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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920792

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of injury among both primary and middle school students in Changning District, Shanghai, and to provide evidence for injury prevention. Methods In 2018, data of basic characteristics and injury-related factors were obtained through field questionnaire survey among the selected primary and middle schools (2 of each). Results The study finally included 1 821 students, with injury incidence rate of 30.1%. Among them, the injury incidence rate for the primary schools was 32.0%, and 28.8% for the middle schools. The top three injury types were falls, sharps injuries, and blunt injuries. Age, gender, myopia, and injury-related knowledge/behaviors were significantly related to injury incidence. Conclusion Falls should still be the priority of injury prevention for primary/middle school students in Changning District. The effect of reducing injuries can be achieved by improving health education about injury-related knowledge/behaviors.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909152

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous malignant melanoma arises from the neural crest-derived melanocytes and is a highly malignant tumor with complex clinical and pathological manifestations. In recent years, its incidence rate is increasing gradually. It is one of the most common cutaneous malignant tumors. This paper reviews the advances of the diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908110

ABSTRACT

The quality of public cardiopulmonary resuscitation training plays an important role in improving the survival rate of patients with cardiac arrest. Various forms of training have been carried out all over China, which plays a great role in promoting the work of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, there is still a lot of room for improvement in the quality management and effect sustainability of training. This paper reviews the current situation and deficiencies of quality management of public cardiopulmonary resuscitation training, and the role of training quality in enhancing people's self-confidence in learning and rescue, training contents, training methods, quality evaluation indicators, evaluation methods, and quality influencing factors and retraining time requirements, and so on. And it puts forward some practical suggestions on the quality management of public cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in China. Such as it will more emphasize standardized training, deliberate practice, proficient training, National Training, long-term maintenance of knowledge and skills, and using useful tools to improve the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training, etc. In order to improve the training quality management level of the public, so that the trainees can really master cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills, so as to improve the rescue rate and survival rate of patients with cardiac arrest. To promote the sustainable development of people's health.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907132

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo understand the satisfaction and comfort level of the rail transit passengers regarding hygienic environment of one city, and provide a basis of hygienic management and suggestions for rail transit operations. MethodsPassengers who have lived in the city for the past 6 months and used rail transit as their main transportation tool were selected to conduct a questionnaire survey to collect basic information, satisfaction with environmental cleanliness, perception of crowdedness, air quality and noise, etc. The Chi-square, Pearson contingency coefficient and linear trend test of orderly grouped data were used for statistical analysis. ResultsA total of 820 valid questionnaires were collected, with a total effective rate of 94.0%. Passengers' overall satisfaction with the environmental cleanliness of each link of rail transit was between basic and relatively better satisfaction, with an average of 3.52. Passengers with different one-way trip times had different satisfaction with the cleanliness of each link (P<0.05). Passengers generally thought that the rail transit was crowded and the carriages were more crowded than the station. The level of feeling congestion was correlated with the age and gender of passengers (P<0.05). Passengers thought that the air quality of the rail transit was inferior in carriages during the evening rush hour, and experienced different symptoms such as drowsiness, dizziness, and headache. Passengers perceived that the rail transit was noisy, and much noisier in the carriages. ConclusionPassengers are basically satisfied with the hygienic environment of rail transit. It is necessary to focus on strengthening the hygiene and cleanliness of toilets and X-ray luggage inspection systems in the future rail transit hygienic design and management. Passengers are uncomfortable with the air quality, congestion and noise in the rail transit environment. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the management and control of the centralized air conditioning and ventilation systems, enhance fresh air volume, reduce ambient noise, and focus on controlling the hygiene environment in the carriages in order to improve the comfort and satisfaction of passengers in the rail transit environment.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907109

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo understand the satisfaction and comfort level of the rail transit passengers regarding hygienic environment of one city, and provide a basis of hygienic management and suggestions for rail transit operations. MethodsPassengers who have lived in the city for the past 6 months and used rail transit as their main transportation tool were selected to conduct a questionnaire survey to collect basic information, satisfaction with environmental cleanliness, perception of crowdedness, air quality and noise, etc. The Chi-square, Pearson contingency coefficient and linear trend test of orderly grouped data were used for statistical analysis. ResultsA total of 820 valid questionnaires were collected, with a total effective rate of 94.0%. Passengers' overall satisfaction with the environmental cleanliness of each link of rail transit was between basic and relatively better satisfaction, with an average of 3.52. Passengers with different one-way trip times had different satisfaction with the cleanliness of each link (P<0.05). Passengers generally thought that the rail transit was crowded and the carriages were more crowded than the station. The level of feeling congestion was correlated with the age and gender of passengers (P<0.05). Passengers thought that the air quality of the rail transit was inferior in carriages during the evening rush hour, and experienced different symptoms such as drowsiness, dizziness, and headache. Passengers perceived that the rail transit was noisy, and much noisier in the carriages. ConclusionPassengers are basically satisfied with the hygienic environment of rail transit. It is necessary to focus on strengthening the hygiene and cleanliness of toilets and X-ray luggage inspection systems in the future rail transit hygienic design and management. Passengers are uncomfortable with the air quality, congestion and noise in the rail transit environment. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the management and control of the centralized air conditioning and ventilation systems, enhance fresh air volume, reduce ambient noise, and focus on controlling the hygiene environment in the carriages in order to improve the comfort and satisfaction of passengers in the rail transit environment.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886818

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the current situation and annual trend of injuries among primary and middle school students in Changning District, Shanghai, and to provide scientific evidence for decision-making of prevention and control. Methods The monitoring data of various types of injuries was collected from the “cause of class absence” system during the 2010-2017 school years. The Joinpoint regression analysis was used to estimate the annual percent change and average annual percent change, and to perform the trend test. Results During the 2010-2017 school years in Changning District, a total of 2,286 cases of injuries occurred among primary and middle school students, with an injury rate of about 0.70%. The top three prevalent injury types were falls, traffic accidents, and burn-related injury. The results of Joinpoint trend analysis indicated that the incidence of total injuries in Changning District was generally decreasing, which was mainly due to the effective control of injuries caused by falls, traffic accidents, and burns, and to the decreasing injury incidence among primary school students. Conclusion The overall situation of injuries among primary and middle school students in Changning District has improved significantly, but falls and traffic accidents are still important health threats. More attentions should be paid to certain groups, such as vocational and special education students.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884235

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of cholesterol on the expression of genes for matrix synthesis and degradation of human meniscal fibrochondrocytes and its mechanism.Methods:Meniscal tissue was taken from patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery to extract fibrochondrocytes. The cells were divided into a control group in which the normal cells were not processed, a positive control group in which interleukin-1 β was used to create a degeneration model, and 2 treatment groups which were subjected to treatment with 15 and 30 μg/mL cholesterol respectively. Safranin O staining, β-galactosidase staining and enzymic kits were used to detect the morphology and total cholesterol (TCH) content of meniscal fibrochondrocytes in the 4 groups. Immunofluorescence and western blot were used to detect the protein expression of type Ⅰcollagen precursor α1 (COL1A1) and type Ⅱ collagen precursor α1 (COL2A1). RT-qPCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of COL1A1, COL2A1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3, MMP9, MMP13, and genes related to cholesterol efflux pathways [like liver X receptor α (LXR α), ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ABCG1]. Results:There was no significant difference between the control and the positive control groups in the TCH content in human meniscal fibrochondrocytes ( P>0.05). The treatments with 15 and 30 μg/mL cholesterol resulted in significantly increased TCH contents in human meniscal fibrochondrocytes in the treatment groups ( P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of LXR α, ABCA1 and ABCG1 was significantly decreased in the treatment groups ( P<0.05), and the meniscal fibrochondrocytes in the positive group and the treatment groups presented with a lower density, chaotic distribution and obvious signs of degradation. Compared with the control groups, the mRNA expression of matrix synthesis genes (COL1A1 and COL2A1) in the meniscal fibrochondrocytes was significantly inhibited while the mRNA expression of matrix degradation metalloenzymes (MMP3, MMP9 and MMP13) was significantly promoted ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Cholesterol may inhibit the cholesterol efflux pathways of meniscal fibrochondrocytes, and thus cause accumulation of cholesterol in the meniscal fibrochondrocytes, eventually leading to degeneration of meniscus.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881485

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze and compare the differences between the epidemiological data and clinical indicators of confirmed and suspected undiagnosed cases of COVID-19 in Changning District, Shanghai. Methods:A retrospective comparative study was conducted. We included 20 confirmed and 34 suspected but undiagnosed COVID-19 cases from January 20 to February 29, 2020. We analyzed the differences in epidemiological history, early clinical symptoms, blood routine indicators, and clinical imaging characteristics between the two groups. Results:The epidemic status of COVID-19 in Changning District of Shanghai was mainly imported, and most cases were promptly confirmed. Early clinical symptoms of confirmed and suspected undiagnosed cases often manifested as respiratory symptoms such as fever and dry cough. Compared with the confirmed cases, the cell counts of leukocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils in suspected undiagnosed cases were significantly higher. Also, the concentration of serum C-reactive protein in suspected cases was higher than that in confirmed cases (P=0.230). The clinical imaging manifestations of confirmed cases were mainly ground glass opacity (GGO) scattered in both lung leaves, while the suspected undiagnosed cases mainly manifested as plain patch opacity, and the distribution of GGO was more irregular. Conclusion:There exists significant difference in blood routine indicators and clinical imaging features between confirmed and suspected cases of COVID-19.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To perform prenatal diagnosis, pedigree analysis, and genetic counseling of a pregnant woman who gave birth to a child with Kleefstra syndrome.@*METHODS@#Karyotype analysis, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used of peripheral blood and amniotic fluid to find causes. Recurrence risk assessment was performed later.@*RESULTS@#The amniotic fluid sample showed a 9q34.3 microduplication of arr (hg19) 9q34.3 (140 168 806-141 020 389)× 3, which overlapped the 9q34.3 microdeletion region of proband. The pregnant woman was detected with a balanced translocation of ish, t(9;17)(9q34.3; qter) (9p+; 17p+,9q+, 17q+). No other abnormal results were found in the family.@*CONCLUSION@#Offspring who share the same chromosome segment deletion or duplication are always from parent who carries balanced chromosomal structural aberration.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9/genetics , Female , Genetic Testing , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Pregnancy
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 51-61, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878235

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the composition and content of pulmonary surfactant (PS) were analyzed to explore the hypoxia adaptation mechanism in plateau zokors (Myospalax baileyi) and plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae). 36 plateau zokors and plateau pikas were trapped alive at the Laji Mountain in Guide County, Qinghai Province (at the altitude of about 3 600 m), and 36 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were purchased from the experimental animal center of Lanzhou University (at the altitude of about 1 500 m). All animals were lavaged after laboratory anesthesia, the blood in lung tissues was fully washed out and the lung tissues were then taken out to obtain the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by bronchoalveolar lavage. The composition and content of phospholipids in the PS of three different kinds of animals were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography; the protein composition, content and types in the PS were analyzed by G-250 Coomassie brilliant blue method, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and mass spectrometry; the dissolved oxygen in the PS solutions were determined by using dissolved oxygen electrode. The results showed that the total contents of phospholipids in the PS were successively increased among plateau zokors, plateau pikas and SD rats (P 0.05). The relative content of PSe had no significant differences between plateau zokors and plateau pikas (P > 0.05), but both were significantly higher than that of SD rats (P < 0.01). The serum albumin (SA) was identified in the PS of three kinds of animals, including homologous tetramer protein containing heme, which is composed of hemoglobin β subunit, in plateau zokors and plateau pikas. Immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain was found in PS of plateau zokors and SD rats. The content of Ig heavy chain in plateau zokor was significantly higher than that in SD rats (P < 0.01), and the content of protein containing heme was significantly higher than that in plateau pikas (P < 0.05). The amount of dissolved oxygen was successively decreased in the PS among plateau zokors, plateau pikas and SD rats (P < 0.01), but it was significantly higher than that in saline (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the total content of proteins in the PS of plateau zokors and plateau pikas was significantly higher, while the total content of phospholipids was significantly decreased. There were high content of homologous tetramer protein containing heme in the PS of plateau zokors and plateau pikas. The relative content of DPPC, the main component of phospholipids, was significantly increased in plateau zokors. The changes of PS component and content improve the adaptability of the two plateau animals in hypoxia environment.


Subject(s)
Altitude , Animals , Hypoxia , Lagomorpha , Pulmonary Surfactants , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877552

ABSTRACT

According to the etiology, allergic diseases are related to wind and heat; according to the pathogenesis, most of allergic diseases are


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hypersensitivity/therapy , Meridians
12.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 422-424, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923211

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical manifestations and diagnostic points of patients with peritoneal mesothelioma caused by occupational asbestos. METHODS: The clinical data of a female patient with peritoneal mesothelioma caused by occupational asbestos and the diagnosis of occupational diseases were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: In 2016, the patient was diagnosed and treated in a number of hospitals in a province due to chest and back pain, persistent cough, suffocation, and foamy sputum. After laparoscopic surgery, the peritoneal biopsy was taken for pathological analysis and diagnosed as peritoneal mesothelioma. In December 2016, she died due to a worsening of her condition and lung infection. The patient′s family requested occupational disease diagnosis in May 2017. After investigation and verification by the local occupational disease diagnosis agency and the Bureau of Industry and Information Technology, it was clear that the patient had a history of occupational exposure to asbestos for a total of 23 years and two months. In July 2018, she was retrospectively diagnosed as an occupational tumor(mesothelioma caused by asbestos). CONCLUSION: A clear history of occupational exposure to asbestos and histopathological examination are helpful for the diagnosis of occupational tumors(mesothelioma caused by asbestos).

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873300

ABSTRACT

Objective::The processing method of red ginseng was determined by comparing the effects of different steaming time and pressure on the total content of six ginsenosides. Method::The contents of ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc and Rb2 were determined by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS). The Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C8 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) was used. The mobile phase was 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution (B) for gradient elution (0-4 min, 81%-79%A; 4-6.3 min, 79%-75%A; 6.3-6.5 min, 75%-71%A; 6.5-9.5 min, 71%A; 9.5-16.5 min, 71%-68.5%A; 16.5-16.6 min, 68.5%-60%A; 16.6-19 min, 60%-100%A). The flow rate was set at 0.4 mL·min-1 and the column temperature was set at 35 ℃. The mass spectrographic analysis employed electrospray ionization (ESI) and negative ion collection mode with capillary ionization voltage of 2.5 kV, desolvation temperature of 350 ℃, desolvation gas flow of 700 L·h-1 and cone gas flow of 50 L·h-1. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to collect information, the collection range was m/z 100-1 500, detection was performed by MRM mode at m/z 799.59-637.49 for ginsenoside Rg1, m/z 945.54-475.79 for ginsenoside Re, m/z 799.59-475.49 for ginsenoside Rf, m/z 1 107.59-783.97 for ginsenoside Rb1, m/z 1 077.58-783.96 for ginsenoside Rc, m/z 1 077.75-191.19 for ginsenoside Rb2. Result::When the steaming time was 3 hours, the total mass fraction of six ginsenosides in each sample group was 7.099 8-16.768 5 mg·g-1, and the total amount of the six ginsenosides in atmospheric steaming was 2.5-12.6 times of that in pressurized steaming, which was obviously better than that in pressurized steaming. Conclusion::Under the conditions of this experiment, the best processing method of red ginseng is atmospheric steaming for 3 hours with fresh ginseng.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873169

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the quality regionalization and environmental impact factors of Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix based on main active ingredients,and provide a reference for the determination of high-quality production areas and the dominant environmental factors affecting the content of Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix. Method:Partial least squares regression analysis (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study the quality regionalization and environmental impact factors based on the main active ingredients of tetrandrine and fangchinoline, and investigate the environmental factors of the producing areas. Result:The content of fangchinoline was positively correlated with soil pH and annual average temperature,negatively correlated with latitude. The content of tetrandrine was positively correlated with soil pH,negatively correlated with annual rainfall and longitude. The total content was positively correlated with soil pH and annual average temperature,but negatively correlated with annual rainfall,latitude and longitude. Principal component analysis showed that the 50 production areas could be divided into four groups of quality formation. The groups with the highest scores were Shixing county in Guangdong,Shexian county in Anhui,Songxi county in Fujian,Nanxiong city in Guangdong and Xiangxiang city in Hunan,all of which were best areas for accumulation of the two main active ingredients. Conclusion:Soil pH,annual average temperature,annual rainfall,latitude and longitude are the main environmental factors affecting the main active ingredients of Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix. The best areas for accumulation of tetrandrine and fangchinoline are Shixing county in Guangdong,Shexian county in Anhui,Songxi county in Fujian,Nanxiong city in Guangdong and Xiangxiang city in Hunan.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873105

ABSTRACT

Objective::Sixty-nine germplasm samples of Picria felterrae collected from the main producing areas in Guangxi were subject to genetic diversity and genetic relationship analyses using the simple seguence repeat(SSR) molecular marker technology and good germplasm genes associated with the content of picfeltarraenins were screened so as to provide references for germplasm resource evaluation, phylogenetic analysis, and molecular mark assisted breeding of that species. Method::20 pairs of randomly selected primers were amplified based on the transcriptome sequencing technology. The genetic diversity of and genetic relationship between the 69 samples were analyzed using the genetic polymorphic information for each marker locus, and one-variable linear regression and multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed to screen molecular markers associated with the content of picfeltarraenins. Result::The amplification using the 20 pairs of SSR primers produced 76 alleles, 3.8 alleles for each locus on average, higher than effective alleles (1.969 2), and the rare allele rate was 38.2%, suggesting that the alleles distributed unequally. The polymorphism rates of alleles varied between 0-59%, with an average of 38.24%, showing a great difference among loci. The polymorphic information content (PIC) varied between 0-0.621 1, with an average of 0.378 0.Shannon polymorphic information index varied between 0-1.240 1, with an average of 0.759.Nei's gene diversity index (Nei) varied between 0-0.682 3, with an average of 0.440 9.P21 had the highest level accompanied with the lowest P7 for the above three indexes, and significant genetic diversity differences were identified among the loci. For all loci, the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.382 4, lower than the average expected heterozygosity of 0.442 5, suggesting the loss of heterozygosity, the average genetic differentiation coefficient (Fst) was 0.365 9 and the average gene flow Nm was 0.433 2, suggesting a high genetic divergence and a low gene flow. The results of one-variable linear regression and multiple stepwise regression showed that there were 5 loci related to each of the picfeltarraenin IA and IB, and only 1 loci was associated with the content of both. Conclusion::There were significant differences in the genetic diversity of 20 SSR marker sites, and the 69 germplasm samples were greatly genetically differentiated and had low gene flow. From the selected 20 SSR markers 9 marker loci associated with the content of picfeltarraenin IA and IB were selected. The results can be used as a reference for phylogenetic analysis and selective breeding of Picria felterrae.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872801

ABSTRACT

Objective::Camptosorus sibiricus is a kind of herbal medicine and famous folk medicine. However, the bioactivities or pharmacological effects of the C. sibiricus remain to be unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to make a systematic study on chemical constituents from C. sibiricus, so as to further study its potential medicinal value, and provide certain chemical basis and foundation for the comprehensive development and the search for pharmacological activity. Method::Various column chromatographic technologies, (silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS column chromatography) as well as HPLC were adopted to separate chemical constituents of C. sibiricus extract. The structure of the purified compounds was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). Result::Totally 10 compounds have been isolated from water extract of C. sibiricus. By spectroscopic methods, they were elucidated as 7-dien-3-on-9-O-β-D-glucoside (1), bridelionoside F (2), (3R, 5S, 6S, 7E, 9S)-megastigm, an-7-ene-3, 5, 6, 9-tetrol 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), (6S, 7E, 9R)-roseoside (4), (3S, 5S, 6R, 9R)-3-hydroxy-5, 6-epoxy-β-ionol-9-O-β-glucopyranoside (5), 6, 9-dihydroxy-4, 7-megastigmadien-3-one (6), (3R, 6R, 7E, 9R)-3, 9-dihydroxy-4, elaphoside A (7), ptelatoside-A (8), n-butyl-a-β-D-fructofuranoside (9), dibutylphthalate(10)based on physical and chemical properties. Conclusion::All compounds were obtained from C. sibiricus for the first time. The discovery of these compounds further enriched the chemical constituents of C. sibiricus, and provided experimental and scientific basis for the comprehensive development and utilization of C. sibiricus.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872739

ABSTRACT

Objective:By comparing the changing of chemical composition contents and the effects of improving insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice, to explore the processing principle of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma processed with salt-water. Method:Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was established for determining the contents of seven saponins and mangiferin in raw and salt-processed products of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma. The mobile phase was 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-1 min, 90%-80%A; 1-2 min, 80%-78%A; 2-5.5 min, 78%-70%A; 5.5-10.5 min, 70%-40%A; 10.5-12 min, 40%-20%A; 12-12.1 min, 20%-90%A; 12.1-13 min, 90%A). The flow rate was set at 0.3 mL·min-1. The mass spectrographic analysis employed electrospray ionization (ESI) and negative ion acquisition mode. The acquisition range was m/z 100-1 200. The experimental type 2 diabetic KKAy mice were divided into model group, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma group (7.2 g·kg-1·d-1) and Anemarrhenae Rhizoma processed with salt-water group (7.2 g·kg-1·d-1). C57BL/6J mice were considered as normal group and were given the same volume of saline. There are nine mice in each group, once a day for 21 consecutive days. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured once a week. Three hours after the last administration, the blood samples of mice were collected by drawing eyeballs and were centrifuged to separate serum for further experiment. The fasting insulin (FINS), leptin (LEP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glycated albumin (GA), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and the homeostasis model assessment insulin-resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. The expressions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylkinase (PEPCK) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator1 (PGC1) mRNA in hepatic and adipose tissue of mice from each group were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (Real-time PCR). Result:After being processed with salt-water, the contents of 8 chemical components in Anemarrhenae Rhizoma were increased, among which the contents of timosaponin AⅢ, timosaponin BⅡ, timosaponin BⅢ, anemarrhenasaponin Ⅰ, anemarrhenasaponin Ⅰa, mangiferin were significantly increased, and increased by 43.78%, 38.77%, 25.84%, 28.21%, 22.51%, 24.04%, respectively. Compared with the model group, raw and salt-processed products of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma could significantly decrease the levels of FBG, FINS, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, LEP, GA (P<0.05, P<0.01), increase the levels of ISI, GLP-1 (P<0.05, P<0.01) in serum of mice with type 2 diabetes, and significantly increase the expression of PI3K and PGC1 mRNA in hepatic and adipose tissue (P<0.05). It is worth noting that salt-processed products is better than that of raw products. Conclusion:Raw and salt-processed products of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma have obvious hypoglycemic effect. And the hypoglycemic effect of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma can be promoted after being processed with salt-water by promoting insulin secretion and improving insulin resistance. Incremental components are the probably material basis for enhancement of hypoglycemic effect of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma after being processed with salt-water.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872719

ABSTRACT

Polygalae Radix, a traditional Chinese medicine, has the functions of improving intelligence, calming nerves, relieving cough and eliminating phlegm. Its processing methods are various, but the purpose of processing is to reduce toxicity and increase efficiency. In this paper, the methods of ancient processing, such as cleansing, cutting, processing with excipient and processing without excipient, were summarized, the processing methods of Polygalae Radix in the different versions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the local processing specifications were summarized, in order to compare the differences and research progress of different processing methods. On this basis, taking the modern research of processed products of Polygalae Radix as the breakthrough point, this paper reviewed the modern research on processed products of Polygalae Radix from the aspects of processing technology, chemical composition changes and pharmacodynamics changes before and after processing, and the mechanism of reducing toxicity and increasing efficiency. Based on the research status of processing of Polygalae Radix, some existing problems were analyzed in this paper, including not many ancient processing methods used in modern times, lack of standardized research on processing technology, few studies on the ingredients introduced by excipients, etc. The author thinks that it is necessary to strengthen the research on the ancient processing of Polygalae Radix combined with processing methods with local characteristics. While discussing the processing technology, combining with the composition and efficacy, we should carry out in-depth research on the processing mechanism of different processing products of Polygalae Radix, so as to provide scientific basis for the rationality of processing of Polygalae Radix and ensure the clinical safety of medication.

19.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 499-504, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Pulmonary nodules (PNs) are one of the imaging manifestations of early lung cancer screening, which should receive more attention. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that voice changes occur in patients with pulmonary diseases. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences in phonetic characteristics between patients with PNs and able-bodied persons.@*METHODS@#This study explores the phonetic characteristics of patients with PNs in order to provide a simpler and cheaper method for PN screening. It is a case-control study to explore the differences in phonetic characteristics between individuals with and without PNs. This study performed non-parametric statistics on acoustic parameters of vocalizations, collected from January 2017 to March 2018 in Shanghai, China, from these two groups; it explores the differences in third and fourth acoustic parameters between patients with PNs and a normal control group. At the same time, computed tomography (CT) scans, course of disease, combined disease and other risk factors of the patients were collected in the form of questionnaire. According to the grouping of risk factors, the phonetic characteristics of the patients with PNs were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#This study was comprised of 200 patients with PNs, as confirmed by CT, and 86 healthy people that served as a control group. Among patients with PNs, 43% had ground glass opacity, 32% had nodules with a diameter ≥ 8 mm, 19% had a history of smoking and 31% had hyperlipidemia. Compared with the normal group, there were statistically significant differences in pitch, intensity and shimmer in patients with PNs. Among patients with PNs, patients with diameters ≥ 8 mm had a significantly higher third formant. There was a significant difference in intensity, fourth formant and harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) between smoking and non-smoking patients. Compared with non-hyperlipidemia patients, the pitch, jitter and shimmer of patients with PNs and hyperlipidemia were higher and the HNR was lower; these differences were statistically significant.@*CONCLUSION@#This measurable changes in vocalizations can be in patients with PNs. Patients with PNs had lower and weaker voices. The size of PNs had an effect on the phonetic formant. Smoking may contribute to damage to the voice and formant changes. Voice damage is more pronounced in individuals who have PNs accompanied by hyperlipidemia.

20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 253-261, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3, particularly subtype 3b, is increasing in prevalence and distribution in China. This study evaluated the prevalence, regional distribution, clinical characteristics, host factors, treatment outcomes, and disease progression of patients with HCV genotype 3 in China.@*METHODS@#A 5-year follow-up was preceded by a cross-sectional study. Treatment choices were at the discretion of treating physicians. Estimated infection time to overall-disease-progression (defined by ≥1 of: newly diagnosed cirrhosis; cirrhosis at baseline, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score increased 2 points or more; progression from compensated cirrhosis to decompensated cirrhosis; hepatocellular carcinoma; liver transplantation; or death) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the risk factors for disease progression.@*RESULTS@#The cross-sectional study enrolled 997 patients, including 91 with HCV genotype 3 infection. Among them, subtype 3b (57.1%) was more dominant than subtype 3a (38.5%). Five hundred and twelve patients were included into the follow-up phase. Among patients analyzed for estimated infection time to overall-disease-progression, 52/304 (17.1%) patients with HCV genotype 1 and 4/41 (9.8%) with HCV genotype 3 (4/26 with genotype 3b, 0/13 with genotype 3a, and 0/2 with undefined subtype of genotype 3) experienced overall-disease-progression. Patients with HCV genotype 3 were younger than those with genotype 1 (mean age: 39.5 ± 8.7 vs. 46.9 ± 13.6 years) and demonstrated more rapid disease progression (mean estimated infection time to overall-disease-progression 27.1 vs. 35.6 years).@*CONCLUSIONS@#HCV genotype 3, specifically subtype 3b, is associated with more rapid progression of liver disease. Further analysis to compare HCV subtype 3a and 3b is needed in high prevalence regions.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#NCT01293279, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01293279; NCT01594554, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01594554.

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