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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1938-1943, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provi de reference for relevant departments to formulate innovation subsidy policies for pharmaceutical enterprises and enterprises to make their own business strategy decisions. METHODS :The listed enterprises in China ’s pharmaceutical industry listed before 2012 were selected as the sample enterprises. The annual reports of listed enterprises in pharmaceutical industry and related panel data in CSMAR database during 2012-2019 were colected. Referring to related literatures , multivariate regression model and threshold model were established to investigate the effects of technology innovation investment ability of sample enterprises ,so as to put forward relevant suggestions. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS :A total of 57 sample enterprises were included. The panel data of sample enterprises showed that the technology innovation investment of Chinese pharmaceutical enterprises was basically increasing year by year ,but compared with international standards ,the technology innovation investment of Chinese pharmaceutical enterprises still needed to be improved. The results of multiple regression model showed that the technology innovation investment of pharmaceutical enterprises had no significant impact on their current financial performance and the financial performance of the first and second lags (P>0.05). The results of threshold model showed that there was a significant single threshold effect between technology innovation investment and financial performance when enterprise size was taken as the threshold variable (P<0.05). When the enterprise size was less than the threshold value of 20.986,the enterprise ’s technology innovation investment had a negative impact on its financial performance (P<0.05);when the enterprise size was greater than the threshold value of 20.986,the correlation between the enterprise ’s technology innovation investment and financial performance was not significant (P<0.05). It is suggested that China ’s pharmaceutical enterprises should carry out technology innovation activities according to their own strength ,and enterprise managers should formulate different innovation development strategies according to the ac tual situation ,enable enterprises to maintain a reasonable capital structure by broadening financing channels ,identify innovation points according to their own ability ,reduce costs and risks ,and innovate R&D modes,so as to promote the transformation and effective utilization of R&D achievements. Government departments should give full play to the guiding role ,encourage pharmaceutical enterprises to maintain the vitality of R&D and innovation and guide the sustainable innovation and healthy development of the pharmaceutical industry.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879189

ABSTRACT

Based on the serum medicinal method, this study aims to investigate the migrating components of Yougui Yin in the blood after intragastric administration, and to provide reference for the basic research of its pharmacodynamics. The kidney deficiency rat model was replicated by adenine method. Normal rats and model rats were administered orally for a single gavage of Yougui Yin. The components in blood were rapidly analyzed and identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and multiple reaction monitoring(MRM), and the migrating components in blood of Yougui Yin were explored by multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that there were 42 characteristic peaks in the plasma of normal rats by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology and 13 chemical components were identified, including 6 alkaloids, 2 flavonoids, 2 triterpenoid saponins, 1 iridoid, 1 phenylpropanoid and 1 monoterpenoid. There were 22 characteristic peaks in the plasma of kidney-deficiency rats, and 12 chemical components were identified, including 2 iridoids, 6 alkaloids, 2 flavonoids, 1 monoterpenoid and 1 triterpenoid saponin. Verbascoside, isoacteoside, acteoside, pinoresinoldiglucoside, loganin and morroniside were identified by MRM both in the plasma of normal rats and kidney-deficiency rats. Compared with 85 monomer components in Yougui Yin, 17 common prototype components were found by UPLC-MS in the plasma of normal rats and kidney deficiency rats, including verbascoside, isoacteoside, acteoside, rehmapicrogenin derived from Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, pinoresinol diglucoside and geniposidic acid from Eucommiea Cortex, loganin and morroniside derived from Corni Fructus, mesaconine, benzoylmesaconine, benzoylaconitine, benzoylhypacoitine, mesaconitine, aconitine derived from Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, liquiritin, isoliquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid derived from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Thirty-one metabolites of medicinal ingredients not found in the plasma of adenine-induced kidney deficiency rats were also detected in the plasma of normal rats. Twelve metabolites of medicinal materials not found in the plasma of normal rats were detected in the plasma of kidney deficiency rats. The results of the study provide reference for explaining the material basis and mechanism of Yougui Yin in the treatment of kidney deficiency.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Kidney , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Technology
3.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 231-238, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913640

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We examined the self-care experiences of adolescents with spinal muscle atrophy (SMA) and their perceptions of the interactions between their body and the environment. @*Methods@#We interviewed ten adolescents with SMA aged 13–18 years regarding personal care practices. Purposive sampling was conducted in two medical centers in northern Taiwan. Data were analyzed using the Giorgi analysis method. @*Results@#Four constitutions were identified: (1) limited space for independent development, (2) multiple reconstructions of self-image to improve physical ability, (3) self-care of disease, and (4) developing activity styles to accommodate social culture. @*Conclusion@#The self-care lived experiences of patients reflect dynamic changes in the body and environment. Self-existence was exhibited by adjustment, practice, and creativity of physical activity to integrate into society. Nursing staff should understand the self-care experiences and needs of adolescents with SMA to develop a database of self-care skills. This study recommended that nursing staff improve their ability to guide patients in taking care of themselves by developing body awareness self-care courses and individual care plans in response to various stages of disability to help patients delay deterioration, realize their physical potential, and promote independence and social development.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912489

ABSTRACT

Immune disorders are currently recognized as the major cause of aggravation of clinical symptoms in corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This review summarized the characteristics of the immune response to COVID-19 from the abnormal dynamics of lymphocyte subsets, including the decrease in the count of natural killer cell and T cell subsets and the large accumulation of cytokines during disease progression. This review also clarified the possible mechanisms of changes in key lymphocyte subsets and the dynamic of cytokines. Thus, it provided new strategies for clinical treatment and granted potential targets for drug discovery.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912436

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the protective effects and related mechanism of tea saponin (TS) on intestinal inflammation due to Shigella infection. Methods:In vitro, the antibacterial activity of TS was detected by standard broth microdilution method. The absorbance at 600 nm of the bacterial liquid was detected by Microplate Reader under different concentrations of TS, and the growth curve was drawn. Bacterial count was obtained by plate colony counting. In vivo, 15 mice were divided into 3 groups ( n=5 each): control group, Sf301 group and TS group. Sterile water or TS was applied to mice in the Sf301 group and the TS group per gavage once a day for 8 days, and the mouse model of Shigella infection was established on day 3. The disease activity index (DAI) was used to evaluate the general condition of mice. The mice were sacrificed on day 8. Colon length was measured and colon tissues were stained with HE to analyze the pathological changes. The cecal contents and feces of mice were taken for plate counting and Shigella load was obtained. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory factors. Results:(1) In vitro, the MIC of TS was 1 024 μg/ml. The plate counting and A600 of TS decreased in proportion to increasing concentrations (256, 512, 1 024 μg/ml) in comparison with the control group (all P<0.05). (2) In vivo, colon length was (7.70±0.24) cm in the control group and (7.35±0.41) cm in the TS group, which was significantly longer than that of the Sf301 group ([6.13±0.05] cm, P<0.05). Histopathological examination evidenced colonic epithelial cells shedding, decreased goblet cells, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the colon tissue of the Sf301 group. In the TS group, the colonic mucosa was intact without significant inflammatory cell infiltration. Bacterial load in cecal contents was significantly lower in the TS group than in the Sf301 group ( P<0.05). The level of tumor necrosis factor-α was significantly lower, and the level of interleukin-10 was significantly higher in the TS group than in the Sf301 group (all P<0.05). Conclusion:TS can effectively inhibit Shigella and alleviate Shigella infective enteritis by reducing Shigella load and inhibiting inflammation.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910002

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the influence of comprehensive rehabilitation on postoperative functions in the elderly patients with femoral intertrochanteric fracture.Methods:From June 2015 to June 2019, 144 elderly patients were treated at Department of Orthopedics, China-Japan Friendship Hospital for femoral intertrochanteric fractures by internal fixation with proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA). Of them, 65 received comprehensive rehabilitation, including intervention measures for details, prevention and management of comorbidities and complications and active exercise of the injured limb, while 79 conventional rehabilitation. In the comprehensive rehabilitation group, there were 22 males and 43 females with an age of (76.6±6.7) years, and 18 cases of type 31-A1, 35 cases of type 31-A2 and 12 cases of type 31-A3 by the AO type. In the control group, there were 23 males and 56 females with an age of (75.2±7.0) years, and 25 cases of type 31-A1, 39 cases of type 31-A2 and 15 cases of type 31-A3 by the AO type. The 2 groups were compared in terms of visual analog scale (VAS), Harris hip score, Barthel index, postoperative ambulation time and complications at 6 months after operation.Results:The 2 groups were comparable because there was no significant difference between them in the preoperative or intraoperative general data ( P>0.05). The comprehensive rehabilitation group had a significantly lower VAS score (1.5±1.0), a significantly higher Harris hip score(83.9±5.4), a significantly higher Barthel index (81.6±5.4), significantly shorter postoperative ambulation time [(2.6±1.0) d], and a significantly lower incidence of complications [4.6% (3/65)] than the control group did [1.9±1.2, 80.2±7.9, 78.2±7.9, (3.2±1.4) d, 16.5%(13/79), respectively] (all P< 0.05). Conclusion:For elderly patients with femoral intertrochanteric fracture, comprehensive rehabilitation can significantly reduce complications, promote functional recovery of the hip, and speed up recovery of capabilities of daily living compared with conventional rehabilitation.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906124

ABSTRACT

Objective:To reveal the effective components, targets and possible mechanisms of Qinggan Huayu granules in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver cancer based on network pharmacology and experimental verification, and to provide a basis for its rational interpretation of treating different diseases with same method for NAFLD and liver cancer. Method:Based on databases of traditional Chinese medicine and disease, the network pharmacology was used to screen main active compounds and potential targets of Qinggan Huayu granules for NAFLD and liver cancer. STRING 11.0 was used to analyze the interaction between potential targets. The core targets were selected from the interaction targets by cytoHubba plug-in. The gene ontology (GO) function and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed on the target by Metascape database. At the same time, <italic>in vitro</italic> experiments were conducted to validate the effect of kaempferol, one of the main active ingredients of Qinggan Huayu granules, on hepatocellular carcinoma cell model and NAFLD cell model. Result:A total of 43 potential targets of Qinggan Huayu granules for for NAFLD and liver cancer were screened, corresponding to 136 active ingredients in 8 herbal medicines. Through enrichment analysis of potential targets, there were 20 biological processes, 13 molecular functions, 9 cellular components and 15 signaling pathways. Qinggan Huayu granules regulated biological behaviors of tumors related to liver cancer and NAFLD (such as apoptosis inhibition and oxidative stress) mainly through kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin and other active ingredients for Caspase-3 (CASP3), tumor protein p53 (TP53), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and other hub genes. <italic>In vitro</italic> experiments revealed that kaempferol could inhibit cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocellular carcinoma cell model. And kaempferol could modulate the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which were the molecular markers of oxidative stress of NAFLD cell model. Kaempfero also regulated the expression level of CASP3 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell model and NAFLD cell model. Conclusion:The main mechanism of Qinggan Huayu granules in treating liver cancer and NAFLD with concept of treating different diseases with same method is related to systematic synergy effect of multiple compounds (represented by quercetin, luteolin and kaempferol), multiple targets (represented by VEGFA, TP53 and CASP3) and multiple signaling pathways (represented by oxidative stress and cell apoptosis).

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905972

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, and to search for makers to characterize the quality difference of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus from different origins coupled with chemometrics. Method:The analysis was performed on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD C<sub>18</sub> column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.05% phosphoric acid solution for gradient elution, and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. A total of 31 batches of samples were analyzed to establish the HPLC fingerprint of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. Similarity evaluation was performed by Traditional Chinese Medicine Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System (2012 edition) to confirm the common peaks, which were identified by comparison of reference substances. On the basis, chemometrics methods were used to analyze and evaluate the quality of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus from different origins. At the same time, 3 batches of 5 species of decoction pieces from the genus <italic>Citrus</italic> in the family Rutaceae, including Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Fructus, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride and Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, were randomly collected for evaluating the effectiveness and reliability of the established HPLC fingerprint of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. Result:HPLC fingerprint of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus was established and 22 common peaks were identified. And seven common peaks among them were identified as 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, diosmin, hesperidin, byakangelicin, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, bergapten and oxypeucedanin. Except for 2 batches of samples, the similarities of fingerprints between other 29 batches of samples were >0.9. The 31 batches of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus were basically divided into 3 groups by cluster analysis and principal component analysis, which were consistent with the classification of three different producing areas. Eight differential markers were screened by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and four of them (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, bergapten, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin and diosmin) were identified by reference substances. Similarity evaluation of 5 species of decoction pieces from genus <italic>Citrus</italic> in the family Rutaceae was carried out by taking the reference fingerprint of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus as treference chromatogram, similarity of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus decoction pieces was 0.892-0.977, and the similarities of the other 4 kinds of decoction pieces were 0.215-0.517. Conclusion:The established fingerprint method is reasonable, effective and accurate for quality control of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, the characterization information is more comprehensive combined with chemometrics.

9.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E824-E828, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904478

ABSTRACT

Osteocytes are the main mechanical sensory and transductive cells of bone tissues. They connect with each other through many synaptic structures to form a huge regulatory network of bone steady-state cells, which are connected with osteoblasts, osteoclasts and other bone matrix surface cells. Osteocytes regulate bone metabolism and maintain bone regeneration by affecting osteoblast bone formation and osteoclast bone resorption through paracrine pathway. Aiming at the effects of some signal molecules or protein factors secreted or released by osteocytes after mechanical stimulation on the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, this paper reviews recent advances in how mechanically stimulated osteocytes communicate with osteoblasts and osteoclasts, so as to provide new ideas for the study of osteocytes biomechanics.

10.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E970-E977, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920712

ABSTRACT

Objective To screen the secretory factor-related, mechanoresponsive microRNAs (miRNA) of osteocytes. Methods Cyclic mechanical tensile strain (ε=2.5,f=0.5 Hz) was applied to osteocytes and osteoblasts cultured in vitro respectively, and the differentially expressed miRNAs only in the osteocytes were screened out by using miRNA chip. Through bioinformatics technology, in these differentially expressed miRNAs, the target genes of secretory factors including insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1), nitric oxide synthesase (NOS), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and sclerostin (SOST) were further screened out. Then the selected miRNAs were compared with the biochip detected, differentially expressed miRNAs in femur bone of the mice which were trained on treadmill, and four of these miRNAs were randomly selected for quantitative PCR verification. Results For the 77 differentially expressed miRNAs only in the mechanically strained osteocytes in vitro, 22 miRNAs whose target genes were the 4 secreted factors (IGF-1, NOS, FGF23 and SOST), were screened out. Moreover, a total of 11 miRNAs in the 22 miRNAs were differentially expressed in femur bone of the treadmill trained mice with the same trend as those in osteocytes in vitro, and the randomly selected miR-361-3p, miR-3082-5p, miR-6348 and miR-706 were confirmed to be differentially expressed with the same trend in femur bone and osteocytes. Conclusions These mechanoresponsive miRNAs differentially expressed only in osteocytes, such as miR-361-3p, miR-3082-5p, miR-6348 and miR-706, probably influence osteoblastic differentiation or bone metabolism through regulating the secretory factors.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901411

ABSTRACT

Currently, the systems for culturing buffalo spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in vitro are varied, and their effects are still inconclusive. In this study, we compared the effects of culture systems with undefined (foetal bovine serum) and defined (KnockOut Serum Replacement) materials on the in vitro culture of buffalo SSC-like cells. Significantly more DDX4- and UCHL1-positive cells (cultured for 2 days at passage 2) were observed in the defined materials culture system than in the undefined materials system (p < 0.01), and these cells were maintained for a longer period than those in the culture system with undefined materials (10 days vs. 6 days). Furthermore, NANOS2 (p < 0.05), DDX4 (p < 0.01) and UCHL1 (p < 0.05) were expressed at significantly higher levels in the culture system with defined materials than in that with undefined materials. Induction with retinoic acid was used to verify that the cultured cells maintained SSC characteristics, revealing an SCP3⁺ subset in the cells cultured in the defined materials system. The expression levels of Stra8 (p < 0.05) and Rec8 (p < 0.01) were significantly increased, and the expression levels of ZBTB16 (p < 0.01) and DDX4 (p < 0.05) were significantly decreased. These findings provided a clearer research platform for exploring the mechanism of buffalo SSCs in vitro.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867904

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the incidence and morphology of the posterolateral fracture fragment affecting the fibular notch in posterior pilon fracture.Methods:A retrospective analysis was conducted of the CT and clinical data of the 31 patients with posterior pilon fracture who had been treated at Department of Orthopaedic, China-Japan Friendship Hospital from May 2013 to May 2018. They were 17 men and 14 women, aged from 20 to 68 years (average, 42 years). The injury affected the left side in 13 cases and the right side in 18 ones. The incidence of the posterolateral fracture fragments affecting the fibular notch was counted. The morphologic indexes of the fragments were measured like axial angle of their fracture line, fragment area, fragment height, and sagittal angle of their fracture line.Results:A posterolateral fracture fragment affecting the fibular notch was found in all the 31 posterior pilon fractures, giving an incidence of 100% in the posterior pilon fracture. The fracture line of the fragments tended to be in the coronal plane. The axial angle of the fracture line was 20.25°±9.48°; the ratio of the fragment area to the distal tibial articular area was 15.78%±6.75%; the fragment height was 36.59 mm ± 10.70 mm; the sagittal angle of the fracture line was 18.37°±5.45°.Conclusions:A posterolateral fracture fragment affecting the fibular notch can be found in all the posterior pilon fractures. It does not affect a large articular area and its fracture line is usually located in the coronal plane. These data may help choose appropriate surgical approach and internal fixation.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863907

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan in December, 2019, with the number of the infected cases gradually increasing. The pregnant women are susceptible to the virus due to their specific immune tolerance. Both the maternal and fetal safety will be imperiled if the pregnant women were infected with COVID-19. Therefore, antenatal care and perinatal management are crucial for guaranteeing the safety of the pregnant women infected with COVID-19.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863161

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation between right-to-left shunt (RLS) and infarct pattern in patients with cryptogenic stroke.Methods:Young and middle-aged patients with acute cryptogenic stroke admitted to the Department of Neurology, Xiaogan Central Hospital from May 2016 to January 2020 were enrolled retrospectively. The demographic data, vascular risk factors, baseline blood pressure, laboratory findings, stroke severity, infarct location and distribution pattern were documented. The patients were divided into RLS group and non-RLS group according to the findings of the transcranial Doppler ultrasound foaming test. They were divided into single lesion group and multiple-lesion group according to the findings of diffusion-weighted imaging. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the correlation between RLS and infarct pattern. Results:A total of 68 patients with acute cryptogenic stroke were included, 37 of them were male (54.4%), and their age was 47.63±6.57 years (range, 31-59 years). Thirty patients (44.1%) had RLS, including 22 (73.3%) with mild shunt and 8 (26.7%) with severe shunt. The proportions of men, cortical-subcortical infarction and multiple blood supply area lesions in the RLS group were significantly higher than those in the non-RLS group, while triacylglycerol, body mass index, the proportions of patients with subcortical infarction and single lesions in the single vessel blood supply area were significantly lower than those in the non-RLS group ( P<0.05). The proportions of patients with anterior circulation+ posterior circulation infarction, cortical-subcortical infarction, and RLS in the multi-lesion group were significantly higher than those in the single-lesion group, while the proportion of patients with subcortical infarction was significantly lower than that in the single-lesion group (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that RLS was an independent risk factor for multiple infarctions (odds ratio 6.681, 95% confidence interval 1.206-37.019; P=0.030). Conclusion:RLS is independently associated with multiple infarctions in patients with cryptogenic stroke.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873041

ABSTRACT

Tic disorder (TD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, with one or more motor and/or vocal disorders as the main symptoms. It brings many inconveniences to children's learning and life, and has a profound impact on children's character building. The pathogenesis of TD is mainly correlated with neurotransmitter release disorder, neuroimmune, genetic, trace element imbalance, diet and other factors, but has not been completely clear up to now. Western Medicine has obvious effects on TD, but with serious side effects. Compared with western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has the advantages of low adverse reactions and definite and lasting effect, and thus has been widely recognized by children and their families. In order to explore the pathogenesis of TD and the specific mechanism of TCM in the treatment of TD, many scholars have carried out a large number of in-depth animal experiments and made some achievements, but also exposed some defects, such as the single modeling method, failed to take into account other pathogenesis of TD, failure to combine the specific syndromes of TCM for targeted modeling, and failure to reflect the dialectic of TCM on the characteristics of governance. This paper reviews the modeling methods of common animal models, the comparison of advantages and disadvantages, and the changes of behavioral and biochemical indicators before and after the intervention with TCM compounds on TD animal models, so as to provide reference for the selection of animal models in future animal experimental research.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870677

ABSTRACT

A survey on clinical skill application and training needs of general practitioners (GPs) was conducted in the community health service centers of Shanghai Changning District from March to May 2019. The heads of the medical/prevention departments of 10 community health service centers (CHS) in Changning District were invited to evaluate the application frequency of clinical skills and training needs of GPs. According to Residency Training Standards for General Practitioners (trial), Training Standards for Assistant General Practitioners (trial), Training Program for General Practitioners in Primary Medical and Health Institutions (trial), 369 clinical skills for general practitioners were included for evaluation. The application frequency of above 369 clinical skills among 198 general practitioners were evaluated and training needs were also assessed. The overall application frequency score of GPs for 369 clinical skills was 1.00 (0.30, 1.70) points, and the training needs score was 1.40 (1.10, 1.70) points. The application frequency of different clinical skills was positively correlated with training needs ( r=0.462, P<0.01). And the four-quadrant analysis results show that among the 369 clinical practice skills, 116 (31.4%) items were used by GPs with high frequency and high training needs, and 80 (21.7%) items were used with low frequency but high training needs. There were 45 (12.2%) items with high application frequency but low training needs, and 128 (34.7%) items with low application frequency and low training needs. The survey indicates that the training of clinical skills listed in the three major training standards or outlines should be strengthened in continuing education for general practitioners, and the practice skills with high application frequency and high training needs should be focused in training program to improve the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of training.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828276

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To quantify pain pressure threshold(PPT) in the patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation before and after treatment, and to study the clinical effects of the PPT test in lumbar intervertebral disc herniation.@*METHODS@#From January to December 2017, 59 patients with lumbar intervertebral disc hernation were treated, and another 59 normal persons were recruited as the normal control group. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the patient's subjective pain intensity at admission, and the pain threshold of lumbar posterior joints was measured by the tenderness gauge. The pain threshold was measured three times with an interval of 1 min at the most painful posterior joints and the contralateral posterior joints, and the average value was recorded as the T-value.All patients were treated with one course of conservative treatment ( spine fixed-point rotation reduction plus routine dehydration and anti-inflammation). VAS score and pain threshold of posterior lumbar joints were measured after the treatment. One lumbar posterior joint was randomly selected in the normal control group to measure the pain threshold.@*RESULTS@#(1)The patient group and the normal control group were comparable. There was no significant difference in age, body height, body weight and BMI between the two groups(>0.05). (2) The pressure pain threshold test was consistent:variance analysis on the T-value before treatment [(4.72±2.14) kg / cm, (4.96±2.10) kg / cm, (5.11±2.09) kg / cm] of the affected posterior joint, the T-value after treatment [(7.38±2.36) kg / cm, (7.62±2.51) kg / cm, (7.58±2.47) kg / cm], the T-value of before treatment [(7.18±2.80) kg / cm, (7.19±2.68) kg / cm, (7.20±2.69) kg / cm] of the contralateral posterior joint, T value after treatment [(9.54±2.89) kg / cm, (9.76±3.01) kg / cm, (9.77±3.09) kg / cm]; and normal joint T-value [(12.23±1.56) kg / cm, (12.51±1.48) kg / cm, (12.6±1.63) kg / cm] showed that there were no significant differences in the three successive measurements of pain threshold (>0.05). (3) After conservative treatment, the pain threshold of the affected side[(7.58±2.38) kg / cm] and the contralateral lumbar posterior joints [(9.70±2.92) kg / cm] increased significantly, but T-value of the affected side was still lower than that of the contralateral side, and T value of the both sides were lower than that of the normal group [(12.48±1.44) kg / cm]. The T-value of the affected side and the contralateral side had significant difference between before and after treatment (0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The pressure pain threshold test can accurately evaluate the pain intensity and its changing patterns in the lumbar posterior joint. The pain pressure threshold test is clinically significantin the lumbar disc herniation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intervertebral Disc , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Lumbar Vertebrae , Pain , Pain Threshold
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826660

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the impacts of electroacupuncture (EA) on neurological function, the pathological morphology in brain tissue, apoptosis level and the protein expressions of apoptosis-related cytochrome C (Cyt-C) and cysteine aspartic acid protease-9 (Caspase-9) in the rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore the potential mechanism of EA in treatment of TBI.@*METHODS@#A total of 70 clean-grade SD mice were randomized into a blank group (8 rats), a sham-operation group (8 rats), a model group (27 rats) and an EA group (27 rats). In terms of interventions of 3, 7 and 14 days, 3 subgroups were divided in the model group and the EA group successively, 9 rats in each subgroup. The modified Feeney free-fall percussion method was adopted to establish TBI models of rats. In the sham-operation group, only the skull was exposed and drilled and no free-fall percussion was exerted. One day after modeling, EA was given in the rats of EA group at "Shuigou" (GV 26), "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Neiguan" (PC 6) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) on the affected side, with intermittent wave, 2 Hz in frequency, once daily, 10 min each time, for 3, 7 and 14 days successively. Separately, on the day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, the modified neurological severity scale (mNSS) was used to evaluate the degree of neurological function injury in the rats, HE staining and Nissl staining were to observe the pathological and morphological changes in brain tissue, TUNEL method was to observe the level of apoptosis in brain tissue and immunohistochemistry (IHC) method and Western blot were to determine the protein expressions of Cyt-C and Caspase-9 in brain tissue.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, on the day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, mNSS scores were increased obviously in the rats of the model group respectively (<0.01). Compared with the model group, on the day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, mNSS scores were reduced in the rats of the EA group respectively (<0.05). On day 3 of intervention, in brain injury region of the rats in the model group and the EA group, gross tissue necrosis, nuclear fragmentation, consolidation and obvious vacuolar changes, reduced Nissl bodies and scattered arrangement were found. On day 7 and 14 of intervention, in the model group and the EA group, the new connective tissue filling and normal cells were visible and Nissl bodies increased. The overall repair and Nissl body quantity in the EA group were better than the model group. Compared with the sham-operation group, on day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, the numbers of apoptotic cells were increased obviously in the model group (<0.01) and they were reduced in the EA group as compared with the model group (<0.05). Compared with the sham-operation group, on day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, the protein expressions of Cyt-C and Caspase-9 in damaged brain tissue were all increased obviously in the model group (<0.01) and they were all reduced in the EA group as compared with the model group successively (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture remarkably improves the condition in the neurological function injury and reduces apoptosis degree in TBI model rats, which is likely related to the down-regulation of the protein expressions of Cyt-C and Caspase-9 in damaged brain tissue and further to bring the impacts on mitochondria mediated apoptosis process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Therapeutics , Caspase 9 , Metabolism , Cytochromes c , Metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893707

ABSTRACT

Currently, the systems for culturing buffalo spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in vitro are varied, and their effects are still inconclusive. In this study, we compared the effects of culture systems with undefined (foetal bovine serum) and defined (KnockOut Serum Replacement) materials on the in vitro culture of buffalo SSC-like cells. Significantly more DDX4- and UCHL1-positive cells (cultured for 2 days at passage 2) were observed in the defined materials culture system than in the undefined materials system (p < 0.01), and these cells were maintained for a longer period than those in the culture system with undefined materials (10 days vs. 6 days). Furthermore, NANOS2 (p < 0.05), DDX4 (p < 0.01) and UCHL1 (p < 0.05) were expressed at significantly higher levels in the culture system with defined materials than in that with undefined materials. Induction with retinoic acid was used to verify that the cultured cells maintained SSC characteristics, revealing an SCP3⁺ subset in the cells cultured in the defined materials system. The expression levels of Stra8 (p < 0.05) and Rec8 (p < 0.01) were significantly increased, and the expression levels of ZBTB16 (p < 0.01) and DDX4 (p < 0.05) were significantly decreased. These findings provided a clearer research platform for exploring the mechanism of buffalo SSCs in vitro.

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