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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294404

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the changing laws of serum high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in septic rats and intervention effect of Xuebijing on it.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg BW) was intravenously injected into the tail vein of healthy male Wistar rats to prepare the sepsis rat model. In Experiment 1: 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., the normal group (A, n=10); the LPS model group (B, n=10), the LPS +Xuebijing treatment group (C, n=30). Rats in the C group were further divided into three subgroups, i.e., 2 h before LPS injection (group C1), 2 h after LPS injection (group C2), and 8 h after LPS injection (group C3), 10 in each group. Blood samples were collected from the caudal vein to detect serum HMGB1 levels by Western blot at 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after LPS injection. Experiment 2: 30 Wistar rats were equally divided into the LPS model group (D) and the LPS + Xuebijing treatment group (E), 15 in each group. They were treated as rats in the B group and the C1 group respectively. Five rats were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after LPS injection in the two groups. Blood as well as the tissue samples were harvested to measure such indices as ALT, AST, Cr, and BUN, as well as pathological changes of liver, lung, and kidney.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Compared with the A group, serum HMGB1 levels were higher at various time points in the B group (P < 0.05). Compared with the B group, serum HMGB1 levels at 12,24,48, and 72 h decreased in the C1, C2, and C3 groups. Besides, the decrease was more obvious at 24 h and 48 h.The decrement in the C3 group was less than that in the C1 and C2 groups (P < 0.05). (2) In the D group, ALT, AST, Cr, and BUN were significantly higher than those in the A group and reached the peak at 24 h (P < 0.05). Compared with the E group, AST, Cr, and BUN at 24 and 48 h, and ALT at each time point decreased significantly in the E group (P < 0.05). (3)The results of pathological section of liver, lung, and kidney showed local congestion and hemorrhage, cell edema/necrosis/degeneration, infiltration of inflammatory cells, damage of characteristic structures and so on; particularly serious lesion occurred at 24 and 48 h in the D group. The microscopic lesion was obviously alleviated in the E group than in the D group at corresponding time points.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The serum HMGB1 levels increased in septic rats, with late occurrence of peak value and longer duration of the high value. HMGB1 played an important role in excessive inflammatory response and multiple organ dysfunction. Xuebijing could reduce the serum levels of HMGB1, improve biochemical parameters, and attenuate severe inflammatory response of liver, lung, and kidney tissues in septic rats. Besides, the earlier use, the better effect obtained.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , HMGB1 Protein , Blood , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sepsis , Blood , Drug Therapy
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235399

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the changes of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 mRNA expressions in endotoxemia-induced rat diaphragm injury and analyze the related apoptosis mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 8): control group (saline 0.5 ml ip), endotoxin 24 h, 48 h and 96 h group (endotoxin 12 mg/kg ip, animals were killed either 24, 48 or 96 h after injections). Body weight were measured, the ratio between diaphragm weight and body weight, activities of constitutive nitric oxide syntheses (cNOS), iNOS and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were also measured. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 mRNA were detected by RT-PCR analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Endotoxin induced significant reductions in diaphragm mass in endotoxin 96 h group (P < 0.05). Endotoxin increased diaphragm cNOS or iNOS activities, and they were significantly higher in endotoxin 96 h group than those in endotoxin 24 h and 48 h groups, diaphragm SDH activity was reduced, and it was lower in endotoxin 96 h group than that in endotoxin 24 h and 48 h groups (P < 0.01). Endotoxin significantly increased Bax and caspase-3 mRNA expressions, and they were higher in endotoxin 48 h and 96 h groups than those in endotoxin 24 h group (P < 0.01). Endotoxin significantly reduced Bcl-2 mRNA expression and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and they were lower in endotoxin 48 h and 96 h groups than those in endotoxin 24 h group (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>iNOS is activated in endotoxemia-induced rat diaphragm injury. It damages mitochondria, upregulates Bax expression and downregulates Bcl-2 expression, then induces caspase-3 related apoptotic pathway. These changes may cause diaphragm injury and atrophy.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Diaphragm , Metabolism , Endotoxemia , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Male , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism
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