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1.
Chinese Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism ; (12): 1046-1051, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994281

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) on diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to find the cut-off value of UACR for diagnosing DR.Methods:A prospective cohort study of 2 490 patients with type 2 diabetes was conducted with a mean follow-up of 7 years ranging from 3 to 10 years. Dilated fundus examination was performed once a year, and patient history and clinical data were collected and analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to the UACR: Q1, normal urinary albumin group (UACR<30 mg/g), Q2, microalbuminuria group (30 mg/g≤UACR≤299 mg/g), and Q3, macroalbuminuria group (UACR>300 mg/g), respectively. Cox regression analysis was used to explore the influence of UACR and other factors on DR, and ROC curve was drawn to evaluate the value of UACR in diagnosis of DR.Results:Cox regression analysis showed that UACR was the risk factor of DR( HR=1.108, 95% CI 1.023-1.241, P<0.001). It showed that the patients in Q3 group had the highest risk of proliferative DR ( HR=3.128, 95% CI 2.025-4.831, P<0.001), the patients in Q2 group followed( HR=1.918, 95% CI 1.355-2.714, P<0.001), and the patients in Q1 group were the lowest. ROC curve analysis showed that area under UACR curve was 0.746(95% CI 0.681-0.812, P<0.001), and the cut-off value, sensitivity, and specificity for the diagnosis of PDR were 54.12mg/g, 0.769, and 0.653, respectively. Conclusion:The UACR can predict the progression of PDR in type 2 diabetes patients, therefore it may be used as a preliminary predictor for the progression of DR.

2.
Chinese Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism ; (12): 624-630, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911369

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the effects of different blood pressure variables and their variabilities on diabetic nephropathy(DN)in patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods:This prospective cohort study included 3 050 type 2 diabetic patients without DN at baseline from Lee′s clinic in Taiwan, China. The metabolic parameters of patients were regularly checked, and urine albumin creatinine ratio(UACR)were evaluated annually. The average follow-up period was 7 years(3-10 years). The means and standard deviations(SD)of systolic blood pressure(SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP), pulse pressure(PP), and mean arterial pressure(MAP)were calculated. According to whether SBP-Mean was higher or lower than 130 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) and SBP-SD was higher or lower than 11.06 mmHg(average SBP-SD), these patients were divided into four groups: Q1(SBP-Mean<130 mmHg, SBP-SD<11.06 mmHg); Q2(SBP-Mean<130 mmHg, SBP-SD≥11.06 mmHg); Q3(SBP-Mean≥130 mmHg, SBP-SD<11.06 mmHg); Q4(SBP-Mean≥130 mmHg, SBP-SD≥11.06 mmHg). In the same way, according to whether PP-Mean was higher or lower than 80 mmHg(average PP-Mean)and PP-SD was higher or lower than 6.48 mmHg(average PP-SD), the patients were divided into Q1-Q4 groups.Results:After adjusting age, sex, and diabetes duration, Cox regression analysis showed that SBP-Mean, SBP-SD, PP-Mean, and PP-SD were the risk factors of DN. After the stratification according to SBP-Mean and SBP-SD, the patients in Q4 group( HR=1.976, P<0.001)had the highest risk while those in Q1 group displayed the lowest risk for DN. Additionally, the patients in Q3 group( HR=1.614, P<0.001)imposed a higher risk than that in Q2 group( HR=1.408, P<0.001). By stratificating the patients based on PP-Mean and PP-SD, the patients in Q4 group revealed the highest risk of DN( HR=1.370, P<0.001)while those in Q1 group had the lowest risk. In addition, the patients in Q3 group( HR=1.266, P<0.001)had a higher risk of DN compared with those in Q2 group( HR=1.212, P<0.001). Conclusion:SBP and PP variabilities are the predictors of DN in patients with type 2 diabetes.

3.
Chinese Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism ; (12): 381-386, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870057

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between HbA 1C variability and diabetic retinopathy(DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes and to explore the influencing factors of HbA 1C variability. Methods:Type 2 diabetic patients who received dilated funduscopic examination annually, were stratified into two groups based on the presence or absence of DR, with a median follow-up period of 4 years(2-5 years). Intrapersonal means and SDs of all recorded HbA 1C measurements were calculated. A 1C-SD represented the measure of HbA 1C variability. In addition, medical history and clinical data of all subjects were collected and analyzed. Subjects were divided into four quartiles based on their A 1C-Mean and A 1C-SD data: Q1(A 1C-Mean<7%, A 1C-SD<0.76%); Q2(A 1C-Mean<7%, A 1C-SD≥0.76%); Q3(A 1C-Mean≥7%, A 1C-SD<0.76%); Q4(A 1C-Mean≥7%, A 1C-SD≥0.76%). Results:Multivariate linear regression showed that exercise, insulin( P<0.01), and smoking( P=0.004) are the influencing factors of HbA 1C variability. Adjusted for age, sex, and diabetes duration, Cox regression analysis revealed that HbA 1C variability was an independent risk factor for DR. Meanwhile, patients in Q4 group had the highest DR prevalence(HR=1.676, P<0.01) while Q1 group had the lowest. In addition, patients in Q2 group(HR=1.437, P=0.005) had a higher risk of DR than those in Q3 group(HR=1.361, P<0.01). Conclusions:HbA 1C variability is an independent predictor of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes. It may play a greater role in DR development than mean HbA 1C does when the mean value of HbA 1C variability index is above 0.75%.

4.
Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research ; (53): 130-135, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-848066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the loss of sex combing protein 1 (Asxl1) can lead to the occurrence of bone dysplasia and bone defects, but the relationship between this factor and bone destruction in the microenvironment of apical periodontitis has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Asxl1 on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in an inflammatory microenvironment. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 cells were excited by lipopolysaccharide to establish an in vitro inflammatory microenvironment. The best concentration and optimal action time of lipopolysaccharide were screened by cell counting kit-8 test. MC3T3-E1 cells were then stimulated with 20 mg/L lipopolysaccharide for 24 hours. The expression levels of Asxl1 protein and mRNA were detected by immunofluorescence and real-time PCR, respectively. After lipopolysaccharide stimulated the formation of inflammatory microenvironment, Asxl1-Si RNA was transfected for 24 hours, cell counting kit-8 was applied to detect the activity of cell proliferation, and real-time PCR was used to detect the expression levels of Asxl1 and osteogenic related genes ALP and RUNX2 mRNA. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After lipopolysaccharides stimulation of MC3T3-E1 cells, the expression levels of Asxl1 protein and mRNA were decreased. Under the inflammatory microenvironment, the proliferation activity of MC3T3-E1 cells transfected with Asxl1-Si RNA for 24 hours was significantly decreased, and the expression levels of Asxl1, ALP and RUNX2 mRNA were markedly decreased. These findings indicate that Asxl1 may influence the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts by involvement in the process of inflammatory reaction, thereby participating in bone destruction.

5.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 298-301, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290764

ABSTRACT

In order to guarantee the safety and accuracy of the whole treating process as well as better link up of each section during the treatment, we did research in order to establish a project concerning the process quality control (PQC) of treating liver cancer with CyberKnife. From the safety and accuracy point of view, we divided the whole process of treating liver cancer with CyberKnife into ten links, i.e. the registration of patients' information, the im plantation of fiducial markers, fixation of body posture, CT localization, target delineation, design of the treatment plan, quality assurance in physics, implementation of the treatment plan, inspection on the correctness and data archiving. We analyzed the possible mistakes in each link and the consequences brought by them. To smoothly connect all the links, a special part "Attention" was added between every two links. Various wrong operations which may influence the safety and accuracy of treatment were illustrated, and the consequences brought by them were also ex plained. The "Attention" part among links offers important information for the next step, and gives us reminding and warnings. The project of quality control covers all the important links when treating liver cancer with Cy berKnife. It offers regulations, reminding and warning for us so that the safety and accuracy of treatment can be guaranteed, and the work of all staff could be closely connected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Neoplasms , General Surgery , Quality Control , Radiosurgery , Methods
6.
Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 109-112, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-474602

ABSTRACT

Objective To construct the recombinant RIP3 over-expressed plasmids and transfect them in breast cancer MCF7 cells, and identify the expression and localization of fusion protein, as well as its effect on the death way of MCF7 cells. Methods The expression levels of RIP3 mRNA in four breast cancer cell lines and normal mammary epithelial cells were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The RIP 3 coding sequence was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subcloned into mCherry vector to construct recombinant plasmids. The plasmids were transfected into MCF7 cells by lentivirus after DNA sequencing, then screened by basticidin (4 mg/L) for 1 week. The efficiencies of RIP3 expression were validated by Western blotting assay. The death way of mCherry-RIP3-MCF7 cells was observed under the treatment of TNF-αand Z-VAD-FMK. Results The lowest expression of RIP3 mRNA was found in MCF7 cells. The sequencing results validated the well recombinant plasmids. The expression of mCherry-RIP3 fusion pro-tein with a molecular weight of 85 ku was detected by Western blot assay. The mCherry-RIP3 expression enhanced the sensi-tivity of MCF7 cells to TNF-αand Z-VAD-FMK induced cell death. Conclusion The recombinant RIP3 over-expressed plasmids were successfully constructed, and the stable MCF7 cells with ectopic RIP3 transfection were obtained. The mCher-ry-RIP3 fusion protein was expressed in the cytoplasm and was conformed to mediate TNF-αinduced necroptosis.

7.
Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 11-14, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-444223

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of humanistic care on primiparas' role competency during pregnancy and delivery.Methods Data of 21 cases were collected using semi-structured interviews and phenomenological qualitative method was used to analyze the data.Results The effects of humanistic care on maternal role competency during pregnancy included:to participate in related curriculum,to get ready for delivery actively.The effects of humanistic care on maternal role competency during delivery included:nurses' carefulness gave psychological support,nurses' instruction gave professional support,nurses' encouragement gave spiritual power,nurses' support enhanced belief,successful delivery experience gave.satisfaction.Conclusions Humanistic nursing is helpful to improve delivery experience,to increase maternal satisfaction and confidence,to promote matemal role competency and harmonious relationship between mothers and nurses.

8.
Clinical Medicine of China ; (12): 1329-1331, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-439812

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPS) on gastrointestinal bleeding after portal hypertension and portal vein wide embolism.Methods Three patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding were diagnosed by CT with wide embolus formation in portal vein and superior mesenteric vein,of which,1 case was with spleen vein embolism formation.TIPS hemostatic treatment was applied to stop bleeding,and stents was placed where distal embolus can be observed by angiography.Results After TIPS treatment,no patients were re-bleeding during following-up periods (4-6 weeks).Uncomfortable symptoms of 3 cases were disappeared.Conclusion TIPS was a safe and effective way to treat gastrointestinal bleeding caused by portal hypertension and wide embolus formation.

9.
China Medical Equipment ; (12): 19-21, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-439735

ABSTRACT

Objective:To give the test in cases of changing the conditions of measurement and reference value, compare the test results, and detect the capacity of QuickCheck, so as to offer reference for the daily morning check of accelerator and the evaluation of test results. Methods:Change the output dose, field size, SSD, angle of collimator and gantry angle of the accelerator, and then evaluate QuickCheck’s capacity of monitoring accelerator accordingly. Compare the field parameters measured by QuickCheck with the data from the 3D water tank. Results:When the output dose was 1 cGy higher than the reference value or 6 cGy lower than it, the field size expanded or contracted more than 2 cm simutaneouly, SSD was 2 cm higher or 1 cm lower than reference value, the collimator rotated more than 2 °, the gantry angle rotated more than 6 °, and then the test results of QuickCheck surpassed threshold. Comparing the measuring results of QuickCheck with 3D water tank, the difference between the flatness of the two was 3.84%, symmetry (G/T) 0.67%, symmetry (L/R) 0.47%and dose rate 1.2 MU/min. Conclusion:QuickCheck is rather accurate in testing the output dose, field size, angle of collimator, flatness, symmetry and dose rate, so it could meet the requirement of accelerator’s daily QA. However, its capability is relatively poor on examining SSD and the deviation of gantry angle.

10.
Chinese Journal of Radiation Oncology ; (6): 58-60, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-432132

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the factors influencing fiducial number used for tracking abdominal tumor with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT),which was implemented by CyberKnife.Methods 254 abdominal tumor patients chosen which adopted fiducial tracking and classified the fiducials.We gathered data of the patients with < 3 fiducials used for tracking and patients with ≥ 3 fiducials respectively,and analyzed the reason why < 3 fiducials were left for tracking.Results Among 254 patients,22 patients were showed that the number of fiducial implantation were equal to play number of fiducial;232 patients with no equation which 49 patients (21.1%) used < 3 fiducials for tracking,183 patients (78.9%) used ≥3 fiducials for tracking.Among the 49 patients with <3 fiducials for tracking,9 patients had fiducials migrated,1 patient had an unrecognizable fiducial,23 patients had the implantation not qualified for tracking,and 16 patients had the rigid error surpassing the threshold.Conclusions 78.9% patients were implanted ≥ 3 fiducials and thus qualified for fiducial tracking.Major reasons of disqualification include insufficient implanted fiducials,unqualified implantation and rigid error surpassing the threshold.

11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 377-380, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274339

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a HPLC-DAD method for determining concentrations of betulic acid and phenol red in intestinal circulation liquid, and probe into the absorption kinetic characteristics of betulic acid at different intestine segments in rats and the effect of different drug concentrations on absorption.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The rat intestinal absorption model was established to detect the impact of absorption site, drug concentration and pH value on drug absorption.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Within the range from 75-125 mg x L(-1), the absorption rate and the quality concentration of betulic acid had a linear relation, with Ka value keeping unchanged. The absorption rate for each intestinal segment showed no remarkable difference, with Ka values in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon being (0.151 +/- 0.0049), (0.159 +/- 0.0056), (0.156 +/- 6.0083), (0.149 +/- 0.0041) h(-1), respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Betulic acid is proved to be well absorbed in intestines marked by no specific absorption site in the intestine. The absorption mechanism of the drug conforms to passive transport mechanism and first-order kinetics. The bioavailability of betulic acid preparation can be increased by enhancing the dissolution rate and the solubility.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-HIV Agents , Pharmacokinetics , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Intestinal Absorption , Intestines , Metabolism , Kinetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Triterpenes , Pharmacokinetics
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1156-60, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-414988

ABSTRACT

Random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP) markers were used to access the genetic diversity among 112 samples of nine populations of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo. Using 16 informative primers, 123 bands were amplified and 86 (69.92%) were polymorphic. The polymorphic bands from three to eight could be detected for each RAMP primer, with a mean of 5, indicating abundant genetic diversity among populations. Genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0.250 to 0.813. UPGMA dendrogram illustrated 9 populations clustered into 3 groups, and the cluster pattern showed correlation with the locations of the D. officinale populations. These results were supported by the previous conclusions that were achieved by other molecular markers, and RAMP is proved to be effective for evaluating the genetic diversity of wild populations of Dendrobium officinale.

13.
International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (6): 178-179, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-390292

ABSTRACT

The paper reviewed clinical reports on the treatment of hypermenorrhea, menostaxis, and uterine bleeding with Ancong Decoction and modified Ancong Decoction. Although there were few reports concerned with clinical usage, Ancong Decoction has sound therapeutic effects, with more than 90% effective rate.

14.
Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (12)2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-579970

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of Shuanghuanglian injection parafornix-injecting in treating uterine tube obstruct (UTO) and explore its mechanism. Methods Clinic study included 386 uterine tubes of 200 patients, which were randomly divided into treatment group (50 cases, treated with Shuanghuanglian injection parafornix-injecting) and three control groups - group one (50 cases, treated with Lincocin vial parafornix-injecting), group two (50 cases, treated with hydrotubation) and group three (50 cases, treated with transvaginal catheter dilation). The changes of UTO condition and blood rheology, IL-2, IgA, IgG and IgM were observed before and after treatment. Results The total effective rate of Shuanghuanglian injection in treating UTO was 97.76%. It was characterized by regulating the blood stasis and hyperviscosity, improving the immune function of human body. Conclusions Shuanghuanglian injection parafornix-injecting has obvious therapeutic effect on UTO. The effect may be related with rectifying the body pyrotoxin and blood stasis, improving pelvic blood circulation and immune function.

15.
Chinese Journal of Neuroanatomy ; (6): 360-364, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-409906

ABSTRACT

The effects of hypoxia on the expression of Fos was studied in the distal cerebrospinal fluid contacting neurons (CSF-CNs) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) of the rat. The hypoxic models mimic 8000 m high level were established in a high-altitude decompression chamber. Injecting the tracer of CB ( chorela toxin B subunit) into the rat's lateral ventricles, we investigated the distribution of the distal CSF-CNs in the DR. The single and double immunohistochemistry staining with antibodies to Fos and CB were used to observe the expression of Fos in the distal CSF-CNs in the DR. The results showed that a large number of CB-like immunoreactive (-LI) neurons (31.16 ±3.36/per section) were located in the DR. In hypoxic experimental rats, the number of Fos-LI neurons was increased sharply (40.28 ±2.17/per section, P <0.05 compared to control rats), and a few CB/Fos-LI neurons (2.00 ±0.39/per section) could be observed in the DR. In control rats, several Fos-LI neurons (5.55 ±0.81/per section) and no CB/Fos-LI neuron could be observed in the DR. These results suggest that some of the distal CSF-CNs in the DR may play roles in transmitting information between brain and cerebrospinal fluid and modulating the function of brain following hypoxic stimulation.

16.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6)2002.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-570769

ABSTRACT

Objective Modified the medium that can increase single\|clone formed rate and confirmed the single clone spheres had the multipotential of differentation. Methods We modified the medium, that is, the medium contained half of primary culture medium and half of fresh culture medium. A great deal of neurospheres dervied from a single cell were plated averagely into 24 well plates and added into the DMEM differentiation medium (containing serum). After culturing for 14 days, cultures were stained with the neuronal\| ang glial\|specific markers (MAP\|2 for neurons, GFAP for astrocytes and CNP for oligodendrocytes). Results Each 96 well plate containing half of primary culture medium generated two to three single clone spheres, in control plate containing only fresh medium generated half to one single clone sphere. After differentiation, these cell clones expressed MAP\|2, GFAP and CNP positive respectively.Conclusion\ Using half of primary culture medium can increase single\|clone formed rate and these cell clones had the multipotential of differentiation.\;[

17.
Journal of Practical Radiology ; (12)2000.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-540742

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of the combination interventional oviduct recanalization with traditional chinese medicine for infertile women with oviduct obstruction.Methods 38 cases with 76 oviduct obstruction were treated with FTC-900 oviduct recanalization apparatus guided with DSA,the apparatus was supplied by COOK company,before recanalization,assisted with side fornix vaginae and enema with traditional chinese medicine.Results Of 76 obstructive oviduct,71 oviduct were recanalization,the successful rates of recanalization were 93.4%;Of 38 infertile women ,25 cases become pregnant,the pregnant rates were 67.3%;Of 13 unsuccessful cases,8 cases turn out re-obstructived.Conclusion Combination interventional oviduct recanalization with traditional chinese medicine for infertile women with oviduct is a simple,safe,and more effective method,it has a high successful rates than either method solely,should be spreaded.

18.
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (12)1993.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-533571

ABSTRACT

0.05). In the improvement of irregular menstruation, lumbosacral discomfort and morbid leucorrhea, the effect of the treatment group was significantly superior to that of the control group (P0.05). The hemodynamic indices of uterine arteries in the treatment group was significantly improved after treatment (P

19.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6)1957.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-571312

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of ginkgolide B on inducing neural stem cells differentiating into neurons. Methods A great deal of single cell clone neurospheres raised from single cell and proliferated by the technology of serum\|free culture and single cell clone.Suspensions of cell clone neurospheres were plated equably into 24 well plates and added into the 10% FBS differentiation medium containing ginkgolide B,BDNF or without any factor.Cultures were terminated at 7 and 14 days respectively.MAP\|2,neuron\|specific marker,were used to mark neurons by immunofluorescence.MAP\|2 positive neurons were observed and counted by fluorescence microscope.The area and perimeter of these positive neurons were analyzed. Results The number of MAP\|2 positive neurons in ginkgolide B group is more than that in the control group in two periods.The area and perimeter of MAP\|2 positive neurons in ginkgolide B group were markedly larger than those in the control group at 7 and 14 days after cultured,but it's less than those in the BDNF group.Conclusion\ Neural stem cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons by ginkgolide B which has the similar role to BDNF.\;[

20.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6)1955.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-568460

ABSTRACT

1. Microsurgical relationships of the arteries at the base of the brain and the trigeminal nerve were studied bilaterally on 30 brains. Twenty seven trigeminal nerves made contact with the arteries 33 times which represents 55 percent of the cases. Six of 27 trigeminal nerves had double contact.2. Of 33 arteries in contact with 27 nerves, seventeen involved the superior cerebellar arteries (SCA) (28.33?5.82%), seven the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA) (11.67?4.15%) and nine the middle inferior cerebellar arteries (MICA) (15.0?4.61%).3. The outer diameter of the superior cerebellar artery is the largest averaging 1.41?0.20 mm; the anterior inferior cerebellar artery comes next averaging 1.06?0.36 mm and the middle inferior cerebellar artery the smallest, averaging 0.62?0.14 mm.4. 27 trigeminal arteries arising from the upper or middle segement of the basal artery were found on the ventral surface of the trigeminal nerves in 17 brains, and 16 trigeminal branches arising from the AICA. MICA. and PICA were also found at the roots of 16 trigeminal nerves. Anastomoses were noted between the trigeminal arteries and the trigeminal branches in four cases of 16 trigeminal nerves.5. The association between the neurovascular contact and the trigeminal neuralgia are discussed. It is suggested that the neurovascular contact either from dorsal or ventral aspects may be the anatomical cause of the trigeminal neuralgia.6. The neurovascular contact of the trigeminal nerve with the SCA was usually on the dorsal or dorsalmedial aspect of the nerve, but the point of contact with AICA or MICA was mainly on the ventral aspect of the nerve. Besides, there are trigeminal arteries and trigeminal branches at the ventral surface of the nerve. All these topographic observations provide microsurgical information for neurosugeons.

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