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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6519-6525, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008851

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the term "materia medica", scholars have proposed different opinions on its concept. This term has been used to refer to traditional Chinese medicines, or medical books, or traditional pharmacology. Due to the differences in the concept of materia medica, scholars also have controversies about the concept of herbalism. Herbalism is usually understood as traditional Chinese pharmacology. After years of evolution, the term "herbalism" has now possessed the characteristics of an independent discipline, which can be defined as an applied basic discipline that comprehensively utilizes traditional and modern technological methods to study the formation, development, and changes of traditional pharmacology and reveal the basic theories and application laws of traditional medicine. At present, the research content of herbalism mainly includes three aspects: materia medica history, materia medica literature, and traditional pharmacology. This study explores the disciplinary concepts and main research content of herbalism based on a systematic review of the literature about the concepts of materia medica and herbalism, with the aim of attracting more attention to promote the establishment and development of the discipline of herbalism.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Herbal Medicine , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Technology
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4072-4077, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008602

ABSTRACT

According to the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) theory, coronary heart disease(CHD) is mainly caused by heart vessel obstruction due to Qi stagnation, blood stasis, and phlegm turbidity. Chest impediment with combined phlegm and stasis is a common syndrome of CHD, with the manifestations of chest tightness, chest pain, and asthma. Lymphatic system is one of the important immune systems in the human body and has a close relationship with the Qi and blood movement in TCM. The dysfunction of the lymphatic system may lead to metabolism disorders, the generation of dampness pathogen which turns into sticky and difficult-to-dissolve phlegm turbidity. Moreover, it can affect blood circulation and coagulation, causing slow blood flow, increased blood viscosity, and microcirculation disorders. Alterations in lymphatic hydrodynamics may affect the interaction between blood circulation and the lymphatic system. A variety of small molecule drugs and TCM can treat cardiovascular diseases by targeting the lymphatic system. This review discusses the role of the lymphatic system in CHD based on the theory of combined phlegm and stasis, involving the influences of mechanical factors on lymphatic function and the effects and pharmacological mechanisms of TCM and chemicals that target lymphocyte function and lymphatic circulation. By expounding the development process of combined phlegm and stasis in CHD from the lymphatic system, this paper aims to provide new ideas for deciphering pharmacological mechanisms of TCM for resolving phlegm and stasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Disease , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mucus , Lymphatic System , Heart
3.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 247-255, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940716

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which owns abundant chemical components and complex action pathways, has been widely recognized in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Some analysis methods have been emerged in order to ensure the quality of TCM and to develop new TCM drugs. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a soft ionization mass spectrometric technique with the advantages of high throughput, high sensitivity, low cost and so on. It provides technical support for the molecular level study on TCM. At present, this technique has been used in the field of composition analysis and metabonomics research of TCM, and plays an important role in the identification of Chinese herbal medicines, real-time molecular screening and the construction of metabolic network pathway of active ingredients. Among them, the selection of appropriate matrix and sample preparation technology is the key to ensure the detection effect of MALDI-MS. With the development and optimization of new matrix, the continuous improvement of sample preparation technology and the combination of MALDI-MS with various analytical methods will greatly improve the detection effect. Based on this, this paper discusses the application of MALDI-MS in TCM, including high-throughput detection of active ingredients in TCM, monitoring of the original medicines and their metabolites in vivo, and in situ visualization and characterization of tissue distribution information of active ingredients in TCM. It also discusses the application prospect and existing problems of MALDI-MS in TCM, so as to provide technical support for the identification of active ingredients in TCM, drug utilization and metabolism.

4.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 337-346, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940343

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient herbal medicine, prescription books and medical books, combined with modern relevant literature, standards and other information, this paper made a textual research on the name, origin, producing areas, harvesting and processing methods of Astragali Radix according to different historical development periods, providing a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing Astragali Radix. According to the textual research, the original name of Astragali Radix is Huangqi, and "Qi" originally refers to the medicinal material Zhimu. Some people began to mistake it for Huangqi in the Ming dynasty, and then gradually used Astragali Radix as a medicinal material. The mainstream basis of Astragali Radix can be determined as the dried roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus or A. membranaceus. In different historical periods, A. floridus, A. chrysopterus, A. emestii and other plants of Astragalus or even non-Astragalus were used as local Astragali Radix. The earliest production areas of Astragali Radix were Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu, and then gradually expanded to the northeast. Since the Song dynasty, Mianqi in Shanxi province has been regarded as the genuine variety. In the Qing dynasty, besides Shanxi province, Inner Mongolia was also regarded as a genuine place. In the Republic of China, Huangqi produced in northeast China was praised highly. It is mainly produced in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, northeast and other provinces. The main commodity is cultivated products, and the quality of wild imitation cultivation in Datong and Xinzhou is better than other places. There are many processing methods of Huangqi recorded in the materia medica and prescription books, most of which are raw products, and honey processing is the mainstream of processed products. Based on the current situation of resource cultivation and production, 11 famous classical formulas in The Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas (The First Batch) containing Huangqi suggested that all use A. membranaceus var. mongholicus, especially those from Datong and Xinzhou in Shanxi Province. In addition to honey processing of Qingxin Lianziyin, it is suggested to use raw products for other formulas.

5.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 327-336, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940342

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient and modern literature, this paper makes a textual research on the name, origin, producing area, harvesting and processing of Poria, so as to provide a basis for the development of the famous classical formulas containing this medicinal material. The description of Poria and the characteristics of the attached figures in the Chinese herbal literature of the past dynasties are consistent with Poria cocos. The medicinal parts are dried sclerotia or P. cocos peel. Poria was originally produced in Taishan, Shandong province. In the Tang dynasty, along with the change of pine forest resources, producing area of Poria was transferred to Huashan area in Shaanxi province. In the Ming dynasty, the authentic producing area was transferred to Yunnan, and has continued to now. In ancient times, the processing methods of Poria were steaming, boiling, slicing, mashing and other subsequent processing after peeling. It is suggested that Poria in famous classical formulas should be sliced according to the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

6.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 318-326, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940341

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient and modern literature, this paper makes a textual research on the name, origin, producing area, harvesting and processing methods of Asini Corii Colla, so as to provide a basis for the development of the famous classical formulas containing the medicinal material. Before the Tang dynasty, cow leather was the main source of Asini Corii Colla, and donkey was rare as an introduced species. From the end of Tang dynasty to Song dynasty, due to the development of doctors' understanding of the properties and effects of medicines, with the increase of the number of donkeys and the limitation of the use of cow leather, the source of Asini Corii Colla changed from cow leather to donkey skin. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the theory of medicine property was further developed, and all doctors basically agreed that black donkey skin and E-well water were two essential factors for making genuine Asini Corii Colla. Therefore, it is suggested that Asini Corii Colla should take Equus asinus as the authentic origin in the development of the famous classical formulas, attach importance to the quality of water source, take Liaocheng in Shandong province as the authentic producing area, and the processing should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

7.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 306-317, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940340

ABSTRACT

Based on the ancient literature of all dynasties, this article makes a systematic textual research on the name, origin, producing area, quality, harvesting and processing of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex used in the famous classical formulas, and clarifies its information of each link in different historical periods, so as to provide a reference and basis for the development and utilization of the related formulas. The results showed that the main varieties of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex were Magnolia officinalis or M. officinalis var. biloba. The main production areas are Hubei, Sichuan, Chongqing and other places, forming the famous authentic medicine. The processing methods of the past dynasties are mainly cleansing and processing with ginger. In the formulas clearly marked with ginger processing, ginger-processed products is suggested to choose. If not clearly marked, raw or ginger-processed products can be used as needed.

8.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 296-305, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940339

ABSTRACT

This paper made a systematic textual research on the historical evolution and changes of the name, origin, producing area, harvesting and processing methods of Jujubae Fructus used in famous classical formulas by referring to the ancient literature, so as to provide a basis for the sampling and research of the formulas containing the medicinal materials. According to textual research, there are many names of Jujubae Fructus, most of which are named by characters or producing areas, which are called Dazao. Ziziphus jujuba has always been the mainstream variety in all dynasties, and Z. jujuba var. inemmis has also been used. Considering that the differences between the two are not obvious, we can use Z. jujuba and Z. jujuba var. inemmis as the origins of Dazao. The germplasm resources of Jujubae Fructus are rich, which are distributed all over the country. Qingzhou (now Shandong), Jinzhou (now Shanxi) Jiangzhou (now Shanxi), Puzhou (now Shanxi) have been recorded as authentic producing areas of Jujubae Fructus in the past dynasties, especially in Shandong. At the beginning of the 21st century, the planting of Jujubae Fructus in Xinjiang gradually developed, and now has a high market recognition, becoming an emerging production area of high-quality samples. Harvest period of Jujubae Fructus is mostly August in the past dynasties, and this is basically the same as today. The main processing method is simple cleansing and drying. Through textual research, it is suggested that Jujubae Fructus in famous classical formulas should be mainly from Shandong, Shanxi and other traditional high-quality producing areas, the processing method should follow the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia for simple cleansing and drying.

9.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 275-285, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940337

ABSTRACT

Through the combing of ancient books of Chinese herbal medicine in the past dynasties, a textual research of Coptidis Rhizoma involved the name, origin, medicinal parts, producing area, quality evaluation, harvesting and processing methods in famous classical formulas was conducted in this paper. After textual research, the mainstream varieties of Coptidis Rhizoma in the Ranunculaceae family before Tang and Song dynasties were Coptis chinensis and C. chinensis var. brevisepala, after the Ming and Qing dynasties, C. deltoidea, C. teeta and C. omeiensis were gradually praised. In ancient times, the authentic producing area of Coptidis Rhizoma has the characteristics of gradually moving to the west. The eastern Coptidis Rhizoma was highly praised in the early stage, while in the later stage, western Coptidis Rhizoma like chicken feet was highly praised. In the early stage, western Coptidis Rhizoma probably originated from C. chinensis and its genus, while Coptidis Rhizoma like chicken feet was cultivated, and no wild species has been found so far. As Coptidis Rhizoma has mixed use of multiple origins in ancient books of past dynasties, based on the current shortage of market resources in C. teeta and C. deltoidea, there are also endangered and protected plants of C. chinensis var. brevisepala and C. omeiensis, combined with the mainstream medicines and resources of past generations, it is recommended to choose C. chinensis as the base of the formulas. In ancient times, there were many processing methods for Coptidis Rhizoma, such as frying and wine-, ginger-, honey-processed. In the process of developing famous classical formulas, the appropriate processing specifications of Coptidis Rhizoma should be selected based on the original source records and the requirements of the medicinal material.

10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 262-274, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940336

ABSTRACT

Based on various ancient documents such as materia medica, prescription books, classics and history, combined with relevant research materials in modern times, this paper made a textual research on the name, origin, geoherbalism, harvesting time, processing methods of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, which provides a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing this herb. According to the textual research, the original name of Chuanxiong is Xiongqiong (芎䓖), which was first recorded in Shennong Bencaojing , there are many aliases and trade names in the past dynasties. Since the Song dynasty, doctors all take Xiongqiong produced in Sichuan as the best medicine, so they take Chuanxiong as the rectification of name. In the early stage, the origin of Chuanxiong Rhizoma was relatively complicated, and the main origin was Ligusticum chuanxiong, which was a cultivated and domesticated species of Ligusticum. However, wild related plants of Ligusticum are still used as medicine. After the Ming dynasty, new cultivated varieties appeared in various places, such as Jiangxi L. sinense cv. Fuxiong, which gradually turned to self-production and self-marketing after the Republic of China. After several changes in the authentic producing area of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Tianshui in Gansu province was highly praised in the Tang dynasty, and Dujiangyan in Sichuan province was the best place in the Song dynasty and later dynasties. Chuanxiong Rhizoma has been widely used in the past dynasties as raw products, and it has also been processed with excipients. For example, wine-processed products can enhance the effect of promoting blood circulation, promoting Qi circulation and relieving pain. There are other processing methods such as stir-frying and vinegar processing. Chuanxiong Rhizoma in the famous classical formulas can be selected according to this research conclusion.

11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 238-246, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940334

ABSTRACT

By consulting the ancient herbal and medical books, combined with modern literature, the name, origin, geoherbalism, harvesting and processing changes of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias in famous classical formulas were sorted out. According to the research, ancient doctors only approved three kinds of bamboo medicinal materials, namely, Jinzhu (䈽竹), Kuzhu (苦竹) and Danzhu (淡竹), and took bamboo leaves, made Bambusae Caulis in Taenias and Zhuli (竹沥) for medicine. Bamboo medicinal materials with different origins have different properties, tastes and effects, after clinical optimization, it is gradually considered that Danzhu is the best source of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias and Zhuli. According to the morphological description of the original plants and the attached drawings, it is considered that the Danzhu in ancient Chinese materia medica should be Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis, which has been included in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia as one of the genuine sources of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias. Therefore, It is suggested that P. nigra var. henonis can be added as the source of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias in famous classical formulas, and the medicinal part is the dry middle layer of its stem. Ginger-processed can increase the anti emetic effect of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias, and the three formulas involving Bambusae Caulis in Taenias from The Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas (The First Batch) all contain ginger, and the processing method of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias is not marked in the original formula, so it is suggested to use raw products in the three formulas of Jupi Zhurutang, Wendantang and Zhurutang.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 229-237, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940333

ABSTRACT

In this study, name, origin, producing areas, harvesting time and processing methods of ancient Alismatis Rhizoma were systematically researched by consulting the literature of ancient herbs, medical and prescription books, so as to provide a basis for the development of famous classical formula containing this herb. According to textual research, the main base of ancient Alismatis Rhizoma was Alisma plantago-aquatica and A. orientale. A. canaliculatum and A. gramineum and other genera were sometimes used as the source of Alismatis Rhizoma, there was a confusion of medicinal varieties. The earliest producing area of Alismatis Rhizoma was in today's Henan province, and later Hanzhong, Shaanxi province, became the high-quality producing area of Alismatis Rhizoma. Since the Ming dynasty, its production area expanded to Fujian. In the Qing dynasty, Jian'ou in Fujian was the authentic production area of Alismatis Rhizoma. In the period of the Republic of China, Sichuan and Jiangxi were added to the production areas of Alismatis Rhizoma. Based on the research results, it is suggested that the dried tubers of A. orientale from Fujian and Jiangxi or A. plantago-aquatica from Sichuan should be used in the famous classical formulas. In ancient times, Alismatis Rhizoma was processed by wine, but most of the standards and specifications in modern times are no longer included the processing specifications of Alismatis Rhizoma with wine. Although salt-processed Alismatis Rhizoma is commonly used in modern times, it didn't become one of the main processing methods until the Qing dynasty. According to the relevant national documents, it is suggested that Alismatis Rhizoma without clear processing requirements in famous classical formulas should be used as raw products, and the formulas with processing requirements should be selected as processed products such as salt and wine according to the meaning of the formulas.

13.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 215-228, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940332

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient herbal and medical books, combined with the field investigation, the name, origin, collection and processing of Dendrobium medicinal materials were researched, which provided a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing this kind of herbs. Due to the wide distribution of D. officinale, the Dendrobium species represented by D. officinale and D. huoshanense, which are short, fleshy and rich in mucus, should be the most mainstream of Dendrobium medicinal materials in previous dynasties. Compared with Shihu, Muhu with loose texture, long and hollow is born on trees. According to the characteristic description, it should be D. nobile, D. fimbriatum and so on, of which D. nobile was the mainstream. The Chinese meaning of Jinchai was confused in the past dynasties, so it was not suitable to be treated as a plant name. The production areas of Dendrobium medicinal materials in the past dynasties have changed with the discovery of varieties, artificial cultivation and other factors. Lu'an, Anhui province, was the earliest recorded in the Han and Wei dynasties. Since the Tang and Song dynasties, it had been extended to Guangdong and Guangxi, and it was considered that "Dendrobii Caulis in Guangnan was the best". In the Ming dynasty, Sichuan and Zhejiang products were highly praised, and in the Qing dynasty, Huoshan products were highly praised. Dendrobium medicinal materials had been used as medicine by stems in all dynasties. The medicinal materials were divided into fresh products and dry products. The fresh products can be used immediately after removing the sediment from the roots. The dry products need further processing, most of them used wine as auxiliary materials for steaming, simmer to paste or decoction into medicine. D. officinale and D. huoshanense have special processing specifications since the middle of Qing dynasty, that is, "Fengdou". According to the research results, in Ganluyin, the effect of Dendrobium medicinal materials is mainly heat clearing, and D. nobile with bitter taste can be selected. The main effect of Dendrobium medicinal materials in Dihuang Yinzi is tonic, D. officinale or D. huoshanense can be selected.

14.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 55-67, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940316

ABSTRACT

Based on the ancient literature of all dynasties, this article makes a systematic textual research on the name, origin, producing area, quality, harvesting and processing of Zisu (Perillae) in the famous classical formulas, so as to clarify the information of the drug in different historical periods and provide a reference for the development and utilization of the related formulas. The main origin of Perillae in the ancient literature was Perilla frutescens var. frutescens (purple leaf type), followed by P. frutescens var. acuta (purple leaf type), but not Baisu. Modern chemical composition studies also show that there are obvious differences between Perillae and Baisu, which provides a scientific basis for distinguishing them. Although they are often treated as a species in plant classification, P. frutescens var. frutescens (purple leaf type) is recommended in the development of famous classical formulas, and Baisu should be avoided. Perillae is widely distributed, but its producing area did not record in most of the literature in the past dynasties, or the producing area is described as everywhere today. In the period of the Southern and Northern dynasties, the medicinal parts of Perillae included stems, leaves and seeds, and doctors in the Ming dynasty began to pay attention to the differentiation of different medicinal parts. The harvesting and processing methods of Perillae in the past dynasties are close to that of today. Perillae Fructus is mostly stir-fried and ground into medicine, Perillae Folium and Perillae Caulis are mainly simple cleansing. In production, we can refer to the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

15.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 42-54, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940315

ABSTRACT

The name, origin, place of origin, medicinal parts, harvesting and processing of lotus are verified by consulting ancient Chinese herbal medicines and medical books, combined with modern literature, providing a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing lotus. According to textual research, the original base of lotus is Nelumbo nucifera since ancient times, rhizome (Nelumbinis Rhizomatis Nodus), leaf (Nelumbinis Folium), seed (Nelumbinis Semen), embryo (Nelumbinis Plumula), receptacle (Nelumbinis Receptaculum), stamen (Nelumbinis Stamen) and other medicinal parts of N. nucifera can be used as medicine and have different clinical effects. Nelumbinis Semen was originally produced in Henan, and then gradually expanded to Jiangnan. Today, it can be cultivated and planted throughout the country, with Fujian, Hunan, and Jiangxi as the authentic production areas. After combing the medicinal parts of N. nucifera and the historical evolution of its processing, it is suggested that the dried and mature fruits of N. nucifera taking in autumn and removing the shell and Nelumbinis Plumula should be used in Qingxin Lianziyin. Nelumbinis Folium in Erdongtang should be harvested in summer and autumn, and the raw products was used as medicine and processed in accordance with the provision of the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 1-10, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940312

ABSTRACT

This paper systematically combs and analyzes the existing research related to the textual research of famous classical formulas, summarizes the problems and deficiencies of the current research, and puts forward the key points and suggestions of the textual research of famous classical formulas, so as to provide reference for the research related to the textual research of famous classical formulas. This paper discusses from the perspectives of paying attention to the similarities and differences of ancient and modern drug textual research connotation, paying attention to the comprehensive utilization of multi-dimensional information, paying attention to the combing and textual research of different key links of drug historical evolution, paying attention to the combing of the evolution of modern scientific name textual research, paying attention to the textual research principle of respecting the ancient but not sticking to it, and paying attention to the basic knowledge of philology, and puts forward the current situation, problems and countermeasures of formula textual research to herbal textual research based on the in-depth summary and analysis of the results, absorbs the advantages of previous scholars, supplements the shortcomings of previous research, and forms a unique research system according to the characteristics of famous classical formulas. That is, pay attention to the context of historical changes and cross-sectional analysis. On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the historical changes of different key links such as the origin, authentic production areas, medicinal parts and processing, the reasonable key information of famous classical formula drugs in different periods was given by fully absorbing the research results of modern times and combining the current productivity and cognitive level, laying a foundation for the development of famous classical formulas.

17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1846-1850, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879100

ABSTRACT

Indication and functions is an important key information in the research and development of the ancient classical formulas, which directly affects the clinical positioning of the compound formulas and their reasonable, effective and safe use after marke-ting. It is also the embodiment of the ultimate vitality of ancient classical formulas. Due to the particularity of ancient classical formulas, it is of great significance to accurately define and describe the functions and indications of classical formulas to exert their unqiue advantages. Based on the analysis of the provenances, classification of clinical indications, and functions of 100 prescriptions in the Catalogue of Ancient Classical Formulas(First Batch), this paper summarized the incompleteness, irregularity and inconsistency in the original text, the differences in terminology between ancient and modern times, and the evolution of the meanings of prescriptions in different dynasties. In addition, under the guidance of the general principle of textual researh on ancient classical formulas, which is to inherit the essence, make the past serve the present, link up the past and the present, and bulid consensus, this paper proposed the following ideas: respecting the original meanings and provenances of ancient classical formulas, taking full consideration of the development and evolution, serving the current clinical application and health needs, accurately linking up the ancient and modern terminologies, standardizing the expression of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) terminology, highlighting the characteristics of TCM, attaching importance to the textual research principles and suggestions of post-marketing evidence-based and clinical positioning research, so as to determine the the functions and indications of the ancient classical formulas in a scientific, standardized and reasonable way and better guide the clinical application of the classical formulas.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Oils, Volatile , Prescriptions
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6549-6557, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921815

ABSTRACT

Ophiopogonis Radix is an important Yin-nourishing drug in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), with the effects of nourishing Yin, promoting fluid production, clearing away heart-fire, and relieving restlessness. It is widely used in clinical practice due to its multiple chemical components and pharmacological effects. The technique "mapping knowledge domains" is an effective tool to quantitatively and objectively visualize the development frontiers and trends of certain disciplines. In this study, TCM research papers related to Ophiopogonis Radix were retrieved from Web of Science(WoS) and CNKI, and the research institutions, journals, and keywords involved were visualized and analyzed using the scientometric software CiteSpace. The co-occurrence network of related research on Ophiopogonis Radix was constructed, and the Ophiopogonis Radix-disease-target network was plotted using Cytoscape 3.8.2. The hot topics in Chinese and English papers were analyzed and the shortcomings in the research on Ophiopogonis Radix were summed up. Furthermore, the development trends were discussed. A total of 1 403 Chinese papers and 292 English papers were included in this study. The analysis of research institutions showed that Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and China Pharmaceutical University were the two research institutions with the largest numbers of papers published. The analysis of journals showed that Hebei Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Journal of Asian Natural Products Research were the two journals with the highest numbers of papers concerning Ophiopogonis Radix. The keyword analysis showed that the research contents of Chinese papers focused on the analysis of medication regularity and clinical observation trials, while the English papers focused on component analysis and pharmacological investigation. Data mining and apoptosis-based pharmacological mechanism might be the research trends in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Data Mining , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots , Publications
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5936-5943, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921716

ABSTRACT

The disease-gene-drug multi-level network constructed by network pharmacology can predict drug targets and has been widely used in the study of material basis and mechanism of action of Chinese medicinal prescriptions. However, most of the current studies have normalized the efficacies of Chinese herbal medicines in the compounds during the construction of the network. There is also a lack of in-depth exploration of the mechanism of synergy among multiple components. This study proposed a network module partition method based on group collaboration and the pharmacological network was weighed according to the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) theory of "monarch, minister, assistant and guide". Taking the Tanyu Tongzhi Prescription as an example, we constructed its pharmacological network for the treatment of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. The group collaboration module in the network was identified and the network changes before and after the weighting were compared based on the network topology analysis to explore a new method to find the core nodes of the network as well as the core drugs that affected the efficacy of the compounds. The results showed that the module partition method based on group collaboration could be used to identify and partition group collaboration mo-dules in pharmacological networks of compounds. The proposed weighted network based on the TCM theory of "monarch, minister, assistant, and guide" could identify and partition the modules based on the characteristics of the pharmacological network. The identification and partition results of modules of Tanyu Tongzhi Prescription in the weighted network were superior to those in the unweighted network. The weighted closeness centrality(WCC) evaluation method was conducive to finding key nodes and relations in the network as compared with traditional methods, thereby providing a basis for analyzing the core components of drugs and extracting more accurate drug components and targets.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clergy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Network Pharmacology , Research Design
20.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 893-905, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878305

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Several COVID-19 patients have overlapping comorbidities. The independent role of each component contributing to the risk of COVID-19 is unknown, and how some non-cardiometabolic comorbidities affect the risk of COVID-19 remains unclear.@*Methods@#A retrospective follow-up design was adopted. A total of 1,160 laboratory-confirmed patients were enrolled from nine provinces in China. Data on comorbidities were obtained from the patients' medical records. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio ( @*Results@#Overall, 158 (13.6%) patients were diagnosed with severe illness and 32 (2.7%) had unfavorable outcomes. Hypertension (2.87, 1.30-6.32), type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (3.57, 2.32-5.49), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (3.78, 1.81-7.89), fatty liver disease (7.53, 1.96-28.96), hyperlipidemia (2.15, 1.26-3.67), other lung diseases (6.00, 3.01-11.96), and electrolyte imbalance (10.40, 3.00-26.10) were independently linked to increased odds of being severely ill. T2DM (6.07, 2.89-12.75), CVD (8.47, 6.03-11.89), and electrolyte imbalance (19.44, 11.47-32.96) were also strong predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Women with comorbidities were more likely to have severe disease on admission (5.46, 3.25-9.19), while men with comorbidities were more likely to have unfavorable treatment outcomes (6.58, 1.46-29.64) within two weeks.@*Conclusion@#Besides hypertension, diabetes, and CVD, fatty liver disease, hyperlipidemia, other lung diseases, and electrolyte imbalance were independent risk factors for COVID-19 severity and poor treatment outcome. Women with comorbidities were more likely to have severe disease, while men with comorbidities were more likely to have unfavorable treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
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