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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914209

ABSTRACT

Background@#The association of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains controversial. Furthermore, few studies have investigated their relationship in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the association between serum RBP levels and NAFLD in Chinese inpatients with T2DM. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional, real-world study included 2,263 Chinese T2DM inpatients. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. The subjects were divided into four groups based on RBP quartiles, and clinical characteristics were compared among the four groups. The associations of both RBP levels and quartiles with the presence of NAFLD were also analyzed. @*Results@#After adjustment for sex, age, and diabetes duration, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of NAFLD from the lowest to the highest RBP quartiles (30.4%, 40.0%, 42.4%, and 44.7% for the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively, P<0.001 for trend). Fully adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that both increased RBP levels (odds ratio, 1.155; 95% confidence interval, 1.012 to 1.318; P=0.033) and quartiles (P=0.014 for trend) were independently associated with the presence of NAFLD in T2DM patients. @*Conclusion@#Increased serum RBP levels were independently associated with the presence of NAFLD in Chinese T2DM inpatients. Serum RBP levels may be used as one of the indicators to assess the risk of NAFLD in T2DM patients.

2.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 98-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907039

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the conversion rate, organ procurement rate and influencing factors of organ donation in a single center from Fujian province. Methods Baseline data of 182 potential organ donors of Fujian Medical University Union Hospital from November 2018 to June 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The conversion rate of organ donation, baseline data of successful organ donors and the causes of failure of organ donors were identified. The organ procurement rate and the influencing factors of the number of organ donations were analyzed. Results Among 182 potential organ donors, 46 cases were successful organ donors with a conversion rate of 25.3%. In addition, 136 cases failed to donate organ. The main causes included disagreement from family members (58.1%), insufficient evaluation time (24.3%) and ineligible for donation criteria (17.6%). A total of 212 large organs and tissues were donated by 46 organ donors, including 88 kidneys, 42 livers, 15 lungs, 19 hearts and 48 corneas, with 4.6 large organs and tissues, and 3.6 large organs for each donor. Age, sex, native place, organ donation area and blood type were the influencing factors of the number of large organ donations. Organ donation area was the influencing factor of the number of tissue donations. Conclusions The conversion rate of organ donation is relatively low in a single center from Fujian province. Disagreement from family members is the main cause. Suitable potential organ donors should be selected for organ donation to improve the conversion rate and organ procurement rate of organ donation.

3.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 12-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907027

ABSTRACT

With the reform of organ donation and transplantation in China, the establishment of Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) will become more centralized and enlarged in scale, evolving into the united OPO development stage coordinated by multiple hospitals. How to enhance the operation management and scientific development planning of united OPO has become an urgent and novel issue facing the administrators at all levels. At present, certain constraint factors of united OPO still exist in the integrated management, cost control, service homogenization, cultural integration and discipline layout. To give full play to the large-scale benefits and expand the supply of high-quality organ donation services, the development principle of putting connotation construction first and the appropriate direction of public welfare should be upheld. Leading and driving the development of organ donation services of our province are the responsibility, and discipline construction and talent training serve as the core. The overall development plan should be determined in a scientific pattern and homogeneous management should be implemented according to local conditions, aiming to provide successful experience for establishing a provincial unified OPO.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 353-363, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922911

ABSTRACT

Progesterone is currently the first-line drug for the treatment and prevention of threatened abortion and habitual abortion. With the gradual liberalization of China's childbirth policy, the number of elderly parturients has increased significantly. As a result, the market demand for progesterone and the individual requirements have been continuously improved. Clinical studies have found that the indications of progesterone are not limited to gynecological diseases, but can also be used for the treatment of renal colic, traumatic brain injury and other diseases. Existing progesterone preparations include oral capsules, intramuscular injections, vaginal gels, etc., but they can no longer meet the current market situation and the increase of indications. Improving existing preparations, developing new preparations, and opening up new routes of administration have become one of the directions of progesterone drug research. This article will review the research progress of new dosage forms in existing administration, new routes of administration and related preparation methods of progesterone.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920650

ABSTRACT

@#In this study, the formulation and preparation process of curcumin nanocrystalline injection were optimized to improve curcumin dissolution rate and bioavailability in vivo.Media grinding method was used to prepare curcumin nanocrystals, and the particle size was used as the evaluation index.The Box-Behnken experimental design was used to optimize its formulation and preparation process, and to characterize its physical and chemical properties.In addition, the dissolution of nanocrystal with different particle sizes was investigated by the paddle method, and the pharmacokinetics in rats were studied.The experimental results showed that the optimal formula and process were obtained through Box-Behnken experimental design, and that uniform curcumin nanocrystals with an average particle size of 223.1 nm were obtained.The results of X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the crystal form was stable during the preparation of nanocrystals. In vitro dissolution experiments with different particle sizes showed that the dissolution rate and the degree of dissolution would increase if the particle size was smaller.Pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed that cmax and AUC0-∞ of curcumin nanocrystal injection were 4.9 and 4.1 times that of curcumin raw materials, respectively.In summary, the curcumin nanocrystal injection developed in this research have a stable preparation process and can significantly improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of the drug, which provides some ideas for the research on curcumin preparation.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880731

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) has spread to many countries around the world, developing into a global pandemic with increasing numbers of deaths reported worldwide. To data, although some vaccines have been developed, there are no ideal drugs to treat novel coronavirus pneumonia (coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)). By examining the structure of the coronavirus and briefly describing its possible pathogenesis based on recent autopsy reports conducted by various teams worldwide, this review analyzes the possible structural and functional changes of the human body upon infection with SARS-CoV-2. We observed that the most prominent pathological changes in COVID-19 patients are diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) of the lungs and microthrombus formation, resulting in an imbalance of the ventilation/perfusion ratio and respiratory failure. Although direct evidence of viral infection can also be found in other organs and tissues, the viral load is relatively small. The conclusion that the injuries of the extra-pulmonary organs are directly caused by the virus needs further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Human Body , Humans , Immune Evasion , Lung/virology , Viral Load
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880475

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Discuss the working ideas of the dynamic adjustment mechanism of medical device classification in the United States, and provide reference for the construction of medical device related mechanisms in China.@*METHODS@#Collect and interpret the documents of regulatory background, procedures and orders of the dynamic adjustment mechanism of the medical device classification in the United States, and summarize the overall situation and specific cases of the medical device classification adjustment under this mechanism in recent years.@*RESULTS@#The US work idea of the medical device classification dynamic adjustment mechanism is based on the latest valid scientific evidence, conducting risk analysis and identification, and determining the corresponding measures.@*CONCLUSIONS@#During the adjustment process, industry stakeholders have repeatedly discussed and achieved final agreement. Its procedures and working ideas can be used as a reference for China's work.


Subject(s)
China , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
8.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 161-166, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has been widely used in the treatment of lung cancer. There are controversies in clinical practice for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and high programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression receiving ICIs monotherapy or combination chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 49 patients with advanced NSCLC and high PD-L1 expression. Immunohistochemistry was performed with 22C3 antibody, and the expression level of PD-L1 was evaluated according to tumor proportion score (TPS). Objective response rate (ORR) and progression free survival (PFS) were compared by groups of different clinical characteristics.@*RESULTS@#ORR of monotherapy and combination therapy group was 47.1% (8/17) and 43.8% (14/32), respectively, without statistical difference (P=0.825). The median PFS of monotherapy and combination therapy group was 8.0 months and 6.8 months, respectively, without statistical difference (P=0.502). Statistical analysis of predictors of immunotherapy for the patients showed first-line immunotherapy had better ORR than subsequent immunotherapy (12/19, 63.2% vs 10/30, 33.3%, P=0.041), however no difference in PFS. And there were no differences in ORR or PFS among groups of age, gender, smoking status, performance status (PS), pathological type, tumor size and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The therapeutic effect is similar between ICIs monotherapy and combination chemotherapy for patients with advanced NSCLC and high PD-L1 expression. ORR of first-line immunotherapy was better in patients with advanced NSCLC and high PD-L1 expression. The optimal treatment for this population remains further prospective clinical studies.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Targeted therapy for patients with driver genes positive and immunotherapy for patients with driver gene-negative but high programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression are the standards of first-line treatment for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The treatment options for patients with driver gene positive and high PD-L1 expression are still worth exploring.@*METHODS@#The characteristics of 315 patients with NSCLC were identified to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with driver gene positive and high PD-L1 expression, and the efficacy of targeted therapy.@*RESULTS@#Among the 315 patients, the total positive rate of driver genes was 62.2%, and the high PD-L1 expression rate (≥50.0%) was 11.2%. The proportion of patients with driver gene positive and high PD-L1 expression was 10.7%. PD-L1 was highly expressed in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, KRAS mutation, ALK fusion, BRAF mutation, and MET 14 exon skip mutation, the proportions were 7.8% (11/141), 18.2% (4/22), and 23.1%, (3/13), 50.0% (2/4) and 100.0% (1/1) respectively. EGFR mutation positive with PD-L1 high expression was mainly in patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. KRAS mutation positive with PD-L1 high expression was mainly in patients with a history of smoking. Among them, two patients were followed in detail for targeted therapy, who with ALK fusion-positive and PD-L1 high expression (90.0%), EGFR L858R mutation and PD-L1 high expression (70.0%) respectively. The total OS of the patients was 5 months, 2 months.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The high PD-L1 expression rate in NSCLC patients with different driver gene mutations was variable, which maybe correlated with distinct clinicopathological characteristics. Patients with sensitive mutations and high PD-L1 expression may be less benefit from targeted therapy and have poor prognosis.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879874

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of serum levels of trace elements with core symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).@*METHODS@#From September 2018 to September 2019, an investigation was performed for 1 020 children with ASD and 1 038 healthy children matched for age and sex in the outpatient service of grade A tertiary hospitals and special education institutions in 13 cities of China. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) were used to assess the core symptoms of the children with ASD. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure serum levels of trace elements magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc.@*RESULTS@#The children with ASD had significantly lower serum levels of magnesium, copper, and zinc than the healthy children (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The serum levels of magnesium and zinc may be associated with core symptoms in children with ASD, which requires further studies. The nutritional status of trace elements should be monitored for children with ASD in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Child , China , Copper/analysis , Humans , Trace Elements/analysis , Zinc
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of pericardial effusion caused by central venous catheterization in preterm infants.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 11 preterm infants with pericardial effusion caused by central venous catheterization. Their catheterization features, manifestations, treatment, and prognosis were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 11 preterm infants (11/2 599, 0.42%) developed pericardial effusion, with a mean gestational age of (30.1±2.6) weeks and a mean birth weight of (1 240±234) g. Pericardial effusion mostly occurred within 4 days after central venous catheterization (10 cases, 91%). The main manifestations included poor response (6/11, 55%), cyanosis (5/11, 45%), increased respiratory rate (6/11, 55%), increased heart rate (6/11, 55%), aggravated dyspnea (5/11, 45%), and muffled heart sound (5/11, 45%). At the time of disease progression, 7 preterm infants (64%) had a deep position of the end of the catheter, 3 preterm infants (27%) had a correct position, and 1 preterm infant (9%) had a shallow position. Five preterm infants (45%) experienced cardiac tamponade, among whom 4 underwent pericardiocentesis. Seven preterm infants were given conservative medical treatment. Among the 11 children, 2 (18%) died and 9 (82%) improved.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Pericardial effusion caused by central venous catheterization mostly occurs in the early stage of catheterization and has critical clinical manifestations. Pericardiocentesis is required for cardiac tamponade, and early diagnosis and intervention can effectively improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Pericardial Effusion/therapy , Pericardiocentesis , Retrospective Studies
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879616

ABSTRACT

The use of whole exome sequencing (WES) for the detection of disease-causing variants of genetic diseases and for non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) of fetal aneuploidies are two major clinical applications of next generation sequencing (NGS). This article has summarized the official documents developed and updated by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) on governing WES and NIPS. These include the development of expert consensus policies and position statements on an ongoing basis to guide clinical application of NGS technology and variant analysis, establish evidence-based practical resources, as well as standards and guidelines to govern diagnosis and screening. These ACMG documents are valuable references to Chinese geneticists, but direct adoption of these standards and guidelines may not be practical due to the differences in disease-associated variant frequencies in Chinese population, socioeconomic status, and medical practice between the two countries. It is hoped that this review could facilitate the development of NGS and NIPS standards and guidelines that are consistent with international standards and concordant with medical genetics practice in China to provide high-quality, efficient and safe clinical services for patients and their families with genetic diseases.


Subject(s)
China , Consensus , Female , Genomics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Pregnancy , Technology , United States
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879423

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compared with the modified Robert Jones bandage of 3M elastic bandage, to evaluate the fitness, convenience, safety and comfort of the modular combination lower limb elastic compression device.@*METHODS@#Forty healthy adult college students, including 28 males and 12 females, aged 16 to 25 (20.3±2.2) years old and weighing 40 to 81 (60.4±20.2) kg, were randomly divided into two groups with 40 samples in each group. According to the body surface parameters of Chinese lower limbs and guided by the concept of modularization, a group of modular combined lower limb elastic compression device was designed. Each module was combined to evaluate the fitness of the modular combined compression device in thelength and circumference of the lower limbs. The left and right lower limbs were randomly paired and divided into groups, with 40 samples in each group. The convenience of the operation time, adjustment times and required time were compared between two groups. The safety of the two groups after 24 hours of application of pressure injury was compared. The subjective pain feeling changes within 24 hours were recorded by visual analogue scale (VAS) to evaluate the comfort.@*RESULTS@#The device was composed of several elastic compression outer lining modules with different length and width of 15 cm, an inner lining module for buffering, positioning and attaching the main body, and an elastic ankle compression module. The length of the elastic compression outer lining module covers the circumference of the human lower limbs. The length of a single outer lining module increased from 15 cm to 80 cm every 5 cm interval, and the length of a single inner lining module increased from 62 cm to 83 cm every 3 cm interval. After the modules were selected and combined, the length and circumference of the lower limbs can reach 100% fitness. The operation time of the first placement(118.23±7.33) s and re operation(60.08±5.88) s of experimental group were significantly shorter than those of control group (164.68±8.93) s and re operation (131.23±7.91) s. The adjustment times (3) and operation time (3.50±0.71) s of experimental group were significantly shorter than those of control group(11)and operation time(139.00±5.66) s (@*CONCLUSION@#The modular combined elastic compression device has good fitness, better placement and flexible adjustment, convenience and safety, and better comfort than modified Robert Jones bandage of 3M elastic bandage.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Compression Bandages , Female , Humans , Lower Extremity , Male , Pain Measurement , Pressure , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To retrospectively analyze the clinical efficacy of external fixation in the treatment of femoral neck fracture with two different pin layout.@*METHODS@#From April 2000 to April 2018, 140 cases of femoral neck fracture were treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pin external fixation, among them 121 cases were followed up for more than 1 year, including 31 cases in traditional group, 12 males and 19 females, aged 45 to 74(65.4±8.4) years;90 cases in modified group, 39 males and 51 females, aged 12 to 75 (64.5±7.8) years. In traditional group, the first needle was put on the femoral talus, the second and third needles were put under the tension line, and the three needles were not on the same line in the lateral phase; in modified group, the first needle was drilled into the lateralcortex of the femur, obliquely penetrating the distal and proximal end of the femoral talus fracture, and the other two needles were drilled into the medial cortex of the femoral neck and the femoral talus, respectively. The operation time, hospital stay, postoperative ambulation time, femoral neck shortening rate, fracture healing time, fracture healing rate and femoral head necrosis rate of the two groups were observed and compared. Harris hip function score was used one year after operation.@*RESULTS@#These 121 patients were followed-up, the follow up time of traditional group was 13 to 45(30.5±11.4) months;the follow-up time of modified group was 14 to 120(34.5±12.5) months. There was no significant difference in operation time, hospital stay and femoral head necrosis rate between two groups (@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with the traditional group, the modified group has the advantages of lower femoral neck shortening rate, shorter fracture healing time, higher fracture healing rate and higher Harris hip function score.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , External Fixators , Female , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical efficacy and advantage of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion under microscope-assisted Zista channel in the treatment of degreeⅠandⅡdegenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 18 patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis treated by microscope-assisted Zista channel MIS-TLIF operation from January 2017 to March 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 10 males and 8 females with an average age of 59 years (48 to 70). The course of spondylolisthesis ranged from 6 months to 5 years with an average of 33 months. The segment of spondylolisthesis was L@*RESULTS@#All the patients completed the operation successfully and were followed up more than 12 months after operation. Operation time was(160.45±34.98) min, intraoperative blood loss was (88.32±21.12) ml, postoperative drainage volume was (50.34 ±18.22)ml, and walking time after operation was (20.65±6.25) h. Preoperative and postoperative at 7 days, 3 months, 12 months, VAS score of low back pain was 7.81±2.16, 4.19±1.17, 2.25±0.62 and 1.53±0.58 respectively, VAS score of leg pain was 8.47± 2.21, 3.45±0.86, 2.31±0.73 and 1.43±0.47, JOA score was 12.01±2.33, 18.56±3.12, 23.54±3.31 and 26.34±2.65. There were significant differences in VAS and JOA scores between preoperative and postoperative (@*CONCLUSION@#MIS-TLIF under microscope-assisted Zista channel has obvious minimally invasive advantages in the treatment of degreeⅠandⅡdegenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, and it is a safe and effective method.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fusion , Spondylolisthesis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905165

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the behavior of seeking medical care for people with disabilities under the background of Health Poverty Alleviation. Methods:Descriptive statistics method was used to analyze the behavior of seeking medical care for people with disabilities based on the data of the National Health Poverty Alleviation Dynamic Management System. Results:The Three Batch action plan mainly focuses on contracted services for chronic diseases; the number of visits for people with disabilities gradually increases, the proportion of visits within the county increases, and the proportion of hospitalizations decreases. The hospitals visited are mainly secondary hospitals, township health hospitals and community health service centers, and the medical expenditure is relatively high. These phenomena are different among disability conditions. Conclusion:The behavior of people with disabilities was remarkably improved after Health Poverty Alleviation. In the future, we should consolidate the achievements of Health Poverty Alleviation, increase the prevention of chronic diseases for people with disabilities, and further improve the accessibility of medical services and the level of medical security for people with disabilities.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903879

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii infection is widespread worldwide, not only posing a serious threat to human food safety and animal husbandry, but also endangering human health. The selectivity index was employed to measure anti-T. gondii activity. Hederagenin (HE) exhibited potent anti-T. gondii activity and low cytotoxicity. For this reason, HE was selected for in vivo experiments. HE showed 64.8%±13.1% inhibition for peritoneal tachyzoites in mice, higher than spiramycin 56.8%±6.0%. Biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutathione, and malondialdehyde, illustrated that HE was a good inhibitor of T. gondii in vivo. This compound was also effective in relieving T. gondii-induced liver damage. Collectively, it was demonstrated that HE had potential as an anti-T. gondii agent.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 158-168, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872607

ABSTRACT

As a depot drug delivery system, injectable polylactide-polyglycolide (PLGA) sustained-release microspheres have been successfully used to treat many diseases since the first microsphere product Lupron depot was approved for marketing in the United States in 1989. It has the ability of long-term release in the body for several days to several months, which can not only reduce the times of administration, but also reduce the drug blood concentration fluctuations, significantly improve the safety and patient compliance. In vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) makes the development of microspheres more possible. It can describe the dynamic information of drug release in vivo through the in vitro release behavior of microspheres, and can reduce the workload of each stage and shorten the time span while characterizing the performance of microspheres. IVIVC can provide guidance or support for drug development, production changes, supervision and management. This article summarizes the release mechanism of injectable PLGA sustained-release microspheres, common measurement methods and theories of in vitro and in vivo release. And we also focus on the establishment and application of IVIVC, especially A level IVIVC in the field of microsphere preparations, to provide a reference for further study on in vitro-in vivo correlation of microspheres.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881044

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common clinical condition that can lead to advanced liver diseases. The mechanism of the diaease progression, which is lacking effective therapy, remains obsure. Therefore, there is a need to understand the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for disease development and progression in order to develop innovative therapies. To accomplish this goal, experimental animal models that recapitulate the human disease are necessary. Currently, an increasing number of studies have focused on natural constituents from medicinal plants which have been emerged as a new hope for NASH. This review summarized the pathogenesis of NASH, animal models commonly used, and the promising targets for therapeutics. We also reviewed the natural constituents as potential NASH therapeutic agents.

20.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 252-263, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880970

ABSTRACT

An unexpected observation among the COVID-19 pandemic is that smokers constituted only 1.4%-18.5% of hospitalized adults, calling for an urgent investigation to determine the role of smoking in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we show that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) increase ACE2 mRNA but trigger ACE2 protein catabolism. BaP induces an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent upregulation of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Skp2 for ACE2 ubiquitination. ACE2 in lung tissues of non-smokers is higher than in smokers, consistent with the findings that tobacco carcinogens downregulate ACE2 in mice. Tobacco carcinogens inhibit SARS-CoV-2 spike protein pseudovirions infection of the cells. Given that tobacco smoke accounts for 8 million deaths including 2.1 million cancer deaths annually and Skp2 is an oncoprotein, tobacco use should not be recommended and cessation plan should be prepared for smokers in COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , COVID-19 , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Lung , Mice , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
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