Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 22
Filter
Add filters








Year range
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915541

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the clinical findings of choroideremia patients and perform genetic analysis by whole-exome sequencing (WES). @*Methods@#A total of 94 patients initially diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) at another hospital, and who visited our hospital for genetic analysis by WES, were included in the study, along with 64 family members. All subjects underwent comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation, including best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp examination, fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FAG), visual field (VF), electroretinogram (ERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). @*Results@#In six male patients with suspected choroideremia, extensive retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and severe loss of choroid were observed in the fundus, but not in the macula. CHM gene mutation was confirmed in five patients. A novel single nucleotide variant at a splice site was observed in one patient. OCT showed marked thinning of the outernuclear layer and choroid, except in the macula. FAF showed a small area of hyperfluorescence in the posterior pole. In addition, characteristic interlaminar bridges were observed in four patients. On FAG, hypofluorescence was seen up to the far-peripheral retina in five patients. @*Conclusion@#Of the 94 patients initially diagnosed with RP, CHM mutation was identified in five (5.3%) by WES. Choroideremia should be considered as a differential diagnosis of RP.WES would be useful for identifying the causes of hereditary retinal disease.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895978

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) is a major regulator of Wnt signaling, which is involved in fibroblast dysfunction. Because its role has not been evaluated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), we examined the clinical implications of ROR2 expression. @*Methods@#ROR2 mRNA expression was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in lung tissue-derived fibroblasts from IPF patients (n = 14) and from controls (n = 10). ROR2 protein was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in primary fibroblasts from IPF patients (n = 14) and controls (n = 10), and in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids obtained from normal controls (NC; n = 30). IPF patients (n = 84), and other patients with interstitial lung diseases, including nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP; n = 10), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP; n = 10), and sarcoidosis (n = 10). @*Results@#ROR2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in IPF fibroblasts than in controls (p = 0.003, p = 0.0017, respectively). ROR2 protein levels in BAL fluids from patients with IPF were significantly higher than in those from NC (p < 0.001), and from patients with NSIP (p = 0.006), HP (p = 0.004), or sarcoidosis (p = 0.004). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed a clear difference between IPF and NC in ROR2 protein level (area under the curve, 0.890; confidence interval, 0.829 to 0.950; p < 0.001). ROR2 protein levels were significantly higher in GAP stage III than in GAP stages I and II (p = 0.016). @*Conclusions@#ROR2 may be related to the development of IPF, and its protein level may be a useful and severity-dependent candidate marker for IPF.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903682

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) is a major regulator of Wnt signaling, which is involved in fibroblast dysfunction. Because its role has not been evaluated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), we examined the clinical implications of ROR2 expression. @*Methods@#ROR2 mRNA expression was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in lung tissue-derived fibroblasts from IPF patients (n = 14) and from controls (n = 10). ROR2 protein was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in primary fibroblasts from IPF patients (n = 14) and controls (n = 10), and in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids obtained from normal controls (NC; n = 30). IPF patients (n = 84), and other patients with interstitial lung diseases, including nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP; n = 10), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP; n = 10), and sarcoidosis (n = 10). @*Results@#ROR2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in IPF fibroblasts than in controls (p = 0.003, p = 0.0017, respectively). ROR2 protein levels in BAL fluids from patients with IPF were significantly higher than in those from NC (p < 0.001), and from patients with NSIP (p = 0.006), HP (p = 0.004), or sarcoidosis (p = 0.004). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed a clear difference between IPF and NC in ROR2 protein level (area under the curve, 0.890; confidence interval, 0.829 to 0.950; p < 0.001). ROR2 protein levels were significantly higher in GAP stage III than in GAP stages I and II (p = 0.016). @*Conclusions@#ROR2 may be related to the development of IPF, and its protein level may be a useful and severity-dependent candidate marker for IPF.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896444

ABSTRACT

For the past three decades, more than a thousand of genetic studies have been performed to find out the genetic variants responsible for the risk of asthma. Until now, all of the discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms have explained genetic effects less than initially expected. Thus, clarification of environmental factors has been brought up to overcome the ‘missing’ heritability. The most exciting solution is epigenesis because it intervenes at the junction between the genome and the environment. Epigenesis is an alteration of genetic expression without changes of DNA sequence caused by environmental factors such as nutrients, allergens, cigarette smoke, air pollutants, use of drugs and infectious agents during pre- and post-natal periods and even in adulthood. Three major forms of epigenesis are composed of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and specific microRNA. Recently, several studies have been published on epigenesis in asthma and allergy as a powerful tool for research of genetic heritability in asthma albeit epigenetic changes are at the starting point to obtain the data on specific phenotypes of asthma. In this presentation, we mainly review the potential role of DNA CpG methylation in the risk of asthma and its sub-phenotypes including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory exacerbated respiratory diseases.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811069

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Different characteristics of airway microbiome in asthmatics may lead to differential immune responses, which in turn cause eosinophilic or neutrophilic airway inflammation. However, the relationships among these factors have yet to be fully elucidated.METHODS: Microbes in induced sputum samples were subjected to sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. Airway inflammatory phenotypes were defined as neutrophils (>60%) and eosinophils (>3%), and inflammation endotypes were defined by levels of T helper (Th) 1 (interferon-γ), Th2 (interleukin [IL]-5 and IL-13), Th-17 (IL-17), and innate Th2 (IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) cytokines, inflammasomes (IL-1β), epithelial activation markers (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-8), and Inflammation (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines in sputum supernatants was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: The numbers of operational taxonomic units were significantly higher in the mixed (n = 21) and neutrophilic (n = 23) inflammation groups than in the paucigranulocytic inflammation group (n = 19; p < 0.05). At the species level, Granulicatella adiacens, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Veillonella rogosae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Neisseria perflava levels were significantly higher in the eosinophilic inflammation group (n = 20), whereas JYGU_s levels were significantly higher in the neutrophilic inflammation group compared to the other subtypes (P < 0.05). Additionally, IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations were correlated with the percentage of eosinophils (P < 0.05) and IL-13 levels were positively correlated with the read counts of Porphyromonas pasteri and V. rogosae (P < 0.05). IL-1β concentrations were correlated with the percentage of neutrophils (P < 0.05). had a tendency to be positively correlated with the read count of JYGU_s (P = 0.095), and was negatively correlated with that of S. pneumoniae (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Difference of microbial patterns in airways may induce distinctive endotypes of asthma, which is responsible for the neutrophilic or eosinophilic inflammation in asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Colony-Stimulating Factors , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Haemophilus parainfluenzae , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-5 , Microbiota , Necrosis , Neisseria , Neutrophils , Phenotype , Pneumonia , Porphyromonas , Sequence Analysis , Sputum , Streptococcus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Veillonella
6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831541

ABSTRACT

Background@#Exposure to ozone (O3) induces neutrophilic inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia in humans and experimental animals. Because the solute carrier family 26-member 4 (Slc26a4; pendrin) gene induces mucin production and intraluminal acidification in the airways, it was hypothesized to be a key molecule in O3-induced airway injury. Thus, we evaluated the role of Slc26a4 and the protective effects of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in O3 -induced airway injury in mice. @*Methods@#Six-week-old female BALB/c mice were exposed to filtered air or O3 for 21 days (2 ppm for 3 hr/day). NH4Cl (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mM) was administered intratracheally into the airways. Airway resistance was measured using a flexiVent system, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells were differentially counted. Slc26a4 and Muc5ac proteins and mRNA were measured via western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunostaining. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-17, IL-1β, and caspase-1 were analyzed via western blotting. @*Results@#The levels Slc26a4 protein and mRNA significantly increased in lung tissues from Day 7 to Day 21 of O3exposure, with concomitant increases in lung resistance, numbers of goblet cells in lung tissues, and inflammatory cells and thiocyanate (SCN− ) levels in BALF in a time-dependent manner. Treatment with NH4Cl significantly reduced these changes to levels similar to those of sham-treated mice, with a concomitant reduction of Slc26a4 proteins in lung lysates and SCN − levels in BALF. Slc26a4 protein was co-expressed with muc5ac protein in the bronchial epithelium, as indicated by immunofluorescence staining. NH4 Cl treatment also significantly attenuated the O3 -induced increases in IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-1β, and p20-activated caspase-1. @*Conclusion@#Slc26a4 may be involved in O3 -induced inflammatory and epithelial changes in the airways via activation of the inflammasome and the induction of IL-17 and IFN-γ. NH4 Cl shows a potential as a therapeutic agent for controlling O3 -induced airway inflammation and epithelial damage by modulating Slc26a4 expression.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904148

ABSTRACT

For the past three decades, more than a thousand of genetic studies have been performed to find out the genetic variants responsible for the risk of asthma. Until now, all of the discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms have explained genetic effects less than initially expected. Thus, clarification of environmental factors has been brought up to overcome the ‘missing’ heritability. The most exciting solution is epigenesis because it intervenes at the junction between the genome and the environment. Epigenesis is an alteration of genetic expression without changes of DNA sequence caused by environmental factors such as nutrients, allergens, cigarette smoke, air pollutants, use of drugs and infectious agents during pre- and post-natal periods and even in adulthood. Three major forms of epigenesis are composed of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and specific microRNA. Recently, several studies have been published on epigenesis in asthma and allergy as a powerful tool for research of genetic heritability in asthma albeit epigenetic changes are at the starting point to obtain the data on specific phenotypes of asthma. In this presentation, we mainly review the potential role of DNA CpG methylation in the risk of asthma and its sub-phenotypes including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory exacerbated respiratory diseases.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762171

ABSTRACT

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) has attracted a great deal of attention because of its association with severe asthma. However, it remains widely underdiagnosed in asthmatics as well as the general population. Upon pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase 1 by NSAIDs, production of anti-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 and lipoxins ceases, while release of proinflammatory cysteinyl leukotrienes increases. To determine the underlying mechanisms, many studies have attempted to elucidate the genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, responsible for alterations of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, but the results of these genetic studies could not explain the whole genetic pathogenesis of NERD. Accordingly, the field of epigenetics has been introduced as an additional contributor to genomic alteration underlying the development of NERD. Recently, changes in CpG methylation, as one of the epigenetic components, have been identified in target tissues of NERD. This review discusses in silico analyses of both genetic and epigenetic components to gain a better understanding of their complementary roles in the development of NERD. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying NERD pathogenesis remain poorly understood, genetic and epigenetic variations play significant roles. Our results enhance the understanding of the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the development of NERD and suggest new approaches toward better diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Asthma , Computer Simulation , Cyclooxygenase 1 , Diagnosis , Dinoprostone , Epigenomics , Genetics , Leukotrienes , Lipoxins , Methylation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Prostaglandins
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719693

ABSTRACT

For the past three decades, a large number of genetic studies have been performed to examine genetic variants associated with asthma and its subtypes in hopes of gaining better understanding of the mechanisms underlying disease pathology and to identify genetic biomarkers predictive of disease outcomes. Various methods have been used to achieve these objectives, including linkage analysis, candidate gene polymorphism analysis, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS); however, the degree to which genetic variants contribute to asthma pathogenesis has proven to be much less significant than originally expected. Subsequent application of GWAS to well-defined phenotypes, such as occupational asthma and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugexacerbated respiratory diseases, has overcome some of these limitations, although with only partial success. Recently, a combinatorial analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by GWAS has been used to develop sets of genetic markers able to more accurately stratify asthma subtypes. In this review, we discuss the implications of the identified SNPs in diagnosis of asthma and its subtypes and the progress being made in combinatorial analysis of genetic variants.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Aspirin , Asthma , Asthma, Occupational , Biomarkers , Diagnosis , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Markers , Genetic Techniques , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hope , Pathology , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718134

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that responds to medications to varying degrees. Cluster analyses have identified several phenotypes and variables related to fixed airway obstruction; however, few longitudinal studies of lung function have been performed on adult asthmatics. We investigated clinical, demographic, and inflammatory factors related to persistent airflow limitation based on lung function trajectories over 1 year. METHODS: Serial post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume (FEV) 1% values were obtained from 1,679 asthmatics who were followed up every 3 months for 1 year. First, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using Ward's method to generate a dendrogram for the optimum number of clusters using the complete post-FEV1 sets from 448 subjects. Then, a trajectory cluster analysis of serial post-FEV1 sets was performed using the k-means clustering for the longitudinal data trajectory method. Next, trajectory clustering for the serial post-FEV1 sets of a total of 1,679 asthmatics was performed after imputation of missing post-FEV1 values using regression methods. RESULTS: Trajectories 1 and 2 were associated with normal lung function during the study period, and trajectory 3 was associated with a reversal to normal of the moderately decreased baseline FEV1 within 3 months. Trajectories 4 and 5 were associated with severe asthma with a marked reduction in baseline FEV1. However, the FEV1 associated with trajectory 4 was increased at 3 months, whereas the FEV1 associated with trajectory 5 was persistently disturbed over 1 year. Compared with trajectory 4, trajectory 5 was associated with older asthmatics with less atopy, a lower immunoglobulin E (IgE) level, sputum neutrophilia and higher dosages of oral steroids. In contrast, trajectory 4 was associated with higher sputum and blood eosinophil counts and more frequent exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: Trajectory clustering analysis of FEV1 identified 5 distinct types, representing well-preserved to severely decreased FEV1. Persistent airflow obstruction may be related to non-atopy, a low IgE level, and older age accompanied by neutrophilic inflammation and low baseline FEV1 levels.


Subject(s)
Adult , Airway Obstruction , Asthma , Disease Progression , Eosinophils , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Longitudinal Studies , Lung , Methods , Neutrophils , Phenotype , Sputum , Steroids
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716004

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The prevalence and burden of asthma is increasing worldwide. In this study, we analyzed 3 different Korean national health survey datasets to determine the general features of adult asthma in Korea and to obtain basic information that would support future strategies for better management of adult asthma. METHODS: The surveys used in this study included the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS) and National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). We investigated annual asthma prevalence, evaluating the rate and risk factors of asthma exacerbation by age and sex, and clinical data of 1,832 patients with asthma who were registered in the Cohort for Reality and Evolution of Adult Asthma in Korea (COREA) were analyzed to elucidate risk factors for asthma exacerbation. We also analyzed another asthma cohort and added it as replication data. RESULTS: In the KNHANES database, annual asthma prevalence rates varied from 1.2% to 3.1%. In the KCHS database, overall prevalence increased, with significant regional differences (1.6%–2.1%). The NHIS-NSC indicated a gradual increase in annual asthma prevalence from 4.5% to 6.2%. Interestingly, all 3 surveys indicated the highest prevalence of asthma among elderly women. In addition, elderly women with asthma had a significantly higher risk of asthma exacerbation (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19–2.93; P=0.006). Approximately 11% of patients were classified as having severe asthma. An asthma cohort analysis identified female sex, low baseline pulmonary function, longer treatment duration, high variability in pulmonary function and significant changes in Asthma Control Test scores as risk factors for asthma exacerbation. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma in Korea is consistently high among elderly and female populations. These results should lay the foundation for strategies for effective asthma prevention and management; elderly female patients with asthma should receive particular attention.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Asthma , Cohort Studies , Dataset , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Risk Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114699

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by various types of airway inflammation and obstruction. Therefore, it is classified into several subphenotypes, such as early-onset atopic, obese non-eosinophilic, benign, and eosinophilic asthma, using cluster analysis. A number of asthmatics frequently experience exacerbation over a long-term follow-up period, but the exacerbation-prone subphenotype has rarely been evaluated by cluster analysis. This prompted us to identify clusters reflecting asthma exacerbation. METHODS: A uniform cluster analysis method was applied to 259 adult asthmatics who were regularly followed-up for over 1 year using 12 variables, selected on the basis of their contribution to asthma phenotypes. After clustering, clinical profiles and exacerbation rates during follow-up were compared among the clusters. RESULTS: Four subphenotypes were identified: cluster 1 was comprised of patients with early-onset atopic asthma with preserved lung function, cluster 2 late-onset non-atopic asthma with impaired lung function, cluster 3 early-onset atopic asthma with severely impaired lung function, and cluster 4 late-onset non-atopic asthma with well-preserved lung function. The patients in clusters 2 and 3 were identified as exacerbation-prone asthmatics, showing a higher risk of asthma exacerbation. CONCLUSIONS: Two different phenotypes of exacerbation-prone asthma were identified among Korean asthmatics using cluster analysis; both were characterized by impaired lung function, but the age at asthma onset and atopic status were different between the two.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Clothing , Cluster Analysis , Eosinophils , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Inflammation , Lung , Methods , Phenotype
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114698

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Viral infections are involved in ~50% of exacerbations among Caucasian adult asthmatics. However, there have been few reports on the causative virus of exacerbations in Korean adult asthmatics. Thus, we compared frequencies and types of viruses between lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) with exacerbations (exacerbated LRTIs) and those without exacerbations (stable LRTIs) to evaluate contribution of respiratory viruses to exacerbations. METHODS: Viral RNA was extracted from sputum using the Viral Gene-spin™ Kit. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect adenovirus (ADV), metapneumovirus (MPV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1/2/3, influenza virus (IFV) A, IFV B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A/B, and rhinovirus (RV) A. RESULTS: Among the 259 patients, 210 underwent a single sputum examination, and the remaining 49 underwent 2 to 4 sputum examinations. Virus was detected in 68 of the 259 exacerbated episodes and in 11 of the 64 stable episodes. Among the exacerbated episodes, RV was the most frequently detected virus, followed by influenza A, parainfluenza, RSV A/B, and ADV. Among the 11 stable episodes, RV was most frequently detected. Detection rates of these viruses did not differ between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Thirty-five patients underwent the virus examination at 2 episodes of exacerbation, while 14 patients underwent at each time of exacerbated and stable episodes. Virus detection rate at the second examination was significantly higher in cases with 2 exacerbation episodes than in those with initial exacerbation and sequential stable episodes (P=0.003). A seasonal pattern was noted in the detection rates of RV (September to December), IFV (January to April), PIV (May to September), and RSV A/B (September to April). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory viruses were identified in approximately 20% of LRTI irrespective of the presence of asthma exacerbation. RV and IFV A/B were most frequently detected. A group of patients experienced frequent viral infections followed by asthma exacerbations.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Adult , Asthma , Humans , Influenza, Human , Metapneumovirus , Orthomyxoviridae , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory System , Rhinovirus , RNA, Viral , Seasons , Sputum
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between the Alu insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) gene and the clinical outcome of mirtazapine treatment in Korean major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. METHODS: We enrolled 422 patients in this study. Symptoms were evaluated using the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating (HAMD-21) Scale. After 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks of mirtazapine treatment, the association between the Alu I/D polymorphism in the tPA gene and remission/response outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: The proportion of I/I homozygotes in responders was higher than that in non-responders, whereas the proportion of D/D homozygotes in responders was lower than that in non-responders at 8 weeks of treatment (p = 0.032, OR = 1.57). The percentage decline of HAMD-21 scores in I allele carriers was larger than that of D/D homozygotes at 2 and 8 weeks of treatment (p = 0.035 and 0.007, respectively). I allele carriers were associated with remission at 8 weeks of treatment (p = 0.047, OR = 2.2). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that treatment response and remission to mirtazapine were associated with the Alu I/D polymorphism of the tPA gene. This suggests the Alu I/D polymorphism may be a potential genetic marker for the prediction of therapeutic response to mirtazapine treatment in patients with MDD.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Genetic Markers , Homozygote , Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111603

ABSTRACT

Aspirin hypersensitivity is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), a clinical syndrome characterized by the severe inflammation of the respiratory tract after ingestion of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. We investigated the capacity of aspirin to induce interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in inflammatory cells relevant to AERD pathogenesis and examined the associated biochemical and molecular pathways. We also compared IL-4 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AERD vs aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) upon exposure to aspirin. Aspirin induced IL-4 expression and activated the IL-4 promoter in a report assay. The capacity of aspirin to induce IL-4 expression correlated with its activity to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, to form DNA-protein complexes on P elements in the IL-4 promoter and to synthesize nuclear factor of activated T cells, critical transcription factors for IL-4 transcription. Of clinical importance, aspirin upregulated IL-4 production twice as much in PBMCs from patients with AERD compared with PBMCs from patients with ATA. Our results suggest that IL-4 is an inflammatory component mediating intolerance reactions to aspirin, and thus is crucial for AERD pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Aspirin , Asthma , Cyclooxygenase 1 , Eating , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Interleukin-4 , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Negotiating , Respiratory System , T-Lymphocytes , Transcription Factors
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 286-293, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88909

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymatic activity, which is influenced by CYP genetic polymorphism, is known to affect the inter-individual variation in the efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants in major depressive disorder (MDD). Escitalopram is metabolized by CYP2D6, and recent studies have reported a correlation between clinical outcomes and CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the CYP2D6 P34S polymorphism (C188T, rs1065852) and the efficacy of escitalopram treatment in Korean patients with MDD. METHODS: A total of 94 patients diagnosed with MDD were recruited for the study and their symptoms were evaluated using the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating scale (HAMD-21). The association between the CYP2D6 P34S polymorphism and the clinical outcomes (remission and response) was investigated after 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of escitalopram treatment using multiple logistic regression analysis and chi2 test. RESULTS: The proportion of P allele carriers (PP, PS) in remission status was greater than that of S allele homozygotes (SS) after 8 and 12 weeks of escitalopram treatment. Similarly, P allele carriers exhibited a greater treatment response after 8 and 12 weeks of escitalopram treatment than S allele homozygotes. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the P allele of the CYP2D6 P34S polymorphism is a favorable factor in escitalopram treatment for MDD, and that the CYP2D6 P34S polymorphism may be a good genetic marker for predicting escitalopram treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Antidepressive Agents , Citalopram , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Genetic Markers , Homozygote , Humans , Logistic Models , Polymorphism, Genetic
18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 190-195, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Activation of one or more serotonin (5-HT) receptors may play a role in mediating the antidepressant effects of serotonergic antidepressants. The serotonin 2C (5HT 2C) receptor is known to be associated with antidepressant action and weight gain. We sought to determine whether the 5-HTR 2C receptor -759C/T polymorphism was associated with weight gain and treatment response to mirtazapine in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. METHODS: The 5-HT 2C receptor -759C/T polymorphism was analyzed in 323 MDD patients. All patients were evaluated using the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at the beginning of the study and at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks of mirtazapine treatment. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the 5-HT 2C receptor -759C/T genotype distribution between responder and non-responder groups. The 5-HT 2C receptor -759C/T polymorphism was not associated with weight change over time after mirtazapine administration. CONCLUSION: The 5-HT 2C receptor -759C/T polymorphism does not appear to be a predictor of treatment response to mirtazapine. This polymorphism was not associated with weight change after 8 weeks of mirtazapine treatment. Further investigation on other polymorphisms of the 5-HT 2C gene is required to determine whether the 5-HT 2C gene influences treatment response and weight change after mirtazapine administration in patients with major depressive disorder.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Genotype , Humans , Mianserin , Negotiating , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2C , Serotonin , Weight Gain
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186642

ABSTRACT

DNA methylation may regulate gene expression by restricting the access of transcription factors. We have previously demonstrated that GATA-1 regulates the transcription of the CCR3 gene by dynamically interacting with both positively and negatively acting GATA elements of high affinity binding in the proximal promoter region including exon 1. Exon 1 has three CpG sites, two of which are positioned at the negatively acting GATA elements. We hypothesized that the methylation of these two CpGs sites might preclude GATA-1 binding to the negatively acting GATA elements and, as a result, increase the availability of GATA-1 to the positively acting GATA element, thereby contributing to an increase in GATA-1-mediated transcription of the gene. To this end, we determined the methylation of the three CpG sites by bisulfate pyrosequencing in peripheral blood eosinophils, cord blood (CB)-derived eosinophils, PBMCs, and cell lines that vary in CCR3 mRNA expression. Our results demonstrated that methylation of CpG sites at the negatively acting GATA elements severely reduced GATA-1 binding and augmented transcription activity in vitro. In agreement, methylation of these CpG sites positively correlated with CCR3 mRNA expression in the primary cells and cell lines examined. Interestingly, methylation patterns of these three CpG sites in CB-derived eosinophils mostly resembled those in peripheral blood eosinophils. These results suggest that methylation of CpG sites at the GATA elements in the regulatory regions fine-tunes CCR3 transcription.


Subject(s)
Binding Sites , Cell Line , CpG Islands , DNA Methylation , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Eosinophils/cytology , Exons , Fetal Blood/cytology , GATA1 Transcription Factor/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, CCR3/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Transcription, Genetic
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13721

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) has attracted a great deal of attention because of its association with increased asthma severity. However, oral aspirin challenge (OAC) to diagnose AERD is a time-consuming procedure, and some patients experience serious complications. Thus, we evaluated diagnostic values of non-invasive clinical parameters to predict AERD in asthmatic patients. METHODS: A total of 836 Korean subjects were recruited from an asthma cohort. They underwent OAC, and clinical parameters including the history of aspirin hypersensitivity, nasal polyposis, and chronic sinusitis of aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) and AERD asthmatic patients were compared. RESULTS: Significant differences (P<0.01) were found in eight parameters: age at diagnosis, body mass index, FEV1%, PC20, history of urticaria, nasal polyps, chronic sinusitis, and history of aspirin hypersensitivity. After logistic regression analysis based on the eight clinical parameters, nasal polyps, history of aspirin intolerance, sinusitis, and log [PC20 methacholine] remained significantly associated with AERD (P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the history of aspirin hypersensitivity to predict AERD were 64.7% and 92.0%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 56.9% and 94.1%, respectively. Overall, the accuracy of the test was 88.2%. The accuracy of the tests for nasal polyps and chronic sinusitis were 67.3% and 60.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among clinical parameters associated with AERD, the history of aspirin hypersensitivity has the best positive and negative predictive values for the oral aspirin challenge test. Because the false-positive and -negative rates were still high, additional non-invasive methods are needed to reduce the rate of false outcomes.


Subject(s)
Aspirin , Asthma , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Logistic Models , Nasal Polyps , Sinusitis , Urticaria
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL