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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-616300

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the global economic burden of diseases due to needle stick injuries(NSIs), obtain relevant evidence,and prompt the relevant departments to pay attention to the precaution of NSIs.Methods Literatures about NSIs published from 1990 to May 2016 were searched from PubMed,ScienceDirect,EBSCO-host,Cochrane,CNKI,and Wanfang database.According to world bank inflation rate and currency rate in 2015, cost of needle stick injury in each study was adjusted to US dollars in December 2015,merge comparison analysis was performed.Results A total of 7 literatures were included,3 American studies and 4 studies from Sweden,Ko-rea,Belgium,and Taiwan Region of China respectively.Studies in mainland China only focused on the incidence of NSIs,studies about cost were not found.Two studies did not identify studied population,the remaining 5 studies were about all staff in the medical institutions.Cost analysis method:Of 7 literatures,3 were first-hand data analy-sis,4 were derived from the model.Scope of cost research:4 studies estimated the direct cost,2 calculated direct and indirect cost respectively,only 1 study estimated the summation of direct and indirect cost.The total cost per inj ury (direct cost + indirect cost)was $747-$2173,direct and indirect cost were $167-$617 and $322-$455 respectively.Conclusion Global economic burden of NSIs is heavy and still undervalued;NSIs occur frequently in China,but attention is inadequate,research on economic burden is lacking,relevant departments should pay atten-tion to the prevention and follow-up treatment process of NSIs.

2.
Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 607-610,611, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-601460

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of taurine transporter in the process of protection of brain edema in rats with severe traumatic head injury. Methods A total of 24 Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Except the control rats (Group Sham), all other three groups were subjected to lateral fluid percussion head injury. The TBI (Traumatic brain injury) models (Group TBI) and surgical control rats (Group Sham) were injected with saline through caudal vein after surgery, while the Taurine prevention and Taurine treatment models (Group Pre Tau and Group Tau) were injected with 120 g/L taurine solution before or after surgeries respectively. Water content in each brain, mRNA and protein expres?sion of aquaporin 4 and taurine transporter in the injured rat brain hemispheres were all evaluated over the time course of the study (7 d) in each group. Results Compared with rats in Group Sham, water content in each brain increase, mRNA tran?scription and protein expression of AQP4 were both up regulated but the mRNA transcription and protein expression of TauT were both down-regulated in rats in TBI group. Compared with rats in TBI group, brain water content, mRNA transcription and protein expression of AQP4 all decrease while mRNA transcription and protein expression of TauT all increase in rats in Pre tau and Tau groups. There is no statistical difference of TauT expression between rats in pre-tau group and Tau group. Conclusion Taurine exert its neuron protection role through draining water content from brain and down regulating expres?sion of AQP4 but rising expression of TauT after TBI.

3.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 254-258, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-466089

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate effect of taurine on respiration chain enzyme activity of mitochondria 24 hours after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats.Methods Fifty-six SD rats were divided into sham group,TBI group,taurine treatment group,and taurine prevention group according to the random number table,with 14 rats per group.Fluid percussion brain injury models were used.Via the caudal vein,normal saline was administered to animals in sham and traumatic brain injury groups immediately after injury,while taurine (200 mg/kg)was administered to animals in taurine treatment group after injury and in taurine prevention group 4 days before injury.Brains were harvested 24 hours postinjury for assays of HE staining and electron microscopy.Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex Ⅰ-Ⅴ activities were detected.Results TBI group presented swelling neurocytes,cell loss,karyopyknosis,shortened even vanished process,and inflammation cell infiltration at the edge of necrosis in HE staining.By contrast,morphological improvement was significant in taurine treatment group but only some neurons were intact in taurine prevention group.Swelling mitochondria and broken or vanished mitochondrial crests were seen in TBI group under the electron microscope.However,normal or minor swelling mitochondria was seen in taurine treatment group and cytoplasm slightly porous and absence of mitochondrial crests were seen in taurine prevention group.Activities of complex Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅴ were significant lower in TBI group (32.52±2.41,4.68 ±0.15,2.49 ±0.73) compared to those in sham group (34.03 ±0.46,5.04 ±0.29,3.20±0.68) and in taurine treatment group (33.95±0.85,5.12-±0.23,3.53 ±0.48) (P<0.05).And complex Ⅰ in taurine prevention group was significantly enhanced as well (34.44 ± 0.36,P < 0.05).Conclusion Taurine may protect the brain tissues and mitochondrial structure from impairment in TBI rats by improving mitochondrial enzymes activity and reducing secondary energy loss.

4.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 356-360, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-448002

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of mild hypothermia on neuroprotection and prognosis prediction of rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI) by dynamically monitoring the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG).Methods Forty healthy adult male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups according to random number table,ie,normal control group (with no intervention),sham operation group (fenestration only,without drilling),TBI group (fluid percussion was used to produce moderate to severe TBI),and mild hypothemia group (ice blanket was used immediately after TBI for continuous physical cooling and rectal temperature was maintained at 32-35℃ and rewarmed to 37℃ 6 hours after the initiation of cooling),with 10 rats per group.Changes of SEP and QEEG in all groups were monitored at 6,24 hours,and 7 days after TBI.Results (1) Compared with TBI group,the latency of SEP waves (P1 and N1) on the injured side in mild hypothemia group began to shorten at 24 hours(P < 0.05) and were close to that in the sham operation group at 7 days.(2) Except for normal control group and sham operation group,QEEG in TBI group showed decrease of α rhythm,increase of reactivity slow waves,and decrease or disappearance of QEEG relative power spectral values at all time points.In mild hypothermia group,the reactivity slow waves were decreased with a small amount of α wave; QEEG relative power spectral values were increased at 24 hours and 7 days (especially at 24 hours),but werc still lower than those in normal control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion Mild hypothermia exerts neuroprotective effect through reducing SEP latency,raising relative power spectral values of QEEG,and improving the nerve conduction and brain electrical activity of the injured side.

5.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 1236-1239, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-469525

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate effect of mild hypothermia on changes of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and synaptophysin mRNA level after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and determine hypothermia-induced neuroprotection.Methods Forty-five SD rats were allocated into mild hypothermia group,TBI group and sham operation group with 15 rats per group according to the random number table.Left-side fluid percussion impact was performed to induce models of TBI.Rats were exposed to hypothermia environment (32-35℃) for 6 hours in mild hypothermia group after TBI.Rats in sham operation group were treated by only drilling on left side of the head,rather than hitting.To evaluate function outcome,modified neurological severity score (mNSS),SEP and synaptophysin mRNA level were measured at 6 hours,24 hours and 7 days postinjury.Results The mNSS in mild hypothermia group lowered compared with TBI group,especially at 24 hours and 7 days (P < 0.05).SEP in mild hypothermia group was significantly shortened at 6 and 24 hours compared with TBI group (P < 0.05),but SEP revealed no significant difference among the 3 groups at 7 days (P > 0.05).Level of synaptophysin mRNA in mild hypothermia group increased at 6 hours postinjury compared with TBI group [(0.08 ± 0.02) vs (0.12 ±0.04)],with further increase at 7 days postinjury[(0.06 ± 0.01) vs (0.33 ± 0.10)] (P <0.05).Conclusion The shortage of nerve conduction time of the injured side and promotion of nerve regeneration suggest the neuroprotective role of mild hypothermia following TBI.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73177

ABSTRACT

The extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) has been known to play a key regulatory role in pathological angiogenesis. A elevated activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) following radiation injury has been shown to mediate blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. However, the roles of EMMPRIN and VEGF in radiation-induced brain injury after gamma knife surgery (GKS) are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated EMMPRIN changes in a rat model of radiation injury following GKS and examined potential associations between EMMPRIN and VEGF expression. Adult male rats were subjected to cerebral radiation injury by GKS under anesthesia. We found that EMMPRIN and VEGF expression were markedly upregulated in the target area at 8-12 weeks after GKS compared with the control group by western blot, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR analysis. Immunofluorescent double staining demonstrated that EMMPRIN signals colocalized with caspase-3 and VEGF-positive cells. Our data also demonstrated that increased EMMPRIN expression was correlated with increased VEGF levels in a temporal manner. This is the first study to show that EMMPRIN and VEGF may play a role in radiation injuries of the central nervous system after GKS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Basigin/metabolism , Brain/blood supply , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Gamma Rays/adverse effects , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Parietal Lobe/metabolism , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/metabolism , Radiosurgery/adverse effects , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 834-838, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-421722

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the curative effect of neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation combined with monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GMi) in treatment of acute spinal cord injury in rats.MethodsCompressive spinal cord injury model at T8 segment was established in the adult SD rats that were then randomly divided into three groups, ie, control group, NSCs transplantation group and NSCs + GM1 group.Continuous observation was performed at 1,2, 4 and 8 weeks.Functional neurological recovery of the injured spinal cord was evaluated with motor function scale, pathology, transmission electron microscopy and somatosensory evoked potential (SEP).ResultsThe motor function of the lower extremities was recovered at different degrees in three groups.While the motor function recovery level of the animals and the positive staining cells of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the NSCs + GM1 group were higher than those in the other two groups at 4 and 8 weeks (P < 0.01).Compared with control group and NSCs group, focal necrosis and small vessel regeneration were observed only in the center of the injured segment in the NSCs + GM1 group at 8 weeks.Electron microscope scan showed edema under the membrane of the large myelin sheath in the control group, much intact myelin sheath, well-differentiated neurons and many kinds of synapse vesicles in the NSCs + GM1 group.The latent period of SEP was shortened markedly in the NSCs + GM1 group two weeks after transplantation (P <0.05).The latent period shortening was apparent in the NSCs group at 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation but was still longer than that in the control group.ConclusionsTransplantation of neural stem cells combined with use of GM1 can protect the nervous tissues after spinal cord injury, when GM1 reconstructs the spinal cord through promoting differentiation of the transplanted stem cells and linking with the host cells.

8.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 245-248, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-414225

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effect of tacrolimus(FK506)in promoting repair of the injured spinal cord pathway after neural stem cell transplantation in rats. Methods A neurysm clip was used to compress the T8 spinal cord segment of SD rats under microscope to establish model of spinal cord injury.The rats were randomly divided into three groups seven days after injury,ie,control group (injection of normal saline at the injury center),transplantation group(injection of neural stem cells,NSCs,at the injury center),FK506 group(injection of NSCs at the injury center plus 7 days of intrapernerve conduction was compared by using the Basso-Beatfle-Bresnahan (BBB) scale,BDA tracing,somatosensory evoked potential(SEP)and motor evoked potentials(MEP)monitoring at 1,2,4 and 8weeks. Results The motor function of the hind limb after injury was recovered in various degrees with time,with the most significant recovery at 4 weeks.The BBB score reached 6,the maximum at 8 weeks.BDA tracing showed that some nerve fibers were found crossing the injured center of the spinal cord one week later in FK506 group and cell transplantation group,that BDA-positive labeled corticospinal tract fibets were seen across the injury site in all groups by the end ofthe eight weeks.In the FKS06 group,the regeneration could be observed even as 1.7 cm away from tlle injury center.SEP latency was significantly shorter in the FK506 group after two weeks(P<0.05)and the MEP latency in the FK506 group was shortened significantly at four weeks compared with the other groups(P<0.05),indicating that the immunosuppressants could promote the recovery of the injured spihal cord,shorten the latency of SEP and MEP,improve SEP at early stage and MEP at late stage.Conclusions Systemic application immuno suppressive agents FK506 plays an important role in neuroprotection and neurotrophy,which promotes the repair of the injured spinal cord after neural stem cell transplantation.

9.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 206-209, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-414083

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the expressions of erythmpoietin(EPO)and its receptors(EPOR)in the injured brain tissue ofthe rats with traumatic brain injury(TBI).Methods A total of78 SD rats were randomly divided into three groups including control group(six rats),sham group(36rats) and fluid percussion injury group(36 rats).The rats were sacrificed at 6,24 hours,3,5,7 and 14days after TBI in the sham group and the fluid percussion injury group(six rats at each time point).Then,the injured brain tissues were removed for observation of the mRNA and protein expressions of EPO and EPOR by meaDiB of real-time PCR and Western blot. Results The expression of EPO was increased at 24 hours and reached the peak at day 3 after TBI.The hish expression level of EPO could maintain for two days or so.began to decrease at day 7 and recovered to normal at day 14 after Till.While the expression of EPOR reached the peak at 24 hours after TBI and maintained hish level at day14. Conclusions The expressions of EPO and EPOR show increase within 24 hours after TBI.In fact,the expressions of both factors are not in consistency,with more transient expression of EPO.

10.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 350-354, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-400722

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effect of hypothermia on cerebral mitochondrial respiratory function and ultrastructure after traumatic brain injury(TBI). Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to moderate brain injury by using lateral fluid-percussion(LFP)and randomly divided into sham operation group,normothermic TBI group(rectal temperature for 36-37℃)and hypothermic TBI group(rectal temperature for 31-32℃ lasting for two hours).The ipsilateral brains were dissected and homogenized brain tissues were extracted to obtain mitochondfia by density-centrifugation and speed-centrifugation at 2,24 hours and at days 3 and 7 after TBI.The mitochondrial uhrastructure was studied by electron microscope.The indices of respiratory control rate(RCR)and P/O ratio of mitochondrial respiratory function were measured after oxygen consumption was determined with a Clark-type electrode.Results The mitochondrial uhrastructure of normothermic TBI group was damaged severely while that of hypothermic TBI group kept relatively integrated.The RCR and P/O ratio were markedly decreased two hours after TBI and reached the lowest level at the 24th hour(P<0.01).At day 7,RCR kept at a lower level compared with sham operation group but P/O ratio recovered to normal.Change of RCR was similar in hypothermie TBI group and normothermic TBI group.However,RCR of the hypothermic TBI group was significantly higher than that of the normothermic TBI group within three days after TBI.In the meantime,P/O ratio recovered to normal three days after TBI. Conclusion Hypothermia can improve cerebral mitochondrial respiratory function and protect the mitochondrial structure after TBI.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-558083

ABSTRACT

There are a lot of reports about the neuroprotection of mild hypothermia in the acute phase brain injury of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. There are many mechanisms of brain damage involving in the development of brain damage in the acute phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Mild hypothermia can protect against various brain damages in the early stage of cerebral infarction. It may play a role in brain protection when it is used in the acute phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-531601

ABSTRACT

As the change of medicine mode,measuring approaches of patient satisfaction have been widely focused on and become an important tool to improve the quality of medical service.This paper is aimed to analyze the latest development of patient satisfaction questionnaires including relevant content and methods by literature review.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-565066

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the changes of intracellular calcium in primary cultured neurons after fluid percussion injury under the effects of cerebrolysin.Methods The neurons of rats were divided into: normal group,FPI group and cerebrolysin group(0 h and 1 h treatment after fluid percussion injury(FPI)).The intracellular calcium([Ca2+]i) at rats neurons in 24 h and 48 h postinjury were measured by using the laser scanning confocal microscope under calcium fluorescent indicator Fluo-3/AM.Results The [Ca2+]i at rats neurons were markedly increased after 24 h postinjury compared with normal neurons and maintained the higher level after 48 h.Cerebrolysin,whenever added at 0h or 1h after FBI,could significantly decrease the rise of [Ca2+]i on 24 h postinjury,which only happened in 48 h postinjury by 1 h treatment after FPI.Conclusion Cerebrolysin has the protective effects on primary cultured rat cortical neurons of rats and has the time-window treatment.

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