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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873613

ABSTRACT

@#Great progress has been made in immunotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in recent years. However, for thoracic surgeons, immunotherapy is still a new thing and they lack enough experience. Therefore, this paper attempts to discuss some hot issues of immunotherapy, including the indications, side effects, clinical efficacy and evaluation of efficacy. The author hopes that this article will help and attract the attention of thoracic surgeons.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873560

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the impact of the two-child policy on the fertility level of residents in Yangpu District. Methods Birth registry data were collected from the residents of Yangpu District in Shanghai during January 2015 to December 2018 for the analysis of birth characteristics and its variation after the two-child policy implementation. Results The total fertility rate was higher than 1 only in 2016 that was 1.04, whereas it was about 0.8 in other three years. The number of the second child increased which was inspired by the policy. However, the increment in the number of second child was far less than the decrease in the first child. From 2015 through 2018, the proportion of second children in the total births with local household registration accounted for 18.84%, 20.03%, 26.29% and 24.35%, respectively. From January 2015 to August 2016, the proportion of second children was on the rise slowly, in which the annual percent change(APC)value was 0.34%(P > 0.05). From September 2016 to May 2017, the proportion of second children had shown an obvious increase, and the APC value was 3.97%(P < 0.05). From June 2017 to December 2018, the proportion of second children was on a downward trend, in which the APC value was -0.97%(P < 0.05). Conclusion Favorable fertility policy may not reverse the fertility level in Yangpu District, which remains at a very low level.

3.
International Eye Science ; (12): 524-528, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873458

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To evaluate the long-term safety, efficacy and stability of posterior chamber intraocular lens(ICL)implantation for the correction of myopia.<p>METHODS: This retrospective non-randomized study included 107 eyes of 64 patients who were performed ICL implantation from January 2013 to December 2014. The uncorrected visual acuity, corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, the lens vault, endothelial cell morphometry were collected preoperatively and followed at 1wk, 1mo, 3mo, 6mo, 12mo and every year postoperatively.<p>RESULTS: The uncorrected visual acuity(LogMAR)was 0(-0.076, 0)at 1a postoperatively, and the uncorrected visual acuity 0.096(0, 0.221)decreased until last visit after the surgery. The change of visual acuity was associated with the change of axial length. The safety index was 1.19±0.24 and the efficacy index was 1.00±0.29 at the last visit postoperatively. The toric ICL implantation was stable without rotation at the last visit postoperatively. The vault of the ICL changed significantly in 1a postoperatively, but its change was smaller after 1a postoperatively. The intraocular pressure and endothelial cell morphometry did not changed significantly in long term postoperatively. Two eyes developed anterior cataract in 3a and 5a after the ICL implantation. There were no case developed pupillary block glaucoma.<p>CONCLUSION: Posterior chamber ICL implantation was a safe and stable procedure for the correction of myopia and astigmatism.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885722

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors for synchronous multiple early gastric cancer (SMEGC).Methods:A retrospective analysis was conducted on data of 390 patients with early gastric cancer, including 353 cases of solitary early gastric cancer (SEGC group) and 37 cases of SMEGC (SMEGC group), who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in Chinese PLA General Hospital from January 2017 to June 2019. The differences in clinical characteristics (gender, age, body mass index, smoking status, drinking status, family history of gastrointestinal cancer and other cancers, etc.) and pathological characteristics (size, location, morphology, differentiation degree, invasion depth, with or without Helicobacter pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia, ulcers and atrophic gastritis of lesions, etc.) between the two groups were compared by t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, or Fisher′s exact test. Logistic regression (forward LR) was used to screen the independent risk factors for SMEGC. Results:There were no significant differences in the general clinical characteristics between SMEGC group and SEGC group ( P>0.05). Significant statistical differences were observed in the location of lesions ( χ2=8.375, P=0.015), the proportion of atrophic gastritis [48.6% (18/37) VS 23.8% (84/353), χ2=10.710, P=0.001] and the proportion of intestinal metaplasia [81.1% (30/37) VS 43.1% (152/353), χ2=19.452, P<0.001] between the two groups, but there were no significant differences in other pathological characteristics ( P>0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that location of lesions in the middle 1/3 of stomach (VS upper 1/3: P=0.036, OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.08-10.53), in the lower 1/3 of stomach (VS upper 1/3: P=0.049, OR=2.59, 95% CI: 1.00-6.69), presence of intestinal metaplasia ( P=0.001, OR=4.38, 95% CI: 1.77-10.86) and atrophic gastritis ( P=0.043, OR=2.24, 95% CI: 1.04-5.07) were independent risk factors for SMEGC. Conclusion:Patients with early gastric cancer located in the middle or lower 1/3 of stomach, with intestinal metaplasia and atrophic gastritis are prone to SMEGC and should be carefully evaluated and closely followed up after ESD.

5.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 362-367, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885429

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the sleep quality and sleep structure of patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) complicated with patent foramen ovale (PFO), and to study the effect of PFO on the sleep structure of OSAHS.Methods:Fifty-six patients with OSAHS complicated with PFO, 64 patients with simple OSAHS and 62 controls were collected from December 2018 to March 2020 in Centre of Sleep Disorders, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and polysomnography were used to compare the sleep quality and sleep structure of the three groups.Results:Compared with the control group [6/62(9.68%)], OSAHS complicated with PFO group [54/56(96.43%)] and simple OSAHS group [53/64(82.81%)] had higher incidence of poor sleep quality (χ2=112.08, P<0.0l). Furthermore, compared with the control group, the OSAHS complicated with PFO group and simple OSAHS group showed reduced sleep efficiency [PSQI total score was 0.5 (0, 1), 2 (1, 3) and 2 (1, 2) respectively, H=74.549, P<0.01] and reduced proportions of rapid eye movement (REM; 20.45%±3.49%, 12.19%±5.95% and 15.11%±7.21%,respectively, F=21.17, P<0.01) and slow wave sleep (N3; 21.24%±4.12%, 14.15%±6.08%, 17.68%±6.35%, respectively, F=29.51, P<0.01); the N1 (4.47%±2.40%, 9.50%±5.34%, 9.55%±4.61%, respectively, F=30.07, P<0.05) and N2 sleep (53.88%±4.35%, 64.09%±7.49%, 58.14%±6.67% , respectively, F=46.21, P<0.05) were prolonged; the inocturnal lowest oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO 2) level was lower, mean SpO 2 reduction at night was higher [3.00% (0, 4.00%),6.00% (5.00%, 8.75%) and 4.00% (4.00%, 5.00%), respectively, H=72.24, P<0.05], and periodic leg movement index [16.30(4.80, 32.82), 33.30(9.26, 54.80) and 23.10(8.38, 31.83),respectively, H=17.86, P<0.05], arousal index [11.60(7.73, 17.55), 23.90(14.03, 30.45) and 15.6(11.23, 20.78), respectively, H=22.80, P<0.05] and sleep apnea and hypopnea index (AHI; 1.60±1.38, 23.90±7.27 and 16.24±4.22,respectively, F=136.97, P<0.05) increased. Compared with the simple OSAHS group, the incidence of poor sleep quality was higher, the proportions of slow wave sleep (N3, F=29.51, P=0.047) and REM ( F=21.17, P=0.012) were decreased, N2 sleep ( F=46.21, P=0.000) was prolonged, mean SpO 2 reduction at night ( Z=54.28, P=0.000), wake after sleep onset [116.00(89.88, 143.00) min vs 135.00(118.50, 168.38) min, Z=25.71, P=0.023], arousal times [14.00(8.25, 8.00) vs 17.50(9.00,23.00),respectively, Z=19.68, P=0.041], microarousal ( Z=23.57, P=0.044), and AHI ( F=136.97, P=0.000) were increased in the OSAHS complicated with PFO group. Conclusions:OSAHS complicated with PFO patients had poor sleep quality and high incidence of sleep disorders. They had sleep disorder at night, which was characterized by the decrease of REM sleep and slow wave sleep, the prolongation of N2, the decrease of nocturnal SpO 2 and the increase of awakening times, and the increase of arousal times and AHI. PFO can aggravate the sleep disorder of OSAHS.

6.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 459-463, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884908

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the diagnostic value of coronary angiography-based fractional flow reserve(caFFR)versus a wire-based fractional flow reserve(FFR)in elderly patients with stable ischemic heart disease.Methods:A total of 168 patients(186 vessels)who underwent a pressure wire(PW)-based FFR measurement from Jan.2015 to Dec.2019 in Beijing hospital were enrolled and analyzed retrospectively.Coronary angiography images and matched steady-state aortic pressure of patients were sent to the core laboratory for caFFR measurement under the blind method.All patients were divided into the non-elderly group(<65 years, n=93)and the elderly group(≥65 years, n=75). The diagnostic value of caFFR was evaluated by using the wire-based FFR cut-off value of ≤0.80 as the reference standard.The correlation and consistency of caFFR and wire-based FFR were analyzed, and compared between the non-elderly and elderly groups.Results:The caFFR had a good correlation and consistency with wire-based FFR in the elderly group( r=0.796, P<0.01). In non-aged versus elderly groups, diagnostic accuracy of caFFR was 91.9% versus 93.1%, diagnostic sensitivity of caFFR was 91.8% vs.93.2%, diagnostic specificity of caFFR was 92.3% vs.93.0%, all P>0.05.The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of caFFR had no significant difference between the non-elderly and elderly patients(0.964 vs.0.972, Z=0.00823, 95% CI: -0.037-0.052, P>0.05). Conclusions:The caFFR has a good diagnostic correlation and consistency with wire-based FFR in the elderly group, and caFFR's diagnostic performance in the elderly is similar to that in the non-elderly patients.

7.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 250-256, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884419

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the value of artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted quantitative measurement in evaluation of the dynamic changes of CT for COVID-19 pneumonia.Methods:The clinical and chest CT dynamic imaging data of 99 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia who were hospitalized in Wuhan Central Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from January 15, 2020 to March 10, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the definitive diagnosis, the 99 patients were classified into common ( n=36), severe ( n=33) and critical ( n=30) type, the CT imaging findings of each type were analyzed, including CT basic signs, total volume of pneumonia lesions and percentage of pneumonia lesions of the total lung volume (volume ratio). AI software was used to quantitatively evaluate the dynamic changes of chest CT images. The quantitative indicators included CT peak time of lesions, total volume of lesions peak, volume ratio of lesions peak, maximum growth rate of total volume and maximum growth rate of volume ratio. Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used to compare the difference of quantitative indexes between the 3 types, and χ 2 test or Fisher exact probability test was used to compare the difference of qualitative indexes between the 3 types. Sequence measurement and scatter plots were used to show the evolution trend of the volume ratio of the three types of COVID-19 pneumonia lesions. The ROC curve was used to analyze the value of the volume ratio of pneumonia lesions and its maximum growth rate in predicting the conversion of common pneumonia to severe or critical pneumonia. Results:There were statistically significant differences in age and gender distribution among patients with common, severe and critical COVID-19 ( P<0.05), the age of severe and critical types were significantly higher than that of common type ( P<0.01). Compared with common [2.5 (1.0, 5.0) d] and critical type[2.5 (1.0, 4.0) d], the time from onset to the first chest CT scan of severe type was prolonged [5.0 (2.5, 8.0) d, P<0.01]. There were statistically significant differences in involvement of multiple lung lobes (20 cases, 29 cases, 25 cases, χ2=10.403, P=0.006) in patients with common, severe and critical COVID-19 at the first scan, the incidence of the involvement of multiple lung lobes in severe and critical types was significantly higher than that of common type ( P=0.002). The volume ratios of patients with common, severe and critical COVID-19 at the first scan were statistically significant [1.0% (0.2%, 4.7%), 9.30% (1.63%, 26.83%), 2.10% (0.64%, 8.61%), Z=14.236, P=0.001], and the volume ratio of severe type was significantly higher than that of common type ( P<0.001), there was no statistically significant difference between common type and critical type ( P=0.062). Follow-up CT showed that the pneumonia lesions showed a dynamic transformation of progress and recovery, and it was seen that the coexistence of multiphase lesions. The trend line in the scatter plot of the three types of COVID-19 pneumonia lesions showed that the lesions in the advanced stage developed from less to more. The lesion peak volume ratios of the common, severe and critical types were 9.75% (4.83%, 13.18%), 29.80% (23.99%, 42.36%) and 61.81% (43.73%, 72.82%), respectively, the difference was statistically significant ( Z=74.147, P<0.001). The maximum growth rates of lesion volume ratio were 1.27% (0.50%, 1.81%)/d, 4.39% (3.16%, 5.54%)/d and 6.02% (4.77%, 9.96%)/d, respectively, the difference was statistically significant ( Z=52.453, P<0.001). The peak times of lesions were 12.0 (9.0, 15.0) d, 13.0 (10.0, 16.0) d and 16.5 (12.0, 25.0)d, respectively, the difference was statistically significant ( Z=9.524, P=0.009). Taking the volume ratio of pneumonia lesion 22.60% and the maximum growth rate of the volume ratio 1.875%/d as the boundary value, the sensitivity of diagnosing common type to severe or critical type was 92.10% and 96.83%, and the specificity was 100% and 80.56%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.987 and 0.925, respectively. Conclusions:The lesions of COVID-19 pneumonia show a similar parabolic change on CT imaging. The use of AI technology to dynamitcally and accurately measure the CT pneumonia lesion volume ratio is helpful to evaluate the severity of the disease and predict the development trend of the disease. Patients with a rapid growth of volume ratio are more likely to become severe or critical type.

8.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 433-437, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883902

ABSTRACT

Objective:To illustrate a relatively complete knowledge system (e.g., research outputs, current hotspots, and future trends) in the sepsis field and to help scholars grasp the scientific research direction or clinical focus of treatment.Methods:The relevant literatures of sepsis during the time from 1985 to 2019 in Web of Science database were collected. Sepsis-related research contents were generated using softwares (CiteSpace 5.6.R2 and VOSviewer 1.6.13), which using data mining, information processing and knowledge map methods, to analyze the historical evolution and predict the development trend.Results:A total of 8 189 papers on sepsis were published. The volume of publications were increasing yearly from 1985 to 2019, and reached the top list of 1 276 in 2019. For research contents of sepsis, it has formed the basic characteristics of sepsis which focusing on epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Through cluster analysis, the researches mainly focused on six aspects: septic rat, necrotizingenterocolitis, sepsis-associated encephalopathy, acute kidney injury (AKI), gut-derived sepsis, and inflammatory mediator. And it presented the literature characteristics that related to the injury or dysfunction of intestines, brain, liver, kidney or other organs, but the heart and lung researches were more marginal. Additionally, based on the top key words with the strongest citation bursts, it reflected that the development trend of the continuous attention hotspots with "endotoxin" or "endotoxin shock", the significant attention hotspots with "inflammation", "immunity" and "multiple organ dysfunction syndrome" (MODS), and the novel burst attention hotspots with sepsis management including "diagnosis" and "chemotherapy".Conclusions:Through the hotspots and trends visualization of sepsis, the current researches are prefer to animal experiments, epidemiology, or other basic scientific aspects. Meanwhile, the researches are mostly focusing on inflammatory reaction, immune function or organ dysfunctions. Integrating the knowledge maps of hotspots and trends, based on researches of epidemiology, diagnosis, risk factors, pathogenesis, or treatment, we predict that the future scientific topics will concentrating on childhood sepsis, organ injury mechanism or intervention relating to MODS, and integrated management of sepsis by combining traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine.

9.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 109-110, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883819

ABSTRACT

The key technology of the device for the viviperception of the animal mesenteric microcirculation is to simulate the celiac environment in the device. The technical requirements of the device for microcirculation viviperception are that the observation box should be able to "keep warm, preserve moisture, continually perfuse, and fix the sample"; and the lighting should be "intense", "convergence", and "cool". After actual application, it was found that the newly designed and developed the device by research personnel of Wannan Medical College for the viviperception of the animal mesenteric microcirculation can meet the technical requirements, which is able to "keep warm, preserve moisture, continually perfuse, and fix the sample", and using LED lamp as the microscope light source is "intense", "convergence", and "cool". This device is ingenious and reasonable in design, stable in technology, convenient in operation, and competent in microcirculation viviperception. It solves the technical problem to simulate the celiac environment for mesenteric microcirculation viviperception. The device provides convenience to observe and study the microcirculation, which is worth to be applicated widely.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883745

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) on the expression of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) in mitochondrial pathway after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.Methods:From March to December in 2019, 45 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operation, model and TBH groups. Rat models of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were established by ligation of the left carotid artery. Rat neurological function was evaluated to exclude the rats that failed in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury induction. Ten rats were left in each group. At 0.5 and 12 hours after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, rats in the TBH group were treated by intragastric administration of 12.5 mg/kg TBH and those in the sham-operation and model groups were identically treated by intragastric administration of equal volume of 0.9% sodium chloride injection. After 24 hours of reperfusion, rat neurological function was assessed in each group. Then the rats were killed and the brains were harvested. Apoptosis of nerve cells was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the brain tissue were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. XIAP- and Smac-positive cell count and protein expression were determined by immunohistochemical staining and western blot assay, respectively.Results:Rat neurological function score in the TBH group was significantly lower than that in the model group [(1.36 ± 0.49) points vs. (3.73 ± 0.97) points, t = 6.896, P < 0.001]. In the TBH group, a large number of apoptotic nerve cells were found in the ischemic cerebral cortex, but the number of apoptotic nerve cells in the TBH group was significantly smaller than that in the model group. In the model group, SOD level was significantly lower, MDA, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were significantly higher compared with the sham-operation group [SOD: (51.94 ± 3.46) U/mg vs. (70.68 ± 2.67) U/mg, t = 13.560, P < 0.001; MDA: (5.69 ± 0.78) nmol/mg vs. (1.20 ± 0.96) nmol/mg, t = 11.479, P < 0.001; TNF-α: (89.36 ± 9.84) pg/mg vs. (40.53 ± 4.35) pg/mg, t = 14.353, P < 0.001; IL-1β: (41.35 ± 6.79) pg/mg vs. (17.22 ± 2.31) pg/mg, t = 10.639, P < 0.001]. In the TBH group, SOD level was significantly higher, MDA, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were significantly lower compared with the model group [SOD: (51.94 ± 3.46) U/mg vs. (68.84 ± 5.03) U/mg, t = 8.754, P < 0.001; MDA: (5.69 ± 0.78) nmol/mg vs. (2.46 ± 0.48) nmol/mg, t = 11.153, P < 0.001; TNF-α: (89.36 ± 9.84) pg/mg vs. (57.64 ± 6.22) pg/mg, t = 8.617, P < 0.001; IL-1β: (41.35 ± 6.79) pg/mg vs. (23.84 ± 5.48) pg/mg, t = 6.346, P < 0.001]. XIAP- and Smac-positive cell count and protein expression in the model group were significantly greater than those in the sham-operation group [XIAP-positive cell count: (22.63 ± 4.37) vs. (12.39 ± 3.18), t = 5.992, P < 0.001, Smac-positive cell count: (47.58 ± 6.94) vs. (5.64 ± 1.35), t = 18.759, P < 0.001; XIAP protein expression: (0.53 ± 0.08) vs. (0.24 ± 0.05), t = 9.721, P < 0.001; Smac protein expression: (0.92 ± 0.15) > ( 0.36 ± 0.05), t = 11.200, P < 0.001 ]. In the TBH group, XIAP-positive cell count and XIAP protein expression were significantly higher and Smac-positive cell count and Smac protein expression were significantly lower compared with the model group [XIAP-positive cell count: (36.78 ± 5.26) vs. (22.63 ± 4.37), t = 6.543, P < 0.001, Smac-positive cell count: (31.74 ± 4.26) vs. (47.58 ± 6.94), t = 6.151, P < 0.001; XIAP protein expression: (0.79 ± 0.10) vs. (0.53 ± 0.08), t = 6.420, P < 0.001, Smac protein expression: (0.70 ± 0.09) vs. (0.92 ± 0.15), t = 3.977, P < 0.001]. Conclusion:TBH can effectively reduce neuronal apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, which may be related to the regulation of XIAP and Smac signaling pathways.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883546

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the application effects of SBAR communication mode (situation, background, assessment and recommendation) combined with 3D printing model technology in bed-side teaching of trauma orthopaedics.Methods:A total of 80 clinical medicine students were randomly divided into two groups according to the order of the school number, with 40 students in each group. One was experimental group which received SBAR communication mode combined with 3D printing model technology teaching, and the other one was the control group, which received regular reaching mode. At the end of teaching, the teaching effects were evaluated, including the scores of theoretical examinations and operational examinations, total scores and the anonymous questionnaires. SPSS 22.0 was used for recording and statistical analysis.Results:The average scores of theoretical examinations (48.30±1.41), operational examinations (42.20±1.48) and total scores (90.70±1.38) of experimental group were significantly higher than those of control group [(43.40±1.52); (34.80±1.53); (78.10±1.51)], with significant differences ( P <0.05). The anonymous questionnaires showed that the students in the experimental group had a significant advantage in autonomous learning ability, learning enthusiasm, the ability of literature retrieval and analysis and clinical thinking ability, and enhancing students' humanistic care consciousness in clinical work ( P <0.05). While the two groups had the same recognition in improving problem solving ability, teamwork ability and communication ability with patients, with no significant difference ( P > 0.05). Conclusion:The new teaching mode, SBAR mode combined with 3D printing model technology, applied to trauma orthopaedics bed-side teaching is helpful for students to improve their learning interest and autonomous learning ability, cultivate their lifelong learning habits and their comprehensive quality, so this mode will significantly improve the teaching effects, with good application value.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882875

ABSTRACT

Objective:The clinical manifestations, types of gene mutations, therapeutic effects and prognostic characteristics of 15 children with cblC type methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and hydrocephalus were analyzed to improve the clinical understanding of the disease, so as to provide a basis for the treatment of the disease.Methods:From April 2015 to January 2019, 15 patients with MMA and hydrocephalus in Department of Pediatric Surgery, Peking University First Hospital were enrolled, and all gene detection showed clbC type.All the 15 patients underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt.After surgery, the clinical manifestations and imaging findings were applied as the basis to adjust the pressure of the diverter valve appropriately.Clinical data and gene mutation characteristics of 15 children with cblC type and hydrocephalus were retrospectively analyzed, and the therapeutic effects and prognosis were summarized and analyzed as well.Results:There were 8 males (53.3%) and 7 females (46.7%), aged from 2 to 33 months.All the cases were followed up from 11 to 55 months, without death case and serious postoperative complications of hydroce-phalus.The head circumference of 3 cases (20.0%) was in the normal range, 1 case (6.7%) was greater than the normal range, and 11 cases (73.3%) were less than the normal range.Four patients (26.7%) were transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit after surgery.c.609G>A mutation was the most common in this study, with 7 cases (46.7%) of c. 609G>A homozygous mutation, and 5 cases (33.3%) of c. 609G>A heterozygous mutation.Clinical symptoms of intracranial hypertension were relieved or disappeared.The head circumference progressive enlargement was stopped.The anterior fontanelle tension greatly decreased, all " setting-sun" sign of eyes disappeared, and vision loss and hearing loss were better compared with the pre-operation.Four cases (26.7%) displayed normal intelligence and exercise, and 11 cases (73.3%) were left with mild to severe psychomotor retardation.During the follow-up pe-riod, the head CT showed that the ventricle was remarkably narrowed, and interstitial brain edema obviously improved.Conclusions:Ventriculoperitoneal shunt in the treatment of cblC type MMA with hydrocephalus has positive effects.The head circumference of most cblC type MMA with hydrocephalus is less than the normal range.c.609 G>A is the most common mutation in cblC type MMA with hydrocephalus.Perioperative " metabolic crisis" can result in serious complications.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882516

ABSTRACT

At present, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are widely used in clinical, and the common adverse reactions include adverse reactions of skin, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine and liver. Adverse reactions to the lungs and heart are relatively rare, but can be fatal. Systemic steroid therapy is the main treatment for immune related adverse events (irAEs). If there is no response to steroid therapy, an immunomodulator may be considered. Understanding the incidence, pathogenesis, common types and treatment strategies of irAEs can provide theoretical basis for the safe application of ICIs in clinical practice.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882212

ABSTRACT

Objective:To develop an early warning index system to identify the outbreak of respiratory infectious diseases and to assess the epidemic risk of these diseases in Shanghai. Methods:A two-round Delphi survey with a panel of 31 experts was used to select the modifying indicators. All indicators were evaluated for necessity,feasibility,stability, and sensitivity through online questionnaires. Results:The consultation recovery rates of both rounds were 100%. The authority coefficient was 0.88, and the Kendall's W of the second-round consultation was 0.138 (P<0.001), suggesting a good coordination among experts’ opinion. Our early warning index system was developed after the two-round Delphi survey and included two sets of indicators, one for rapid risk assessment and another for monitoring and tracing risk. Both sets of the indicators involved three aspects: transmissibility, clinical severity and potential influence of emerging diseases. The rapid risk assessment system part covered 10 indicators while the risk monitor system part covered 23 indicators. In the rapid risk assessment system part, the weight value of the top three indicators were greater than 0.10, with the highest weight value of 0.171 for titled visiting rate of influenza-like illness patients in the Emergency Department or other outpatient visits. In the risk monitor system part, the weight value of the top eight indicators were greater than 0.05, and the greatest was 0.087 for R0 (basic reproductive number). Conclusion:The developed scientific and reliable evaluation indicator system can be used to forecast the outbreak and epidemic risk of respiratory infectious diseases. However, sensitivity and stability of the indicators need further validation and evaluation.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882072

ABSTRACT

Objective Asiatic acid is the main medicinal component of aursane pentacyclic triterpene and possessed various biological activities. In order to obtain better active Asiatic acid analogues, microbial transformation was used for structural modification. Methods Asiatic acid was biotransformed by Syncephalum racemosum CGMCC 3.2500. The structure of the compound was identified by high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (i.e., 1H NMR、13C NMR、1H-13C HSQC、1H-13C HMBC、1H-1H NOESY). Results The structure of the compound was determined as 2-oxo-3α, 15α, 23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid which was a new compound. Conclusion Syncephalum racemosum CGMCC 3.2500 can modify the structure of Asiatic acid and obtain Asiatic acid analogues.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the changes of symptoms, Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome, and lung inflammation absorption during convalescence in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who had not totally recovered after hospital discharge and whether CM could promote the improvement process.@*METHODS@#This study was designed as a prospective cohort and nested case-control study. A total of 96 eligible patients with COVID-19 in convalescence were enrolled from Beijing Youan Hospital and Beijing Huimin Hospital and followed up from the hospital discharged day. Patients were divided into the CM (64 cases) and the control groups (32 cases) based on the treatment with or without CM and followed up at 14, 28, 56, and 84 days after discharge. In the CM group, patients received the 28-day CM treatment according to two types of CM syndrome. Improvements in clinical symptoms, CM syndrome, and absorption of lung inflammation were observed.@*RESULTS@#All the 96 patients completed the 84-day follow-up from January 21 to March 28, 2020. By the 84th day of follow-up, respiratory symptoms were less than 5%. There was no significant difference in the improvement rates of symptoms, including fatigue, sputum, cough, dry throat, thirst, and upset, between the two groups (P>0.05). Totally 82 patients (85.42%) showed complete lung inflammation absorption at the 84-day follow-up. On day 14, the CM group had a significantly higher absorption rate than the control group (P<0.05) and the relative risk of absorption for CM vs. control group was 3.029 (95% confidence interval: 1.026-8.940). The proportions of CM syndrome types changed with time prolonging: the proportion of the pathogen residue syndrome gradually decreased, and the proportion of both qi and yin deficiency syndrome gradually increased.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Patients with COVID-19 in convalescence had symptoms and lung inflammation after hospital discharge and recovered with time prolonging. CM could improve lung inflammation for early recovery. The types of CM syndrome can be transformed with time prolonging. (Registration No. ChiCTR2000029430).


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Convalescence , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the effect and mechanism of Jiaotai Pill (, JTP) on insomniac rats.@*METHODS@#The insomniac model was established by intraperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). In behavioral experiments, rats were divided into control, insomniac model, JTP [3.3 g/(kg•d)], and diazepam [4 mg/(kg•d)] groups. The treatment effect of JTP was evaluated by weight measurement (increasement of body weight), open field test (number of crossings) and forced swimming test (immobility time). A high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method was built to determine the concentration of monoamine transmitters in hypothalamus and peripheral organs from normal, model, JTP, citalopram [30 mg/(kg•d)], maprotiline [40 mg/(kg•d)] and bupropion [40 mg/(kg•d)] groups. Expressions of serotonin transporter (SERT), dopamine transporter (DAT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot in normal, model and JTP groups. A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was established to determine the pharmacokinetics, urine cumulative excretion of metformin in vivo, and tissue slice uptake in vitro, which were applied to assess the activity of organic cation transporters (OCTs) in hypothalamus and peripheral organs.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the insomniac model group, the body weight and spontaneous locomotor were increased, and the immobility time was decreased after treatment with JTP (P<0.01). Both serotonin and dopamine contents in hypothalamus and peripheral organs were increased (P<0.01). The norepinephrine content was increased in peripheral organs and decreased in hypothalamus (P<0.05 or P<0.01). At the same time, SERT, DAT, OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 were down-regulated in hypothalamus and peripheral organs (P<0.05). NET was down-regulated in peripheral organs and up-regulated in hypothalamus (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, the activity of OCTs in hypothalamus and peripheral organs was inhibited (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#JTP alleviates insomnia through regulation of monoaminergic system and OCTs in hypothalamus and peripheral organs.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880499

ABSTRACT

Radix Astragali (RA), a traditional Chinese medicine from the dried root of Astragalus species, is widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the world. The major bioactive constituents of RA are triterpene glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids, and these compounds mostly exert pharmacological activities on the cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, and hepatic systems. This review summarizes the recent studies on RA and provides a comprehensive summary regarding the status of resources, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, clinical application, and patent release of RA. We hope this review can provide a guidance for further development of therapeutic agents from RA.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880494

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically evaluate the protective effects of Humulus lupulus L. extract (HLE) on osteoporosis mice.@*METHODS@#In vivo experiment, a total of 35 12-week-old female ICR mice were equally divided into 5 groups: the sham control group (sham); the ovariectomy with vehicle group (OVX); the OVX with estradiol valerate [EV, 0.2 mg/(kg•d)] the OVX with low- or high-dose HLE groups [HLE, 1 g/(kg•d) and 3 g/(kg•d)], 7 in each group. Treatment began 1 week after the ovariectomized surgery and lasted for 12 weeks. Bone mass and trabecular bone mircoarchitecture were evaluated by micro computed tomography, and bone turnover markers in serum were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. In vitro experiment, osteoblasts and osteoclasts were treated with HLE at doses of 0, 4, 20 and 100 µg/mL. Biomarkers for bone formation in osteoblasts and bone resorption in osteoclasts were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the OVX group, HLE exerted bone protective effects by the increase of estradiol (P<0.05), the improvement of cancellous bone structure, bone mineral density (P<0.01) and the reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), bone gla-protein, c-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and deoxypyridinoline levels (P<0.01 for all). In vitro experiment, compared with the control group, HLE at 20 µg/mL promoted the cell proliferation (P<0.01), and increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin levels in osteoblasts (both P<0.05). HLE at 100 µg/mL increased the osteoblastic ALP activities, and HLE at all dose enhanced the extracellular matrix mineralization (both P<0.01). Furthermore, compared with the control group, HLE at 20 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL inhibited osteoclastic TRAP activity (P<0.01), and reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin K (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#HLE may protect against bone loss, and have potentials in the treatment of osteoporosis.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880422

ABSTRACT

It is well known that chitosan-based composites are widely used in implantable medical devices. The development of chitosan-based composite materials with different types was summarized in this paper, such as inorganic, organic and composite phases. Then, combined with the research focus, the development of 3D printing technology and chitosan-based composites was summarized. It was also pointed out that the existing problems in our research, which need to be solved urgently. At last, the development direction and broad application prospect of chitosan-based composites were prospected. And we look forward to providing reference for relevant research.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , Chitosan , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Prostheses and Implants
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