACT

@#Disrupted redox status primarily contributes to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI). NRF2, the endogenous antioxidant regulator, might provide therapeutic benefits. Dihydrotanshinone-I (DT) is an active component in Salvia miltiorrhiza with NRF2 induction potency. This study seeks to validate functional links between NRF2 and cardioprotection of DT and to investigate the molecular mechanism particularly emphasizing on NRF2 cytoplasmic/nuclear translocation. DT potently induced NRF2 nuclear accumulation, ameliorating post-reperfusion injuries via redox alterations. Abrogated cardioprotection in NRF2-deficient mice and cardiomyocytes strongly supports NRF2-dependent cardioprotection of DT. Mechanistically, DT phosphorylated NRF2 at Ser40, rendering its nuclear-import by dissociating from KEAP1 and inhibiting degradation. Importantly, we identified PKC-δ-(Thr505) phosphorylation as primary upstream event triggering NRF2-(Ser40) phosphorylation. Knockdown of PKC-δ dramatically retained NRF2 in cytoplasm, convincing its pivotal role in mediating NRF2 nuclear-import. NRF2 activity was further enhanced by activated PKB/GSK-3β signaling via nuclear-export signal blockage independent of PKC-δ activation. By demonstrating independent modulation of PKC-δ and PKB/GSK-3β/Fyn signaling, we highlight the ability of DT to exploit both nuclear import and export regulation of NRF2 in treating reperfusion injury harboring redox homeostasis alterations. Coactivation of PKC and PKB phenocopied cardioprotection of DT in vitro and in vivo, further supporting the potential applicability of this rationale. Graphical abstract

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879003

ABSTRACT

Arecae Semen, as the first place among "Four South Medicines" in China, has great dual-use value of medicine and food. The research of Arecae Semen was mainly focused on the active ingredients and efficacy value, and its potential safety hazards were also concerned. Until now, there is still a lack of clear boundaries between medicine and food, resulting in its safety cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, it is of great significance to establish clear boundaries of medicine and food use and health risk assessment. In this paper, the differences of pretreatment and application methods of Arecae Semen were analyzed, and the research progress of Arecae Semen in chemical composition identification and toxicology research and safety evaluation were reviewed emphatically. Finally, the differences of quality control and safety evaluation of Arecae Semen in pharmacopoeias or standards were analyzed at home and abroad. It was expected to provide reference value for quality control, safety evaluation and international standardization research of Arecae Semen.


Subject(s)
Areca , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Seeds , Semen
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888009

ABSTRACT

Eucommiae Cortex is an authentic medicinal material with broad growing areas( such as Hunan and Sichuan provinces in China. It is well-known for its efficacy in tonifying liver and kidney,strengthening muscles and bones,and stabilizing fetus. It has also been proven in pharmacology to possess the functions such as lowering blood pressure and lipids. Hence,Eucommiae Cortex has attracted increasing attention. The current quality standards of Eucommiae Cortex vary in different countries or regions. The quality of Eucommiae Cortex products on the market is affected by mix-ups of non-medicinal parts and insufficient growth years. In view of these problems,this paper summarizes the current quality standards and research progress of Eucommiae Cortex in China and overseas,aiming to provide a reference for the establishment of the quality standards of Eucommiae Cortex.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Eucommiaceae , Humans , Reference Standards
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