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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2298-2305, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829377

ABSTRACT

Malignant tumor is a disease that severely threaten human health. Common chemotherapeutical drugs currently used in clinical practice have some problems in severe side effects and chemoresistance. In contrast, natural venom peptides and artificially designed targeting peptides have excellent biological activities and potential druggability due to their small molecular weights and high affinity to tumor tissues. Thus, the methods for the discovery of anti-tumor peptides have attracted much attention. In this paper, we summarized the types of anti-tumor peptides from recent literatures. Then, we systematically reviewed screening theories, methods and applications based on traditional chromatographic separation, peptidomics, phage display, phenotypic screening, and artificial intelligence. These strategies and technologies will provide a methodological reference for accelerating anti-tumor peptides research.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 907-914, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821671

ABSTRACT

To study the osteoprotective effect of 1,2,3,4,6-pentyl-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) its anti-osteoblast apoptosis related mechanism was investigated. A model of zebrafish osteoporosis induced by prednisolone (Pred, 25 μmol·L-1) was established in vivo, and calcein staining was used to detect the effect of PGG on the bone area of ​​zebrafish. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in vitro, and the number of calcified nodules was observed by alizarin red staining, and the relevant indexes of osteoblast differentiation runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx 2), osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA level were detected by qRT-PCR. The osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 cells was cultured in vitro, and 400 μmol·L-1 hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to intervene the injury to detect the effect of PGG on osteoblasts under oxidative stress. The effect of PGG on osteoblast activity was detected by MTT assay. The effect of PGG on apoptosis was observed by Hoechst 33342 staining. Western blot was used to detect the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). DCFH-DA fluorescence staining for detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. JC-1 staining was used to detect mitochondrial membrane potential levels. The results showed that PGG could significantly increase the vertebral area of ​​the zebrafish model when compared with the model group. On the 14 th day of osteoblast differentiation, the number of calcified nodules in the PGG group was significantly increased when compared with the control group and the mRNA levels of Runx 2 and OCN were also significantly increased. In addition, under oxidative stress, PGG could increase osteoblast viability, significantly reduce the number of apoptotic cells, and increase the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Fluorescence staining results show that PGG decreased intracellular ROS fluorescence density and increased mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blot data showed that PGG could promote the expression of Nrf2 in the nuclear and enhance the expression of downstream protein HO-1. In conclusion, PGG could improve osteoporosis in zebrafish, and this effect may be related to the regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway to improve mitochondrial dysfunction, anti-oxidative stress in osteoblast apoptosis and promote bone formation. This study provides new ideas and clues for the discovery of anti-osteoporosis drugs.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272739

ABSTRACT

Xin-Sheng-Hua granule (XSHG) is a popular remedy commonly used in clinic for the treatment of lochiostasis after delivery. To comparatively investigate the roles of herb pairs containing Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui) upon the formula by evaluating the blood coagulation and hemorheology function in acute blood stasis rats, acute blood stasis rat model was established by ice water bath and subcutaneous injection of adrenaline. And the blood stasis mice were administrated intragastrically with different samples of the formula minus herb pairs containing Danggui and the whole formula (XSHG, SHD, DY, DC, DT, DH, DJ and DZ). The whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and haematocrit (HCT) were applied to evaluate the effects of the formula minus herb pairs containing Danggui on hemorheology of blood stasis rats. The thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and plasma fibrinogen (FIB) were used to observe the effects of the formula minus herb pairs containing Danggui on blood coagulation function of blood stasis rats. Additionally, the maximum aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was tested to observe the effect of different samples on platelet aggregation index of blood stasis rats.Afterwards, multi-attribute comprehensive index methods and principal component analysis were both applied to comprehensively assess the total effects of the formula minus herb pairs containing Danggui on promoting blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis. Compared with normal group, the hemorheological parameters and coagulation indexes of model group had statistical differences (P<0.01). Compared with model group, different samples (XSHG, SHD, DY, DC, DT, DH, DJ and DZ) could improve the blood hemorheology indexes, coagulation parameters and platelet aggregation in acute blood stasis rats. According to multi-attribute comprehensive index methods and the principal component analysis, the effects of promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis became poor when excluding herb pairs containing Danggui from the formula, the sample DY and DC had the weakest effect of activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis, and the effect of sample DY was slightly poorer than DC. The orders of contribution of herb pairs containing Danggui on the formula were Danggui-Yimucao>Danggui-Chuanxiong>Danggui-Honghua>Danggui-Zhigancao>Danggui-Taoren>Danggui-Jiangtan. In conclusion, various herb pairs containing Danggui played different roles on the effects of improving the abnormality of hemorheology and coagulation function. And the herb pairs Danggui-Yimucao were particularly important for the formula, which was consistent with the characteristics of XSHG and the traditional effect of Yimucao. Moreover, it could lay foundation to further reveal the compatibility mechanism of XSHG.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812568

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-advanced glycation end products (AGEs) diet on diabetic vascular complications. The Streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were fed with high-AGEs diet. Diabetic characteristics, indicators of renal and cardiovascular functions, and pathohistology of pancreas, heart and renal were evaluated. AGEs/RAGE/ROS pathway parameters were determined. During the experiments, the diabetic mice exhibited typical characteristics including weight loss, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, high-blood glucose, and low-serum insulin levels. However, high-AGEs diet effectively aggravated these diabetic characteristics. It also increased the 24-h urine protein levels, serum levels of urea nitrogen, creatinine, c-reactive protein (CRP), low density lipoprotein (LDL), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the diabetic mice. High-AGEs diet deteriorated the histology of pancreas, heart, and kidneys, and caused structural alterations of endothelial cells, mesangial cells and podocytes in renal cortex. Eventually, high-AGEs diet contributed to the high-AGE levels in serum and kidneys, high-levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and low-levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum, heart, and kidneys. It also upregulated RAGE mRNA and protein expression in heart and kidneys. Our results showed that high-AGEs diet deteriorated vascular complications in the diabetic mice. The activation of AGEs/RAGE/ROS pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Metabolism , Diabetic Angiopathies , Genetics , Metabolism , Diet , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , Kidney , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Pancreas , Metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products , Genetics , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286376

ABSTRACT

San'ao Decoction (SD) and its analogous formulas derived in the following generations are common used prescriptions for treating pulmonary diseases with principal symptoms such as cough and asthma. They are usually compatible with Chinese herbs for facilitating Fei, dispelling wind, resolving phlegm and fluid retention. Material bases in these formulas are mainly derived from Chinese drugs, but dissolution contents of active components are changed and new components are produced after compatibility. By multilevel effect evaluation, these analogous formulas all have commonness in ventilating Fei and superiorities of evidence-based derivation. The effect pathway of commonness was involved in cell structure protection, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and immunoregulation.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350662

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of Yupingfeng San (YPFS) against OVA-induced allergic asthma in mice.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Mice were injected with OVA to establish the allergic asthma model. They were abdominally injected with 20 microg OVA on day 0 and 14, and inhaled aerosol 0.5% OVA solution for 20 min for seven days. The blank control group was administrated with equal volume of saline. YPFS groups with different doses were administrated intragastrically with YPFS every day, with the crude drug dosage of 3.25, 6.5, 13 g x kg(-1), respectively. The model group and control group were administrated with equal volume of saline. The positive control group was given intraperitoneally injected with 1 mg x kg(-1) DEX since aerosol inhalation. Blood was drawn after the last OVA aerosol inhalation to count the number of Eosnophils (Eos) in blood and detect IgE in serum; BALF was collected to count the number of cells and classify; right lung tissues were evenly grinded to detect cytokines IL-4 and IFN-gamma, and left upper lung lobes were collected for pathologic histology.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The level of Eos and IgE in serum increased significantly in the model group, and a large number of Eos were detected in BALF. Histopathological changes in lung showed bronchial serous exudation, tubular epithelial cells exfoliation, tube narrowing, widened alveolar septum, and bronchial periarterial lymphocytes infiltration. Homogenate of lung tissues showed increase of IL-4, and decrease in IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratio. YPFS groups with different doses displayed decrease of Eos in blood and BALF and IgE content in serum, and relief of pathologic changes in above models. Meanwhile, IL-4 content in homogenate of lung tissues decreased, with the increase in IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratio.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>YPFS shows the inhibitory effects on OVA-induced allergic asthma, involving down regulation of Eos and IgE levels in blood of asthma mice, and infiltration of inflammatory cells in lung tissues. Meanwhile, it can reduce IL-4 in lung homogenates, increase IFN-gamma/IL-4, and inhibits Th2 polarization.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Eosinophils , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-4 , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Ovalbumin
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812647

ABSTRACT

AIM@#To evaluate the effect of Qi'ao Deocoction (QAD) on the inflammation and hyperresponsiveness of asthma mice.@*METHODS@#120 Balb/C mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal group, model group, dexamethasone group, high dose QAD group, medium dose QAD group and low dose QAD group. The asthma model was reproduced in Balb/C mice sensitized by ovalbumin, challenged by OVA and LPS. The mice of the normal group were sensitized, challenged and intranasally instilled by PBS. On day 28-34, 6.7, 13.4 and 26.8 g · kg(-1) Qi'ao Decoction were administrated; 0.002 4 g · kg(-1) dexamethasone solution was given to the dexamethasone group; normal and model groups were given the same amount of normal saline. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, airway hyperresponsiveness, lung histopathology and cytokines were then collected and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with normal group, total cellular score, the number of macrophages, lymphocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils of model group significantly increased (P 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#QAD can significantly inhibit airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness of mice with severe asthma induced by ovalumin and lipopolysaccharide, adjust the balance of cytokines, and improve lung histopathological condition. So, it exhibits great effect on severe asthma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Interleukin-12 , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-4 , Allergy and Immunology , Lipopolysaccharides , Allergy and Immunology , Lung , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Ovalbumin , Allergy and Immunology
8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1403-1408, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259462

ABSTRACT

The protective effects of Da Chai Hu Granules (DCHKL) on islet cells which were incubated with 4 mmol x L(-1) alloxan (AXN) were studied. The viability of islet cells were measured with MTT. Insulin released into medium and in islets was detected by radioimmunoassay. Cell apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry. The expression of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic gene Bax in islet cells were measured with RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). Serum containing DCHKL can promote the activity of islet cells significantly (P < 0.01). Basal insulin secretion and high glucose-stimulated insulin secretion increased significantly (P < 0.01). Serum containing DCHKL can inhibit apoptosis of islet cells, the ratio of apoptosis was decreased. Serum containing DCHKL increased expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and decreased expression of Bax mRNA. DCHKL can significantly promote proliferation of islet cells and increase the amount of basal secretion of pancreatic islet cells and high glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The expression of Bcl-2 increased significantly. The expression of Bax decreased significantly. DCHKL have a protective effect on the islet cells.


Subject(s)
Alloxan , Toxicity , Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Insulin , Metabolism , Bodily Secretions , Islets of Langerhans , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Genetics , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Genetics , Metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299402

ABSTRACT

With the changes of life style, diabetes and its complications have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is reasonable to anticipate a continued rise in the incidence of diabetes and its complications along with the aging of the population, increase in adult obesity rate, and other risk factors. Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the severe microvascular complications of diabetes, characterized by impaired cognitive functions, and electrophysiological, neurochemical, and structural abnormalities. It may involve direct neuronal damage caused by intracellular glucose. However, the pathogenesis of this disease is complex and its diagnosis is not very clear. Previous researches have suggested that chronic metabolic alterations, vascular changes, and neuronal apoptosis may play important roles in neuronal loss and damaged cognitive functions. Multiple factors are responsible for neuronal apoptosis, such as disturbed insulin growth factor (IGF) system, hyperglycemia, and the aging process. Recent data suggest that insulin/C-peptide deficiency may exert a primary and key effect in diabetic encephalopathy. Administration of C-peptide partially improves the condition of the IGF system in the brain and prevents neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus of diabetic patients. Those findings provide a basis for application of C-peptide as a potentially effective therapy for diabetes and diabetic encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Diseases , C-Peptide , Physiology , Cognition Disorders , Diabetes Complications , Humans , Risk Factors , Stroke
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328466

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>San'ao Decoction (, SAD), as a representative Chinese medicine (CM) formula, was chosen to evaluate the effect of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhanced asthma model.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The asthma model was reproduced in the Balb/C mice sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA), challenged by OVA and LPS. After Balb/C mice's administration of a dose (0.0024 g/kg) of dexamethasone acetate, and three doses (2.2 g/kg, 4.4 g/kg and 8.8 g/kg) of SAD, airway inflammation and responsiveness were observed. The airway inflammation was detected by counting bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells and lung histopathology. Also, differential expressions of interferon-r (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-5 in the supernatants of BALF were examined. The changes in airway responsiveness indicated by lung resistance (R(L)) and stimulated by acetylcholine (Ach) were determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Small-dose SAD hardly inhibit airway inflammation or hyperresponsiveness in the LPS-enhanced asthma, while medium-dose and high-dose SAD significantly inhibited the airway hyperresponsiveness, and to some extent, reduced airway inflammation. Meanwhile, the small-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose SAD promoted Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ) and reduced Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) to different extents, which led to a Th1/Th2 balance.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SAD has a good therapeutic effect on airway hyperresponsiveness in the LPS-enhanced asthma model, but its definite influence on airway inflammation is not remarkable.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Drug Therapy , Bronchial Hyperreactivity , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Cell Biology , Cell Count , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Interferon-gamma , Metabolism , Interleukin-4 , Metabolism , Interleukin-5 , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung , Pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pneumonia , Drug Therapy , Pathology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-634241

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of Bailing capsule on epithelial-mesenchymal transition( EMT) in rats with adenine-in-duced tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Methods Tubulointerstitial fibrosis animal models were established and SD rats were divided into mo-del group ( n = 30), treatment group ( n = 30) and control group( n = 30), randomly. Experimental rats were harvested at 7 w, 12 w,17 w after onset of experiment and functional evaluations were performed. Histology, immunohistology were examined to investigateboth histolopathology changes and the expression of bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 )and a-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in kidneys at three time points mentioned above, respectively. Results Compared with controlgroup, 24 h urinary protein in model group lost increasingly and significantly difference appeared at three time points relative to controlgroup ( P < 0.01 ). Urinary NAG in model group was markedly higher than that in control group from 7 w after onset (P < 0.01 ) andwas increasingly raised at 12 w and 17 w (P<0.01). The value of blood BUN and Cr in model group increased at 7 w (P>0.05) rel-ative to control group. There was significant difference at 12 w and 17.w (P < 0.01 ). Histologically, kidneys in model group, at 7 w,exhibited tubular casts and gently tubular dilation, granuloma in cortex, mononuclear cells infiltration in tubulointerstitial areas, andmild interstitial fibrosis. At 12 w, the degree of tubular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis gradually aggravated. Up to 17 w, diffusetubular dilation or atrophy was observed and focal tubules disappear. Diffuse interstitial fibrosis was exhibited. In normal kidneys, im-munohistochemistry suggested that the light expression of BMP-7 was detected in proximal renal tubular epithelial cells and marked ex-pression was identified in distal tubule, collecting duct, and renal tubular epithelial in junction area between cortex and medulla. How-ever, the expression of BMP-7 in kidneys of model group significantly decreased with increasing tubulointerstitial fibrosis and was nega-tive correlation with the expression of TGF-β1(r = -0. 981 P<0.01) and α-SMA (r= -0.975 P<0.01). Bailing capsule ad-ministration protected the expression of BMP-7 and reduced TGF-β1 and α-SMA expression before 12 w(P< 0.01 ). Conclusions Ourstudy shows an anti-fibrotic reno-protective function of Bailing capsule in rats with tubulointerstitial fibrosis via prevention of epithelial-mesenchymal transition at early stage. However, the beneficial effect lost with increasing tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

12.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 745-747, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-306217

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the changes and significance of serum gastrin (GAS), beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and plasma motilin (MTL) in patients with severe burns.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Blood samples were gotten according to different timepoints from 32 admitted burned patients, and then serum GAS, beta-EP and plasma MTL were determined by radio-immuno assay (RIA).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In patients with severe burns, serum GAS decreased significantly in early period. And at the timepoint of 8 h, it reached the lowest level. But during 9-24 h it elevated for a while, and then it reached a relatively stable level. MTL reached the highest level at the timepoint of 2 h after burning. Then at the shock stage, it was comparatively lower. And at the timepoint of 8 h after burning, it reached the lowest level, then raised persistently after reabsorption, but still lower than the normal level. At the early stage after burning, beta-EP raised, then reached the highest level at 8 h after burning. GAS and MTL decreased and beta-EP increased significantly with the increase of the burned area. However, when the burned area was over 70% of the total body surface area, there was no relationship between them.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Blood GAS, MTL and beta-EP have represented regular changes in patients with severe burns at the early stage after burning. And the pain-stimulus and shock are effective factors.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Burns , Blood , Female , Gastrins , Blood , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motilin , Blood , Radioimmunoassay , Time Factors , beta-Endorphin , Blood
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-638543

ABSTRACT

Objective To explorethe effect of Bailingcapsule on epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) inrats withadenine-in-duced tubulointerstitial fibrosis .Methods Tubulointerstitial fibrosis ani mal models were established and SDrats were dividedinto mo-del group (n=30) ,treatment group (n=30) andcontrol group(n=30) ,randomly .Experi mental rats were harvested at 7 w,12 w,17 wafter onset of experi ment and functional evaluations were performed. Histology ,i mmunohistology were examined to investigateboth histolopathology changes and the expression of bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7) ,transforming growth factor-?1(TGF-?1)and a-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) in kidneys at three ti me points mentioned above ,respectively .Results Compared with controlgroup ,24 h urinary proteinin model grouplost increasingly and significantly difference appeared at three ti me points relative to controlgroup(P0 .05) rel-ative to control group.There was significant difference at 12 wand 17 w(P

14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 745-747, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247483

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the epidemiological features of tic disorders (TD) among schoolchildren in Wenzhou area.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Stratified cluster sampling was carried out to investigate TD in 9742 schoolchildren aged 7 to 16 years old in Wenzhou.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The average prevalence rate of TD among school-age children was 104/10 000 (166/10 000 for males, 29/10 000 for females). There was a significantly higher prevalence rate for males than that for females (chi(2) = 43.96, P < 0.001, prevalence ratio = 5.7, prevalence ratio 95% CI: 3.20 - 10.30). The prevalence rates of clinical subtypes in males was significantly higher than that of females while pupils was significantly higher than that in high school students (chi(2) = 11.33, P < 0.01, prevalence ratio = 2.2, prevalence ratio 95% CI: 1.37 - 3.43). Prevalence rate of transient tic disorders (TTD), chronic motor vocal tic disorder (CMVTD), tourette syndrome (TS) were 34/10 000, 27/10 000 and 43/10 000 respectively with the highest among 9-10 years old group. The mean onset age of TD was 8.5 +/- 2.8 years. The peak of onset was among 6-10 year olds. The rate of delayed diagnosis of the disorders was 69.3% and the median in delayed diagnosis was 1.0 year.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TD is a common disease with high rate of misdiagnoses among schoolchildren in Wenzhou area. Physicians and population should be trained to identify the syndromes and to practice correct diagnosis and effective treatment as early as possible.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , China , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Sex Factors , Tic Disorders , Epidemiology , Tourette Syndrome , Epidemiology
15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 131-133, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342370

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the prevalence and distribution of Tourette syndrome (TS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Nine thousand, seven hundred and forty-two children and juveniles aged 7 - 16 years in Wenzhou were studied, using cluster random sampling method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The prevalence of TS among school-age children was estimated to be 0.43% (0.74% for males and 0.07% for females). The prevalence of male children and juveniles was higher than that of female children and juveniles (chi(2) = 25.09, P < 0.001, prevalence ratio = 10.95, prevalence ratio 95% CI: 3.38 - 35.46). The highest prevalence of TS was between 9 - 10 years old. The mean age at onset of TS was 7.7 +/- 2.7 years, with 45.2% of them among 6 - 7 year olds. The rate of delayed diagnosis and rates of misdiagnosis and misclassification of the syndromes were 78.6%, 42.9% and 23.8%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Tourette syndrome had been a common disease of children and juveniles in Wenzhou area. The disease was correlated with age and sex, often misdiagnosed and misclassified. Physicians and as well as general publics should be trained to identify the cases.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Age Factors , Child , China , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Sex Factors , Tourette Syndrome , Diagnosis , Epidemiology
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