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1.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1652-1657, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942835

ABSTRACT

The American Association of Cataract Surgeons issued the Consensus on Astigmatism Management in Cataract Surgery in 2019. To help Chinese ophthalmologists better comprehend the consensus, the main contents are explained: Toric intraocular lens(Toric IOL)implantation is the first choice for correcting corneal astigmatism. Three or more than three instruments should be used for preoperative measurement, and the values that are consistent with results should be taken. Then the Barrett Toric calculator can be used to calculate Toric IOL. When calculating toric IOL,the position of the surgical incision, surgically induced astigmatism(SIA), etc. should be considered. Then, the Toric IOL that makes resultant astigmatism close to 0 without flipping the astigmatism axis can be selected. The intraoperative automated image-guided systems can be used to guide the implantation. If residual astigmatism causes discomfort, laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK)or IOL replacement can be used for correction. Toric IOL implantation is not recommended for patients with pseudoexfoliation(PXF)syndrome or macular lesions. There are many contraindications in dysfunctional lens syndrome(DLS)patients, which should be carried out by senior doctors. In the future, it is necessary to explore further the influence of haptic design and optic material on the rotational stability of IOL. Cataract surgery assisted by intraoperative aberrometers, automated image-guided systems or femtosecond laser still needs further development.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2805-2810, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941506

ABSTRACT

An HPLC method was established for the assay of epinephrine sulfonate (impurity F) in epinephrine injection. The determination was performed on an AQUASIL C18 (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) column with a gradient elution system, and the mobile phase was consisted of monopotassium phosphate solution (mobile phase A) and acetonitrile (mobile phase B). The injection volume was 40 μL. The detection wavelength was at 210 nm and the column temperature was 25 ℃. The total analytical time was 40 min. The results showed that the standard cure of epinephrine sulfonate (impurity F) between peak area and concentration exhibited good linear relationship within the ranges of 0.520-12.480 μg·mL-1 and the R2 = 0.999 8. The average recovery rate was 103.04% and the RSD was 2.00%. The limit concentration of detection was 0.104 μg·mL-1 and the limit concentration of quantitation was 0.520 μg·mL-1. The method could be applied to the determination of epinephrine sulfonate in epinephrine injection with high accuracy and precision, as well as good sensitivity. It could also enhance the quality standards of epinephrine-related products.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the protective effect of excretory-secretory proteins from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (Ts-MES) on sepsis-induced myocardial injury in mice.@*METHODS@#Eighty male BALB/C mice were randomized equally into sham-operated group, myocardial injury group, Ts-MES treatment group and dexamethasone treatment group. In the latter 3 groups, sepsis-induced myocardial injury models were established by cecal ligation and perforation; the sham operation was performed by exposure of the cecum without ligation or perforation. Forty minutes after the operation, the mice were given intraperitoneal injections 150 μL PBS, 20 μg TS-MES or 0.3 mg/kg dexamethasone as indicated. At 12 h after the operation, 6 mice were randomly selected from each group for echocardiography, and 8 mice were used for observing the survival rate within 72 h. The remaining 6 mice were examined for myocardial pathologies with HE staining and serum levels of NTPro-BNP and cTnI with ELISA; the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β in the serum and myocardial tissue were detected using ELISA and qRT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operated mice, the septic mice showed significantly decreased cardiac function indexes (LVEF, LVFS, and E/A) with lowered survival rate within 72 h (P < 0.001) and significantly higher myocardial injury scores and serum levels of NTPro-BNP and cTnI (P < 0.01). Treatment with TS-MES significantly improved the cardiac function and 72-h survival rate (P < 0.05) and lowered the myocardial injury scores and serum levels of NTPro-BNP and cTnI (P < 0.05) in the septic mice. Compared with the sham-operated mice, the septic mice had obviously increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the serum and myocardial tissue (P < 0.001), which were significantly lowered by treatment with TS-MES (P < 0.05). TS-MES and dexamethasone both increased the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in the septic mice, but the changes were significant only in TS-MES-treated mice (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Ts-MES are capable of protecting against myocardial injury in septic mice by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhancing the levels of regulatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Dexamethasone , Heart Injuries , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Larva , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Myocardium , Sepsis , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Trichinella spiralis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
4.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 538-548, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940957

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the current situation of early treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds by professional burn medical staff in China, and to further promote the standardized early clinical treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation was conducted. From November 2020 to February 2021, the self-designed questionnaire for the early treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds was published through the "questionnaire star" website and shared through WeChat to conduct a convenient sampling survey of domestic medical staff engaged in burn specialty who met the inclusion criteria. The number, region, and grade of the affiliated hospital, the age, gender, occupation, and seniority of the respondents were recorded. The respondents were divided into physician group and nurse group, senior group and junior group, eastern region group and non-eastern region group, primary and secondary hospital group and tertiary hospital group. Then the seniority, grade of the affiliated hospital, region of the affiliated hospital of the respondents in physician group and nurse group, conventional treatment of partial-thickness burn blisters, reasons for retaining vesicular skin, reasons for removing vesicular skin, and the conventional selection and optimal solution recommendation of topical drugs or dressings for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage of respondents in each of all the groups were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed with chi-square test. Results: The survey covered 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions in China (except for Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan regions). A total of 979 questionnaires were recovered, which were all valid. The 979 respondents came from 449 hospitals across the country, including 203 hospitals in the eastern region, 116 hospitals in the western region, 99 hospitals in the central region, and 31 hospitals in the northeast region, 348 tertiary hospitals, 79 secondary hospitals, and 22 primary hospitals. The age of the respondents was (39±10) years. There were 543 males and 436 females, 656 physicians and 323 nurses, 473 juniors and 506 seniors, 460 in the eastern regions and 519 in the non-eastern regions, 818 in tertiary hospitals and 161 in primary and secondary hospitals. There were statistically significant differences in the composition of different seniority in the respondents between physician group and nurse group (χ2=44.32, P<0.01), while there were no statistically significant differences in grade or region of the affiliated hospital of the respondents between physician group and nurse group (P>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the conventional treatment of partial-thickness burn blisters among respondents between different occupational groups, seniority groups, and region of the affiliated hospital groups (P>0.05).The respondents in different grade of the affiliated hospital groups differed significantly in the conventional treatment of partial-thickness burn blisters (χ2=6.24, P<0.05). Compared with respondents in nurse group, larger percentage of respondents in physician group chose to retain vesicular skin for protecting the wounds and providing a moist environment, and alleviating the pain of dressing change (with χ2 values of 21.22 and 19.96, respectively, P values below 0.01), and smaller percentage of respondents in physician group chose to retain vesicular skin for prevention of wound infection (χ2=23.55, P<0.01). The reasons for retaining vesicular skin of respondents between physician group and nurse group were similar in accelerating wound healing, alleviating pigmentation and scar hyperplasia post wound healing (P>0.05). Compared with respondents in junior group, larger percentage of respondents in senior group chose to retain vesicular skin for protecting the wounds and providing a moist environment and alleviating the pain of dressing change (with χ2 values of 10.36 and 4.60, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01), and smaller percentage of respondents in senior group chose to retain vesicular skin for prevention of wound infection (χ2=8.20, P<0.01). The reasons for retaining vesicular skin of respondents in senior group and junior group were similar in accelerating wound healing, alleviating pigmentation and scar hyperplasia post wound healing (P>0.05). The 5 reasons for the respondents between eastern region group and non-eastern region group, primary and secondary hospital group and tertiary hospital group chose to retain vesicular skin were all similar (P>0.05). Compared with those in physician group, significantly higher percentage of respondents in nurse group were in favor of the following 6 reasons for removing the vesicular skin, including convenience for using more ideal dressings to protect the wounds, prevention of wound infection, facilitating the effect of topical drugs on the wounds, the likely rupture of blisters and wound contamination, accelerating wound healing, and alleviating pigmentation and scar hyperplasia post wound healing (with χ2 values of 4.35, 25.59, 11.83, 16.76, 46.31, and 17.54, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with respondents in senior group, larger percentage of respondents in junior group chose to remove vesicular skin for the reasons such as the likely blister rupture and wound contamination, preventing wound infection, accelerating wound healing, and alleviating pigmentation and scar hyperplasia post wound healing (with χ2 values of 17.25, 18.63, 14.83, and 10.23, respectively, P values below 0.01). Compared with respondents in non-eastern region group, larger percentage of respondents in eastern region group chose to remove vesicular skin for preventing wound infection and the likely rupture of blisters and wound contamination (with χ2 values of 9.30 and 8.65, respectively, P values below 0.01). The 6 reasons for the respondents between tertiary hospital group and primary and secondary hospital group choose to remove vesicular skin were similar (P>0.05). Compared with respondents in physician group, larger percentage of respondents in nurse group chose to use moisturizing materials for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage (χ2=6.18, P<0.05), and smaller percentage of respondents in nurse group chose other topical drugs or dressings (χ2=5.20, P<0.05). Compared with respondents in junior group, larger percentage of respondents in senior group chose to use moisturizing materials and other topical drugs or dressings for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage (with χ2 values of 4.97 and 21.80, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with respondents in non-eastern region group, larger percentage of respondents in eastern region group chose to use topical antimicrobial drugs for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage (χ2=4.09, P<0.05), and smaller percentage of respondents in eastern region group chose to use other topical drugs or dressings for the partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage (χ2=5.63, P<0.05). Compared with respondents in primary and secondary hospital group, larger percentage of respondents in tertiary hospital group chose to use biological dressings for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage (χ2=9.38, P<0.01). The optimal solution recommendation of topical drugs or dressings for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage varied significantly among the respondents between different occupational groups and seniority groups (with χ2 values of 39.58 and 19.93, respectively, P values below 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between eastern and non-eastern region groups, tertiary hospital group and primary and secondary hospital groups in optimal solution recommendation of topical drugs or dressings for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage (P>0.05). Conclusions: The conventional treatment measures of partial-thickness burn blisters and reasons for preserving blister skin by professional burn medical staff in China are relatively consistent, but there are great differences in the selection of reasons for removing blister skin, the conventional selection and optimal solution recommendation of topical drugs or dressings for partial-thickness burn wounds in the early stage. Therefore, it is urgent to establish a clinical treatment standard for partial-thickness burn wounds.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blister , Burns/drug therapy , Cicatrix/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hyperplasia , Male , Medical Staff , Middle Aged , Occupations , Pain , Soft Tissue Injuries , Wound Infection
5.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 512-519, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940954

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the characteristics and comprehensive treatment of infected wounds in patients with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. From May 2012 to December 2021, the data of 19 patients with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome discharged from the Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were collected, including 8 males and 11 females, aged 28-71 (56±11) years, with 12 cases of infected acute wounds and 7 cases of infected chronic wounds. The lesions were located in the limbs, perianal, and sacrococcygeal regions, with original infection ranging from 9 cm×5 cm to 85 cm×45 cm. After admission, the patients were performed with multidisciplinary assisted diagnosis and treatment, and the wounds were treated with debridement and vacuum sealing drainage, according to the size, severity of infection, suture tension, and bone and tendon tissue exposure of wounds, direct suture or autologous skin and/or artificial dermis and/or autologous tissue flap transplantation was selected for wound repair. The levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) of patients at 8:00, 16:00, and 24:00 within 24 h after admission were counted. After admission, the number of operations, wound repair methods, and wound and skin/flap donor site healing of patients were recorded. During follow-up, the wounds were observed for recurrent infection. Results: The cortisol levels of 16 patients at 8:00, 16:00, and 24:00 within 24 h after admission were (130±54), (80±16), and (109±39) nmol/L, respectively, and ACTH levels were (7.2±2.8), (4.1±1.8), and (6.0±3.0) pg/mL, respectively; and the other 3 patients had no such statistical results. After admission, the number of surgical operation for patients was 3.4±0.9. The following methods were used for wound repair, including direct suturing in 4 cases and autologous skin and/or artificial dermis grafting in 9 cases, of which 2 cases underwent stage Ⅱ autologous skin grafting after artificial dermis grafting in stage Ⅰ, and 6 cases had pedicled retrograde island flap+autologous skin grafting. The wound healing was observed, showing that all directly sutured wounds healed well; the wounds in 6 cases of autologous skin and/or artificial dermis grafting healed well, and the wounds in 3 cases also healed well after the secondary skin grafting; the flaps in 4 cases survived well with the wounds in 2 cases with distal perforators flap arteries circumfluence obstacle of posterior leg healed after stage Ⅱ debridement and autologous skin grafting. The healing status of skin/flap donor sites was followed showing that the donor sites of medium-thickness skin grafts in the thigh of 4 cases were well healed after transplanted with autologous split-thickness grafts from scalp; the donor sites of medium-thickness skin grafts in 3 cases did not undergo split-thickness skin grafting, of which 2 cases had poor healing but healed well after secondary skin grafting 2 weeks after surgery; the donor sites of split-thickness skin grafts in the head of 2 patients healed well; and all donor sites of flaps healed well after autologous skin grafting. During follow-up of more than half a year, 3 gout patients were hospitalized again for surgical treatment due to gout stone rupture, 4 patients were hospitalized again for surgical treatment due to infection, and no recurrent infection was found in the rest of patients. Conclusions: The infected wounds in patients with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome have poor ability to regenerate and are prone to repeated infection. Local wound treatment together with multidisciplinary comprehensive treatment should be performed to control infection and close wounds in a timely manner, so as to maximize the benefits of patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , China , Cushing Syndrome/surgery , Female , Gout , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Iatrogenic Disease , Male , Skin, Artificial , Wound Infection
6.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 941-945, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940874

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among five high-risk populations in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, so as to provide insights into improvements in the control strategy for hepatitis C. @*Methods@#The detection of anti-HCV antibody was collected from patients receiving renal dialysis, patients receiving invasive diagnosis and treatment in hospitals, physical examination populations, unpaid blood donors and subjects admitted to family planning clinics in national hepatitis C surveillance sentinels in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region from 2013 to 2021, and the year-, gender- and age-specific prevalence of anti-HCV antibody was analyzed. @*Results@#The mean prevalence of anti-HCV antibody was 2.19%, 1.81%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.03% among 3 600 patients receiving renal dialysis, 3 600 patients receiving invasive diagnosis and treatment in hospitals, 18 000 physical examination populations, 18 000 volunteer blood donors and 3 600 subjects admitted to family planning clinics, respectively. The prevalence of anti-HCV antibody appeared a tendency towards a decline among patients receiving renal dialysis (χ2trend=49.065, P<0.001) and volunteer blood donors (χ2trend=11.419, P=0.001). The prevalence of anti-HCV antibody was higher among male patients receiving invasive diagnosis and treatment in hospitals than among females (2.34% vs. 1.36%; χ2=4.826, P=0.028), and no gender-specific prevalence of anti-HCV antibody was seen among other four high-risk populations (all P>0.05). The highest prevalence of anti-HCV antibody was detected among patients receiving renal dialysis (3.30%) and patients receiving invasive diagnosis and treatment in hospitals at ages of 50 to 59 years (3.35%), while the highest prevalence was found among physical examination populations at ages of 60 years and greater (0.18%). @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of anti-HCV antibody was high among patients receiving renal dialysis and patients receiving invasive diagnosis and treatment in hospitals and low among physical examination populations, volunteer blood donors and subjects admitted to family planning clinics in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region from 2013 to 2021. Periodical monitoring of anti-HCV antibody is recommended among the elderly.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940856

ABSTRACT

Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizoma has high medicinal value and is widely used in compatibility. It is used most frequently in the compatibility of Chinese medicine prescriptions,and is known as ''Guolao''(national medicine) and "master of all medicines". The characteristic active ingredients are mainly liquitin,glycyrrizic acid,glycyrrizin,and licochalcone. In different compatibilities,based on traditional and modern pharmacological theories,the corresponding effect of Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizoma are brought into play through different mechanisms. Based on the traditional pharmacology of Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizoma for tonifying spleen,replenishing Qi,clearing heat,removing toxin,dispelling phlegm,relieving cough and pain,and harmonizing various medicines,this paper used herbal authentication to analyze its compatibility application and mechanism. It was found that Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizoma played corresponding effect in compatibilities through "tonification","harmonization",and "regulation". For example,Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizoma was combined with tonics including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma to tonify the five Zang-organs through its strong tonifying effect,combined with Paeoniae Radix Alba and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata to relieve emergencies and pains through harmonizing medicine power and properties,and combined with Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and Natrii Sulfas to reduce medicine intensity through regulating medicine properties and body characteristics. The application law and mechanism of the modern pharmacological compatibility of Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizoma were analyzed by data mining and network pharmacology. It was found that the modern clinical formula was often compatible with Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizoma for anti-inflammation,cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection,anti-virus,and anti-tumor,Ephedrae Herba and Scutellariae Radix for anti-inflammation,Bambusae Caulis in Taenias,Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma,and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection,and Ophiopogonis Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma for nerves protection. Meanwhile,the important targets of the characteristic ingredients were protein kinase B1 (Akt1),interleukin-6 (IL-6),tumor necrosis factor (TNF),and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The important characteristic pathways such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance pathway and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) signal pathway played the role of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection,and proteoglycan pathway in cancer played a neuroprotective role. This study is expected to provide references for the rational compatibility and application of Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizoma,as well as the compatibility application of Chinese medicine prescriptions.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940718

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer is a digestive tract malignancy with high morbidity and mortality and mainly occurs in males. The 5-year survival rate is lower than 20%. In China, the morbidity and mortality of esophageal cancer rank the first in the world, seriously threatening national health. The pathogenesis of esophageal cancer is diverse, which is generally considered as the consequence of environmental-genetic-gene interaction. In addition to genetic factors and regional characteristics, gene mutation, RNA interference, DNA damage repair, tumor microenvironment, dietary habit, chronic adverse stimulation, and inflammatory reaction are all involved in the occurrence and development of esophageal cancer. However, there is no unified and accurate conclusion. Clarifying the exact pathogenesis of esophageal cancer is of great significance for its early screening, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and prognosis. Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the three effective methods for the treatment of esophageal cancer. However, due to the atypical early symptoms, most patients have missed the best operation period when diagnosed, resulting in poor clinical prognosis. Moreover, radiotherapy and chemotherapy will cause side effects such as loss of appetite, low immune function, esophagitis, pneumonia, and malnutrition, which is not conducive to the prognosis and treatment maintenance of patients. With definite efficacies on esophageal cancer, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is flexible and diverse in the treatment, can primarily or alternatively be involved in the treatment of esophageal cancer. TCM can eliminate postoperative complications and postoperative infections and relieve adverse gastrointestinal reactions, weakened immune function, and organ damage caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It can enhance clinical efficacy and improve the quality of life of patients. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically summarize the clear pathogenesis or risk factors of esophageal cancer and review the clinical characteristics of TCM in the prevention and treatment of esophageal cancer to facilitate the early screening, diagnosis, and treatment of esophageal cancer and promote the application of TCM in the prevention and treatment of esophageal cancer and related adverse reactions.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940444

ABSTRACT

Intestinal flora is the largest microbial community in human body, which consists of more than 1 000 species. Its structure and metabolites change dynamically with the age, diet and intestinal environment of the host. Study shows that the intestinal microbes play a pivotal role in regulating human physiological and pathological processes, and intestinal flora imbalance may be the key factors affecting the occurrence and development of bone and joint diseases, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gouty arthritis. At present, calcitonin, estrogen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, xanthine oxidase inhibitors and other western drugs are mostly used to treat the above diseases. However, long-term use of western drugs leads to poor compliance and obvious gastrointestinal adverse reactions among patients. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) predominates in the treatment of bone and joint diseases due to its low price, high efficacy and slight side effects, with the advantages of multi-targets, multi-mechanism and multi-levels. In recent years, many scholars have carried out experiments and clinical studies on the treatment of bone and joint diseases by TCMs on the basis of the liver and kidney theory such as "tonifying liver and kidney and strengthening muscles and bones". Gratifying results have been achieved. However, the mechanism of action has not been fully clarified. Intestinal flora becomes a hot spot in medical research, and a close relationship between intestinal flora and bone and joint diseases has been unveiled. Relevant literature in China and abroad showed that TCM has a significant effect on the treatment of bone and joint diseases by regulating intestinal flora. In this paper, the relationship between intestinal flora and bone and joint diseases was summarized and the intervention of TCM active ingredients and compounds on intestinal flora was reviewed to facilitate the prevention and treatment of bone and joint diseases by TCM.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940427

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Jiangzhi Tongluo soft capsule on the protein levels of silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) and forkhead transcription factor FoxO3 and podocyte apoptosis in the renal tissue of rats with membranous nephropathy and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms for the treatment of MN. MethodSixty male SD rats were randomly assigned into 6 groups with 10 rats each. The six groups included a normal group, a model group, benazepril hydrochloride group, and Jiangzhi Tongluo soft capsule groups of low, medium and high doses (25, 50, 100 mg·kg-1, respectively). The model rats were established by injection with cationized bovine serum albumin into the tail vein. After modeling, the rats were administrated with corresponding agents by gavage for 4 weeks. At the end of the 4th week, an electron microscope was used to observe the pathological changes in the kidney. Western blot was employed to detect the protein levels of SIRT1 and FoxO3 protein in rat kidney, and immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of B lymphocytoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad), and podocyte split diaphragm proteins nephrin and podocin. ResultCompared with normal group, the expression of pro-apoptotic factors Bax, Bad, and FoxO3 in the kidney was up-regulated (P<0.05), while that of anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2, SIRT1, nephrin, and podocin was down-regulated (P<0.05) after modeling. Compared with the model group, the treatments down-regulated the expression of Bax, Bad, and FoxO3 (P<0.05) and up-regulated that of Bcl-2, SIRT1, nephrin, and podocin (P<0.05). ConclusionJiangzhi Tongluo soft capsule may regulate the SIRT1/FoxO3 pathway to reduce podocyte apoptosis and maintain podocyte structure stability, thereby exerting the renal protection effect.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940323

ABSTRACT

By referring to the relevant ancient herbal literature, medical records and prescription books, the textual research of Violae Herba has been conducted to verify the name, origin, producing area, quality evaluation and processing method changes. The results showed that the name of Zihua Diding originated from its flower color and plant morphological characteristics. The primitive plant of Violae Herba is Viola genus of Violaceae, V. yedoensis, as stipulated in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, has been the mainstream in past dynasties of China. Violae Herba is mainly wild, and it is widely distributed throughout the country. Since modern times, the quality of Violae Herba is better with integrity, green color and yellow root. There are few records on the harvesting and processing methods of Violae Herba in ancient times, most of which are directly used after drying. It is suggested that the collection and processing methods of Violae Herba in the famous classical formulas can be implemented in accordance with the provisions of the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

12.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1478-1484, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940007

ABSTRACT

In 2022, the Taiwan, China fundus disease expert group issued the Consensus on the Optimal Treat-and-Extend Regimens for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The following explanations are given to help Chinese ophthalmologists better to refer to and use the Consensus. The main contents are as follows: The treat-and-extend(T&#x0026; E)regimen of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)treatment in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration(nARMD)should aim at maintaining long-term vision and reducing the number of injections. We can start the treatment by injecting once a month for consecutive 3mo. After the initial treatment, the treatment interval of patients with stable conditions can be gradually extended(2 or 4wk each time)until 16wk. If the disease is still steady after injecting 2 or 3 times at the most prolonged interval, we can suspend the treatment, and then the patient needs to be rechecked every 3-4mo; If the disease is active again, the treatment interval needs to be shortened and can be extended again after controlling the disease. We can adopt a relatively conservative approach for patients with apparent negative recovery factors. Complications such as subconjunctival hemorrhage, macular fibrosis and macular atrophy deserve our attention during treatment. In the future, we can explore the best injection scheme for nARMD patients with different subtypes and baseline conditions to realize personalized therapy.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effect of Yixin Ningshen Tablet (YXNS) on comorbidity of myocardial infarction (MI) and depression in rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 7 rats in each group according to their weights, including control, model, fluoxetine (FLXT, 10 mg/kg), low-dose YXNS (LYXNS, 100 mg/kg), and high-dose YXNS (HYXNS, 300 mg/kg) groups. All rats were pretreated with corresponding drugs for 12 weeks. The rat model of MI and depression was constructed by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and chronic mild stress stimulation. The echocardiography, sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test were performed. Myocardial infarction (MI) area and myocardial apoptosis was also detected. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), and norepinephrine (NE) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The proteins of adenosine 5'-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK), p-AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) in heart were detected by Western blot analysis. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), and kynureninase (KYNU) in hippocampus were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, the cardiac function of rats treated with YXNS improved significantly (P<0.01). Meanwhile, YXNS effectively reduced MI size and cardiomyocytes apoptosis of rats (P<0.01 or P<0.05), promoted AMPK phosphorylation, and increased PGC-1α protein expression (P<0.01 or P<0.05). HYXNS significantly increased locomotor activity of rats, decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and increased the serum levels of 5-HT, NE, ACTH, and CORT (all P<0.05). Moreover, HYXNS decreased the mRNA expressions of IDO1, KMO and KYNU (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#YXNS can relieve MI by enhancing myocardial energy metabolism. Meanwhile, YXNS can alleviate depression by resisting inflammation and increasing availability of monoamine neurotransmitters. It may be used as a potential drug to treat comorbidity of MI and depression.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Animals , Comorbidity , Depression/drug therapy , Energy Metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Neurotransmitter Agents , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin/metabolism , Tablets , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939772

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants have provided numerous medicinal active ingredients for thousands of years and these ingredients have been used in Chinese medicine (CM) and traditional pharmacologies worldwide. Recently, the exploitation and utilisation of medicinal plant resources has increased significantly. The results of the studies have led to the identification of many active components, such as steroidal alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, and glycosides, in various medicinal plants with different evolutionary levels. Moreover, research on the chemical classification, molecular phylogeny, and pharmacological activity of medicinal plants is increasing in popularity. Pharmacophylogeny is an interdisciplinary topic that studies the correlation between plant phylogeny, chemical composition, and curative effects (pharmacological activity and the traditional curative effect) of medicinal plants. In addition, it provides the basic tools to enable research and development of CM resources. This literature review, based on the genetic relationship between phytogroup and species, highlights the formation process, research content, applications, and future directions of pharmacophylogeny.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Glycosides , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Saponins , Terpenes
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939714

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the efficacy and prognosis of cladribine (2-CdA) combined with cytarabine (Ara-C) regimen in the treatment of relapsed refractory Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in children.@*METHODS@#Nine patients with relapsed refractory LCH treated with the 2-CdA combined with Ara-C regimen in the Department of Hematology and Oncology of Wuhan Children's Hospital from July 2014 to February 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, and the efficacy and disease status were evaluated according to the Histiocyte Society Evaluation and Treatment Guidelines (2009) and the Disease Activity Score (DAS), the drug toxicity were evaluated according to the World Health Organization(WHO) grading criteria for chemotherapy. All patients were followed up for survival status and disease-related sequelae.@*RESULTS@#Before the treatment combining 2-CdA and Ara-C, 7 of 9 patients were evaluated as active disease worse (ADW), and 2 as active disease stable (ADS) with a median disease activity score of 8 (4-15). Of 9 patients, 6 cases achieved non active disease (NAD) and 3 achieved active disease better (ADB) with a median disease activity score of 0 (0 to 5) after 2-6 courses of therapy. All 9 patients experienced WHO grade IV hematologic toxicity and 3 patients had hepatobiliary adverse effects (WHO grade I~II) after treatment. The median follow-up time was 31(1 to 50) months with all 9 patients survived, 3 of the 9 patients experienced sequelae to the disease with 2 combined liver cirrhosis as well as cholestatic hepatitis and 1 with oral desmopressin acetate tablets for diabetes insipidus.@*CONCLUSION@#2-CdA combined with Ara-C is an effective regimen for the treatment of recurrent refractory LCH in children, and the main adverse effect is hematologic toxicity, which is mostly tolerated in children. Early treatment with this regimen may be considered for patients with multisystem LCH with risky organ involvement who have failed first-line therapy and for patients with relapse.


Subject(s)
Child , Cladribine/adverse effects , Cytarabine , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell/drug therapy , Humans , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the characteristics of gene mutation in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its effect on prognosis.@*METHODS@#The clinical and laboratorial characteristics of 54 AML patients (≥60 years old) in Department of Hematology, Tangdu Hospital were analyzed retrospectively during April 2016 to October 2019. Thirty-four AML/myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm related mutant genes were detected by second-generation sequencing technology, and their clinical characteristics, treatment effect, and influence on prognosis were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#All the patients received DAC+CAG induction treatment, after 1-2 couses of treatment, 36 cases (66.7%) achieved complete response, with a total effective rate of 75.9%, and the median survival time was 17 months. The most frequent mutant genes were TET2 (33.3%), CEBPA (31.5%), DNMT3A (18.5%), ASXL1 (16.7%), NRAS (14.8%), RUNX1 (14.8%), FLT3-ITD (12.9%), TP53 (12.9%), NPM1 (12.9%), and IDH2 (12.9%). Among 7 patients with TP53 mutation, 6 cases obtained complete response after 1-2 courses of induction treatment, but there was no statistically significant difference in the effect on prognosis. Patients with FLT3-ITD and NRAS mutations had shorter overall survival time compared with who had no mutation (P=0.47, P=0.48). Multivariate analysis showed that FLT3-ITD and NRAS mutations were poor prognostic factors.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of TET2 gene mutation is high in elderly AML patients. AML patients with TET2 and TP53 mutations may benefit from Decitabine-based chemotherapy. However, patients with FLT3-ITD and NRAS mutations have a short survival time, and may have a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Middle Aged , Mutation , Nucleophosmin , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
17.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 486-490, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936036

ABSTRACT

As a new technology of drug-free treatment, virtual reality technique has been used in various medical fields, and is being increasingly applied in the field of wound repair. Virtual reality technology can alleviate the pain caused by acute and chronic wounds, relieve the psychological anxiety of patients with wounds, and then facilitate the recovery of patients. This paper reviews the research progress of virtual reality technique's application as a clinical adjuvant therapy in wound repair in three aspects: pain treatment, psychological treatment, and functional rehabilitation, analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, and discusses the prospects of its further application in the field of wound repair.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Humans , Pain , Pain Management/methods , Technology , Virtual Reality
18.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 415-421, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936028

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical outcomes of burn patients in different stages of pregnancy and explore a rational therapeutic scheme for burns during pregnancy. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. From June 2010 to June 2020, 21 patients who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to the Department of Burns of Wuhan Third Hospital and 14 patients who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to the Department of Burns of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. Based on the pregnancy period when patients suffered burns, the 35 patients were divided into early pregnancy group with 18 patients (aged (26±4) years, with 8 (4, 11) weeks of gestation), middle pregnancy group with 10 patients (aged (26±3) years, with 21 (14, 27) weeks of gestation), and late pregnancy group with 7 patients (aged (30±5) years, with 32 (29, 35) weeks of gestation). All the patients received treatment including fluid resuscitation, anti-infection, wound treatment, and multidisciplinary comprehensive managements. The burn-related complications during the treatment, maternal outcomes, fetal outcomes, fetal delivery mode, gestational weeks at delivery, and newborn weight of patients in the 3 groups were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Fisher's exact probability test. Results: During the treatment, there were 4, 4, and 2 patients who suffered wound infections and 1, 3, and 2 patients who developed shock symptoms, respectively, in early pregnancy group, middle pregnancy group, and late pregnancy group. There were no statistically significant differences in them among the 3 groups (P>0.05). One patient in late pregnancy group developed into multiple organ dysfunction syndrome after debridement. At last, all the pregnant women survived, and no statistically significant difference existed among the 3 groups (P>0.05). In early pregnancy group, middle pregnancy group, and late pregnancy group, the survived fetus cases were 9, 8, and 6, respectively, and the differences between them were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Variables including stillbirth and full-term birth were close in patients in the 3 groups (P>0.05), while the preterm birth and miscarriage in patients in the 3 groups were statistically different (P<0.05 or P<0.01), with the early pregnancy group having the most miscarriage cases and the fewest preterm birth cases. There were no statistically significant differences in fetal delivery mode, gestational weeks at delivery, and newborn weight among the patients with survived fetus in 3 groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: For patients suffering burns during early, middle, and late pregnancy, superior rates of maternal and fetal survival can be achieved after timely and adequate treatments including fluid resuscitation, anti-infection, wound treatment, and multidisciplinary comprehensive managements.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , Burns/therapy , Female , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , Retrospective Studies
19.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 215-226, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935998

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of exosomes from human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) on inflammatory response of mouse RAW264.7 cells and wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in mice. Methods: The experimental research methods were adopted. The discarded adipose tissue was collected from 3 female patients (aged 10-25 years) who underwent abdominal surgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University. ADSCs were extracted from the adipose tissue by collagenase Ⅰ digestion and identified with flow cytometry. Exosomes were extracted from the human ADSCs by differential ultracentrifugation, the morphology of the exosomes was observed by transmission electron microscopy, the particle diameter of the exosomes was detected by nanoparticle tracking analyzer, and the protein expressions of CD9, CD63, tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101), and β-actin were detected by Western blotting. The human ADSCs exosomes (ADSCs-Exos) and RAW264.7 cells were co-cultured for 12 h, and the uptake of RAW264.7 cells for human ADSCs-Exos was observed. The RAW264.7 cells were divided into phosphate buffer solution (PBS) group stimulated with PBS for suitable time, endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation 2 h group, LPS stimulation 4 h group, LPS stimulation 6 h group, LPS stimulation 12 h group, and LPS stimulation 24 h group stimulated with LPS for corresponding time, with 3 wells in each group, and the mRNA expressions of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-10 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The RAW264.7 cells were divided into PBS group, LPS alone group, and LPS+ADSCs-Exos group, with 3 wells in each group, which were dealt correspondingly for the time screened out in the previous experiment, the mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, trasforming growth factor β (TGF-β,) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were detected by real time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR method, and the protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase 1 (Arg1) were detected by Western blotting. Twenty-four 8-week-old male BALB/c mice were divided into PBS group and ADSCs-Exos group according to the random number table, with 12 mice in each group, and a full-thickness skin defect wound with area of 1 cm×1 cm was inflicted on the back of each mouse. Immediately after injury, the wounds of mice in the two groups were dealt correspondingly. On post injury day (PID) 1, the concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 were detected by real time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR method. On PID 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15, the wound healing was observed and the wound non-healing rate was calculated. On PID 15, the defect length of skin accessory and collagen volume fraction (CVF) were detected by hematoxylin eosin staining and Masson staining, respectively, the CD31 expression and neovascularization were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the ratio of Ki67 positive cells, the ratio of iNOS and Arg1 double positive cells, and the ratio of iNOS positive cells to Arg1 positive cells and their fluorescence intensities were detected by immunofluorescence method. The number of samples in animal experiments was 6. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, one-way analysis of variance, and independent sample t test. Results: At 12 h of culture, the cells exhibited a typical spindle shape, which were verified as ADSCs with flow cytometry. The exosomes with a vesicular structure and particle diameters of 29-178 nm, were positively expressed CD9, CD63, and TSG101 and negatively expressed β-actin. After 12 h of co-culture, the human ADSCs-Exos were endocytosed into the cytoplasm by RAW264.7 cells. The mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 of RAW264.7 cells in LPS stimulation 2 h group, LPS stimulation 4 h group, LPS stimulation 6 h group, LPS stimulation 12 h group, and LPS stimulation 24 h group were significantly higher than those in PBS group (with t) values of 39.10, 14.55, 28.80, 4.74, 48.80, 22.97, 13.25, 36.34, 23.12, 18.71, 29.19, 41.08, 11.68, 18.06, 8.54, 43.45, 62.31, 22.52, 21.51, and 37.13, respectively, P<0.01). The stimulation 12 h with significant expressions of all the inflammatory factors was selected as the time point in the following experiment. After stimulation of 12 h, the mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 of RAW264.7 cells in LPS alone group were significantly higher than those in PBS group (with t values of 44.20, 51.26, 14.71, and 8.54, respectively, P<0.01); the mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 of RAW264.7 cells in LPS+ADSCs-Exos group were significantly lower than those in LPS alone group (with t values of 22.89, 25.51, and 8.03, respectively, P<0.01), while the mRNA expressions of IL-10, TGF-β, and VEGF were significantly higher than those in LPS alone group (with t values of 9.89, 13.12, and 7.14, respectively, P<0.01). After stimulation of 12 h, the protein expression of iNOS of RAW264.7 cells in LPS alone group was significantly higher than that in PBS group and LPS+ADSCs-Exos group, respectively (with t values of 11.20 and 5.06, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the protein expression of Arg1 was significantly lower than that in LPS+ADSCs-Exos group (t=15.01, P<0.01). On PID 1, the serum concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α and the mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in wound tissue of mice in ADSCs-Exos group were significantly those in lower than PBS group (with t values of 15.44, 12.24, 9.24, 7.12, and 10.62, respectively, P<0.01). On PID 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 d, the wound non-healing rates of mice in ADSCs-Exos group were (73.2±4.1)%, (53.8±3.8)%, (42.1±5.1)%, (24.1±2.8)%, and 0, which were significantly lower than (82.5±3.8)%, (71.2±4.6)%, (52.9±4.1)%, (41.5±3.6)%, and (14.8±2.5)% in PBS group, respectively (with t values of 4.77, 8.93, 5.54, 7.63, and 7.59, respectively, P<0.01). On PID 15, the defect length of skin accessory in wounds of mice in PBS group was significantly longer than that in ADSCs-Exos group (t=9.50, P<0.01), and the CVF was significantly lower than that in ADSCs-Exos group (t=9.15, P<0.01). On PID 15, the CD31 expression and the number of new blood vessels (t=12.99, P<0.01), in wound tissue of mice in ADSCs-Exos group were significantly more than those in PBS group, and the ratio of Ki67 positive cells was significantly higher than that in PBS group (t=7.52, P<0.01). On PID 15, the ratio of iNOS and Arg1 double positive cells in wound tissue of mice in PBS group was (12.33±1.97)%, which was significantly higher than (1.78±0.29)% in ADSCs-Exos group (t=13.04, P<0.01), the ratio of iNOS positive cells and the fluorescence intensity of iNOS were obviously higher than those of ADSCs-Exos group, and the ratio of Arg1 positive cells and the fluorescence intensity of Arg1 were obviously lower than those of ADSCs-Exos group. Conclusions: The human ADSCs-Exos can alleviate inflammatory response of mouse RAW264.7 cells, decrease macrophage infiltration and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, increase the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines to promote neovascularization and cell proliferation in full-thickness skin defect wounds of mice, hence accelerating wound healing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Exosomes , Female , Humans , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Skin , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Wound Healing
20.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 335-339, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935949

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the number of autoimmune hepatitis cases in the world has shown a significant upward trend, but its etiology and pathogenesis is still unclear. At present, it is generally considered to be caused by abnormal immune regulation mechanism of the body, especially the lymphocytes and their cytokines, which has attracted widespread concern and thus is reviewed here.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Humans , Lymphocytes
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