Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878292

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To calculate the number of pregnant women who receive standardized prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services for HIV annually.@*Methods@#HIV-positive pregnant women in six counties of Liangshan Prefecture in 2017 were selected as study subjects. The entire process, from when the subjects first received the PMTCT of HIV services to the end, was divided into four stages, which were further divided into 25 phases. The equivalent coefficient was used to indicate the weight of workload in each phase. Seven experts were invited to score the equivalent coefficient; the number of pregnant women who received standardized services to prevent the transmission of HIV was calculated.@*Results@#A total of 663 HIV-positive pregnant women were registered in six Liangshan Prefecture counties in 2017. This figure was converted into 7,780 person-months devoted to HIV-positive pregnant women, with 260 person-months (3.34%) spent on the first antenatal care, 1,510 person-months (19.41%) during pregnancy, 378 person-months (4.86%) on delivery, and 5,632 person-months (72.39%) on post-partum period. The equivalent coefficient calculation showed that 314 HIV-positive pregnant women received standardized PMTCT services.@*Conclusion@#The number of pregnant women receiving standardized services for the PMTCT of HIV can be calculated accurately using the equivalent method to identify the gap between the level of PMTCT of HIV intervention services needed and the actual workload.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Female , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-665180

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically evaluate the efficacy of small-needle-knife therapy combined with manipulation in treating frozen shoulder. Methods Articles about small-needle-knife therapy combined with manipulation treating frozen shoulder clinical randomized controlled trials in CNKI, CBM, VIP, Wanfang Data, Embase, Cochrane Library and Pubmed database were searched. Retrieval time was from the establisment of the database to February 2017. Two researchers screened literature, extract materials independently. The quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the Cochrane System Evaluation Manual 5.1.0. Meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.3 software. Results 12 articles were included in a systematic review, a total of 1118 cases of patients. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with small-needle-knife therapy alone, small-needle-knife therapy combined with manipulation in the treatment of frozen shoulder could significantly improve the total effective rate [OR=5.07, 95%CI(3.07, 8.37), P<0.000 01] and cure rate [OR=2.89, 95%CI(2.21, 3.78), P<0.000 01], enhance motor function score [MD=63.98, 95%CI(38.61, 89.35), P<0.000 01], with statistical significance. Conclusion Small-needle-knife therapy combined with manipulation had definite efficacy in the treatment of frozen shoulder. However, the quality of included research is relatively low, so large-sample, multi-center and high-quality randomized controlled trials are required for verification.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355769

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>To establish a method for screening neonatal tetanus (NT) in high risk areas in China using multi-sources data.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We adopted six NT-related indicators from National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS) and National Maternal and Child Health Annual Report System, to calculate weighted high-risk score at prefecture level in 2010 and 2011. And we selected the top 30 high risk cities, and compared the scores with the actual NT incidence ranking and WHO scoring.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The highest areas distributed in the Southwest of China with poor and minority population, and the Southeast part with high density of migrants. In the leading 30 prefectures with high score between the methods of weighted high-risk scoring and reported NT incidence ranking, there were 8 different. In comparison of the results of the methods of weighed high-risk scoring and WHO scoring, 276 prefectures in 340 distributed were divided into the same ranking groups, with Kappa coefficient 0.56 (P < 0.01). The Chi-Square association coefficient was 0.74 (P < 0.01), which showed a high correlation. But there were 10 different prefectures in the leading 36 prefectures between the two methods.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The weighted scoring method included several possible factors influencing NT incidence and took their weights into consideration. Thereby, compared with WHO scoring method, this method could be more appropriate for the reality in China.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Screening , Tetanus , Epidemiology
4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 888-891, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-241123

ABSTRACT

Objective To better understand and measure the status of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we conducted a sero-epidemiological study using the remaining blood samples and data of the nationwide survey of hepatitis B in Chinese residents which was carried out in 2006.Methods The anti-HCV reagent was screened out from the reagents by the HCV infection blood serum plate with anti-HCV positives or negatives. This plate recognized the Murex 3.0 and Ortho 3.0 reagents as gold standards. Anti-HCV in the blood samples were tested using this reagent and confirmed by Chiron HCV RIBA 3.0 reagents. Results Among the population aged 1 year to 59 year-olds, the overall prevalence rate of anti-HCV was 0.43% (95%CI: 0.33%-0.53% ), with the rates of anti-HCV among males and females as 0.46% and 0.40%, respectively. The prevalence rate of anti-HCV in urban area was 0.43%,and in rural area it was 0.43%. The prevalence rate of anti-HCV in the Eastern, Middle and Western areas were 0.37% (95% CI: 0.21%-0.53% ) , 0.67% (95% CI: 0.40%-0.94% ) and 0.31% (95%CI: 0.20%-0.42% ) respectively. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV for the three areas did not show significant differences, statistically. The prevalence rate of anti-HCV in the South and North areas were 0.29%(95%CI:0.21%-0.52%) and 0.53% (95%CI:0.38%-0.64%)respectively. Conclusion Our data revealed that China was in the low prevalence area for hepatitis C infection and the results also suggested that the comprehensive measures for HCV control and prevention had been successfully achieved in the country.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329539

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of imported cases of dengue fever in Guangdong province (GD) and in I-long Kong (HK) during 2004-2006 to provide evidence for further cooperation in the prevention and control programs on dengue fever in the two places.Methods Descriptive statistical analysis was performed on data obtained from dengue fever surveillance and reporting network in GD and from Centre for Health Protection,Department of Health,HK.Results Both from GD and HK 44 and 93 imported cases of Dengue fever were reported during 2004-2006.Most patients from GD acquired their infection from Singapore (13 cases),Indonesia (9 cases) or Cambodia (6 cases) while patients in HK mainly were imported from Indonesia (31 cases),the Philippines (16 cases) and Thailand (15 cases).The peak seasons of the two places were both from July to September.During the non-peak season period,the number of cases in Hong Kong was higher than that in Guangdong.Male/ female ratio was 1.2 : 1 in GD and 1.1 : 1 in HK.Age of patients in GD appeared to range from 6-80 years,with 63.6% (28/44) of them aged 20-39 years.40.9% (18/44) of the cases were engaged in business,services,housework or unemployed.Those cases in HK were between 10-72 years of age,with 63.6%(28/44) of them aged 20-39 years while 47.3%(44/93) of the patients were with the occupation of business,services and industry.More cases in GD had a onset of disease before entering the border (27 : 17) than the cases in HK (35 : 57).The average time interval between onset and diagnosis were 7 and 9 days for GD and HK respectively.Conclusion Frequent travel between Southeast Asia in summer among the working class appeared to be the main factor,causing imported cases of dengue fever in GDand HK.It is crucial to provide health education targeted at these high risk groups in order to prevent importation of dengue fever in the two areas.

6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 950-952, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261701

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the dynamic trend of specific antibody against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV in serum collected at various periods among employees in Guangzhou Xinyuan animal market.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Volunteers from employees of the animal market were recruited and their serum specific antibody against SARS-CoV were determined by enzyme linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA) method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Positive SARS-CoV specific IgG antibody was found 25.61% (n = 328), 13.03% (n = 238), 12.59% (n = 135), 5.04% (n = 139) and 9.43% (n = 53) among volunteers, which were sampled in May 2003, Dec. 2003, Jan. 2004, July 2004 and June 2005 respectively. No specific IgM antibody was found in all of those samples. Among 129 samples which were tested twice or more, 97 were all negative, 18 all positive, 13 changed from positive to negative but only one sample from negative to positive. When the volunteers were divided by the duration of their working experiences as short-term or long-term, those who had worked at animal market for less than or more then 6 months when being tested, the positive rate for long-term employees were relatively constant, however, all of the persons employed after January 2004, when the palm civets and raccoon dogs were culled from the market, were tested negative.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The prevalence of specific antibody against SARS-CoV in employees of the animal market were somehow related with the presence or absence of palm civet. No serum was tested positive for persons who were employed after palm civets and raccoon dogs were culled from market. This data indicated that the SARS-CoV might have been from the palm civets and raccoon dog, and the animal market seemed to serve as one of the sources of infection.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Commerce , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Occupational Exposure , Raccoon Dogs , Virology , SARS Virus , Allergy and Immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Viverridae , Virology
7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 347-349, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348870

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the epidemiological features of the index cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in different cities in Guangdong province and to trace for the source of infection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Standardized individual case inventory was adopted to conduct investigation on index cases and on persons who had close contact with index cases in Guangdong province. Data on the epidemiological characteristics, secondary cases and the links among index cases were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Between November 16, 2002 and April 16, 2003, there had been 13 index cases of SARS including 3 cadres, 3 farmers, 2 retirees, 2 workers and 1 shop attendant, reported from 13 cities in Guangdong province. Between November 2002 and January 2003, there had been 7 cities reported to have identified index cases of SARS with 6 of them being infected in their own cities and 1 imported from Guangzhou city. All of the cases had no close contacts to similar patients but 6 of them later caused 2nd or even 3rd generation cases of SARS. Most cases hit young people (7/13) with a sex ratio of 1:0.6. The fatality rate of index cases was high (4/13).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>No evidence showed that there was direct transmission among the index cases. Data regarding the geographical origin of those index cases led to the assumption that the infection had started in six cities of Pearl river delta region and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , China , Epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Female , Hong Kong , Epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Epidemiology
8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 350-352, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348869

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>To understand the epidemiological characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreaks in some areas of Guangdong province and to provide scientific basis for prevention and control measures against it.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Standardized questionnaire was used on individual cases. Data on the epidemiological characteristics as time, place, persons and aggregation status of SARS cases, development of the epidemics, were analyzed with software EPI 6.0.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The incidence of SARS in Guangdong province was 1.72/100,000 with case fatality rate as 3.64%. Most cases of SARS occurred between the last ten days of January and the first ten days of February with the peak (61.88% of the patients) occurred in the first ten days of February. As to the distribution of place, Pearl river delta region-economically developed with great number of mobile population-was heavily affected areas (account for 96.66% of the total patients). The majority of patients were young adults and medical staff seemed to be the most affected subgroup (account for 24.9% of the patients in total). Family and hospital aggregation of patients comprised the another two important characteristics of SARS (account for 37.1% of the total patients).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Current knowledge on SARS suggested that it was an air-borne infectious disease with human beings served as the source of infection. The incubation period of the disease was from 1 to 12 days with a median of 4 days. Respiratory secretions and close contact contributed to person-to-person transmission. Most cases were distributed in Pearl river delta region, an area famous for its economic development and heavy flow of mobile population.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Disease Outbreaks , Family Health , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Epidemiology , Mortality , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 169-171, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244214

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To estimate the frequency of injections and proportion of unsafe injections and to analyses the critical determinants of poor injection practices in general population in China. Also, to study knowledge, attitudes, practice research in providers and general population.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A random sample consisting residents and health care providers in a rural county was elected and interview about the frequency of received injection, as well as knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding injections were studied.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Overall, 1 004 village residents, and 94 providers were interviewed. Among residents, 145 persons (14.4%), with 457 times (0.46 times per person) had received at least one injection during the previous 3 months. The frequency of injection was 1.84 per year. The proportion of received injections on treatment and immunizations was significantly different among > 12 years age group and < or = 12 years age group. Ninety-four point four percent of disposable syringes/needles were used for injections. Knowledge among the population and providers regarding injection safety was limited.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Injections were moderately frequent in this rural area and the proportions of disposable syringes/needles used for injections was very high. Knowledge of safe injection and reasonable injection as well as consciousness of self-protection in the providers and residents need to be improved.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Disposable Equipment , Equipment Reuse , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infant , Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Rural Health Services , Safety , Surveys and Questionnaires , Syringes
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 700-703, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246452

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the existence of spotted fever group Rickettsiae (SFGR) in Guangdong province.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sera were tested to find the SFGR in population and host animals. The target samples were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Rickettsiae was isolated with embryonated hen eggs and identified by serological tests.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Eight hundred and sixty people in natural condition and 321 of mice were determined. The mean positive rate of healthy population was 3.84%. To compare results among elected places, Fisher's exact test was applied. The difference was suggestive (P < 0.01), and there was no significant difference between mountain and plain areas. There was also no significant difference between mountain and plain areas (P > 0.05). Positive rate of mice was 4.67%, with Rattus fulvescens, Rattus edwardsi, Bandicota indica 11.59%, 12.90%, 3.13% respectively. It was the first time that SFGR antibodies in Rattus fulvescens, Rattus edwardsi, Bandicota indica were reported. A total number of 321 mice spleens and 394 ticks from the surface of mice body were collected. Two strains of SFGR, GDFK58-2000 and GDFK59-2000, were isolated in the ticks from the body surface of 2 Rattus fulvescens. They were identified as Rickettsia sibirica by serological tests. Five hundred thirty-three bp OmpA gene fragments of the two strains were cloned and sequenced. Compared with other relevant strains in Genbank, the rates of homology of nucleotide sequences of GDFK58-2000 and GDFK59-2000 and other Rickettsia sibirica strains were from 99.6% to 100%, and the homology of amino acid speculated was 100%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It has been proved that epidemic areas of north Asia tick-transmitted SFGR, did exist in Guangdong province confirmed by hostanimals, transmission vectors and aetiology.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Child , China , Epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Rats , Rickettsia rickettsii , Classification , Genetics , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Rodentia , Microbiology , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Ticks , Microbiology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291868

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore epidemiological features and risk factors of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Guangdong Province of China, so as to work out effective strategies for its better control.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 1 511 clinically confirmed SARS cases in Guangdong Province of China from November 16, 2002 to Jun 15, 2003 were retrospectively analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The first SARS case was identified in Foshan municipality on November 16, 2002, followed by 1 511 clinically confirmed cases (including 58 deaths) up to May 15, 2003. Of all cases, health care workers and community family cluster cases accounted for 19.38% and 12.04%. 65.86% SARS patients aged 20 - 49 years, and increased incidence was positively related to their ages. 95.97% cases lived in the following five cities around Pearl Delta Area: Foshan, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhongshan, and Jiangmen. Eleven early reported cases in the communities took animal-related positions. Face-to-face contacts with infected droplets were the main transmission route. An epidemic peak occurred during January 28 to February 26, and those cases accounted for 50.69% of total. Incidence, mortality, and case fatality of SARS were 1.77/100,000, 0.07/100,000, and 3.84% respectively. The mean incubation period was 4.5 days.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The most effective way to control SARS is to break the chain of transmission from infected to healthy persons-early identification, prompt and effective isolation, and vigorous close contact tracing. Hospital infections among health care workers is critical. Several observations support the hypothesis of an animal origin for the disease.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL