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1.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 779-793, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999980

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria in 2021, this study investigated the national core indicators representing the current status of viral hepatitis B and C in South Korea. @*Methods@#We analyzed the incidence, linkage-to-care, treatment, and mortality rates of HBV and HCV infection using the integrated nationwide big data of South Korea. @*Results@#According to data from 2018–2020, the incidence of acute HBV infection in South Korea was 0.71 cases per 100,000 population; tthe linkage-to-care rate was only 39.4%. Among those who need hepatitis B treatment, the treatment rate was 67.3%, which was less than 80% reported in the WHO program index. The annual liver-related mortality due to HBV was 18.85 cases per 100,000 population, exceeding the WHO target of four; the most frequent cause of death was liver cancer (54.1%). The annual incidence of newly diagnosed HCV infection was 11.9 cases per 100,000 population, which was higher than the WHO impact target of five. Among HCV-infected patients, the linkage-to-care rate was 65.5% while the treatment rate was 56.8%, which were below the targets of 90% and 80%, respectively. The liver-related annual mortality rate due to HCV infection was 2.02 cases per 100,000 population. @*Conclusions@#Many of the current indicators identified in the Korean population did not satisfy the WHO criteria for validation of viral hepatitis elimination. Hence, a comprehensive national strategy should be urgently developed with continuous monitoring of the targets in South Korea.

2.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 91-104, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913976

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening compared to no screening in the Korean population from societal and healthcare system perspectives. @*Methods@#A published decision-tree plus Markov model was used to compare the expected costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) between one-time universal HCV screening and no screening in the population aged 40–65 years using the National Health Examination (NHE) program. Input parameters were obtained from analyses of the National Health Insurance claims data, Korean HCV cohort data, or from the literature review. The population aged 40–65 years was simulated in a model spanning a lifetime from both the healthcare system and societal perspectives, which included the cost of productivity loss due to HCV-related deaths. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) between universal screening and no screening was estimated. @*Results@#The HCV screening strategy had an ICER of $2,666/QALY and $431/QALY from the healthcare system and societal perspectives, respectively. Both ICERs were far less than the willingness-to-pay threshold of $25,000/QALY, showing that universal screening was highly cost-effective compared to no screening. In various sensitivity analyses, the most influential parameters on cost-effectiveness were the antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) prevalence, screening costs, and treatment acceptance; however, all ICERs were consistently less than the threshold. If the anti-HCV prevalence was over 0.18%, screening could be cost-effective. @*Conclusions@#One-time universal HCV screening in the Korean population aged 40–65 years using NHE program would be highly cost-effective from both healthcare system and societal perspectives.

3.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2022027-2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to investigate the association between levels of physical activity (PA) and low handgrip strength in Korean adults. @*METHODS@#Our cross-sectional study design included 24,109 Korean adults older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014–2019. Low handgrip strength is described as hand strength less than the cut-off value of the 20th percentile of handgrip strength from a healthy population in each gender and age group. PA was categorized into three levels (inactive, active, and highly active) according to the World Health Organization’s global recommendations on PA for health. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between levels of PA and low handgrip strength. @*RESULTS@#Odds ratios (ORs) for low handgrip strength were significantly higher in middle-aged women who were active (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.69) and inactive (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.76) than in those highly active in walking exercise. Most of older people had significantly higher ORs for low handgrip strength in active compared to highly active in the context of aerobic, muscle strengthening, and walking exercise. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Walking exercise was associated with a lower risk of sarcopenia in middle-aged women and older individuals. However, further studies are necessary to confirm the causal relationship between levels of PA and low handgrip strength.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 295-306, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874590

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Extrahepatic comorbidities and comedication are important to consider in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) due to the risk of drug-drug interaction (DDI) and the effect of comorbidities on clinical outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the detailed profiles of comorbidities and comedication among Korean CHC patients. @*Methods@#All adult patients (≥18 years old) with a primary diagnostic code of CHC in 2013 were selected from the National Health Insurance claims database. For each patient, all ICD-10 codes listed as primary or secondary diagnoses and all prescribed medications were collected. @*Results@#Among 47,104 CHC patients (median age, 57 years; male, 49.3%), 84.8% had at least one comorbidity for a mean number of 2.4, which increased with age. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension, esophagitis, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and peptic ulcer. Overall, 96.8% of the patients took at least one prescribed medication, with a mean of 8.1 medications/ year, and the three most common drug types were analgesics, gastrointestinal agents, and antibacterials. Use of at least one drug with a DDI risk category of “contraindicated medication” or “required dose- reduction/additional monitoring” was observed in 97% of the overall patients. The proportion of prescribed medications that were contraindicated with DAAs varied from 2.0% to 38.9% depending on the hepatitis C virus regimen. @*Conclusions@#The majority of CHC patients had comorbidities; almost all patients took multiple prescribed medications, the number of which increased with age, and significant DDI risk was present in 97% of this Korean patient cohort. Comorbidities and comedication profiles should be considered during DAA therapy.

5.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021019-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 and is potentially preventable through vaccination. This study estimated the incidence of juvenile-onset RRP before the implementation of the national HPV vaccination program in Korea. @*METHODS@#We conducted a cohort study using claims data provided by a mandatory insurance program to estimate the incidence of RRP and associated healthcare use. Patients with juvenile RRP were defined as those aged ≤12 years with ≥2 admissions or ≥2 outpatient visits during which they received the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision code for benign neoplasms of the larynx (D14.1). @*RESULTS@#During 2002-2014, 123 children (74 boys and 49 girls) were diagnosed with RRP. The patients had a mean of 6.5 person-years of follow-up. The incidence was estimated at 0.30/100,000 person-years. The median age at diagnosis was 4.0 years (mean, 4.3). Thirty-six (29.3%) patients underwent surgery, including 23 patients (18.7%) who underwent 2 or more surgical procedures. Severe disease, measured by more frequent surgical procedures and shorter time intervals between consecutive operations, was associated with a younger age at diagnosis. @*CONCLUSIONS@#The estimated incidence of juvenile-onset RRP in Korea was similar to that reported in other countries. The RRP burden should continue to be monitored using National Health Insurance Service claims data.

6.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021019-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 and is potentially preventable through vaccination. This study estimated the incidence of juvenile-onset RRP before the implementation of the national HPV vaccination program in Korea. @*METHODS@#We conducted a cohort study using claims data provided by a mandatory insurance program to estimate the incidence of RRP and associated healthcare use. Patients with juvenile RRP were defined as those aged ≤12 years with ≥2 admissions or ≥2 outpatient visits during which they received the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision code for benign neoplasms of the larynx (D14.1). @*RESULTS@#During 2002-2014, 123 children (74 boys and 49 girls) were diagnosed with RRP. The patients had a mean of 6.5 person-years of follow-up. The incidence was estimated at 0.30/100,000 person-years. The median age at diagnosis was 4.0 years (mean, 4.3). Thirty-six (29.3%) patients underwent surgery, including 23 patients (18.7%) who underwent 2 or more surgical procedures. Severe disease, measured by more frequent surgical procedures and shorter time intervals between consecutive operations, was associated with a younger age at diagnosis. @*CONCLUSIONS@#The estimated incidence of juvenile-onset RRP in Korea was similar to that reported in other countries. The RRP burden should continue to be monitored using National Health Insurance Service claims data.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 104-113, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There have been no nationwide studies to investigate the trends in incidence and 5-year survival rates of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct cancers and gall-bladder cancer. Therefore, our study aimed to describe the incidence and 5-year survival rates of biliary tract cancers by subsites in South Korea. METHODS: A total of 86,134 patients with biliary tract cancers were selected from the National Health Information Database. Age-standardized incidence rates and annual percentage changes were calculated. Life-table methods and log-rank tests were used to determine the differences in survival rates. Cox-proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio of the patients with biliary tract cancers. RESULTS: The incidence rate of intra-hepatic bile duct cancer decreased by 1.3% annually from 8.8 per 100,000 in 2006 to 7.8 per 100,000 in 2015. Extrahepatic bile duct cancer also showed a decreasing trend by 2.2% per year from 8.7 per 100,000 in 2006 to 6.7 per 100,000 in 2015. Gallbladder cancer showed the greatest decline, with an annual percentage change of 2.8% from 6.3 per 100,000 to 5.2 per 100,000 during the same period. The 5-year survival rates were 30.0% in gallbladder cancer, 27.8% in extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and 15.9% in intra-hepatic bile duct cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence rates of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct cancer and gallbladder cancer decreased from 2006 to 2015. Among biliary tract cancers, intrahepatic bile duct cancers exhibited the highest incidence rate and the worst survival rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bile Duct Neoplasms , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Biliary Tract , Cholangiocarcinoma , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Incidence , Korea , Proportional Hazards Models , Survival Rate
8.
Imaging Science in Dentistry ; : 111-119, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740372

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of linear measurements of 3-dimensional (3D) images generated by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and facial scanning systems, and to assess the effect of scanning parameters, such as CBCT exposure settings, on image quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CBCT and facial scanning images of an anthropomorphic phantom showing 13 soft-tissue anatomical landmarks were used in the study. The distances between the anatomical landmarks on the phantom were measured to obtain a reference for evaluating the accuracy of the 3D facial soft-tissue images. The distances between the 3D image landmarks were measured using a 3D distance measurement tool. The effect of scanning parameters on CBCT image quality was evaluated by visually comparing images acquired under different exposure conditions, but at a constant threshold. RESULTS: Comparison of the repeated direct phantom and image-based measurements revealed good reproducibility. There were no significant differences between the direct phantom and image-based measurements of the CBCT surface volume-rendered images. Five of the 15 measurements of the 3D facial scans were found to be significantly different from their corresponding direct phantom measurements (P < .05). The quality of the CBCT surface volume-rendered images acquired at a constant threshold varied across different exposure conditions. CONCLUSION: These results proved that existing 3D imaging techniques were satisfactorily accurate for clinical applications, and that optimizing the variables that affected image quality, such as the exposure parameters, was critical for image acquisition.


Subject(s)
Anthropometry , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Imaging, Three-Dimensional
9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e264-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations including chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the association between HBV and CKD is not clear. This study investigated the association between chronic HBV infection and CKD in a nationwide multicenter study. METHODS: A total of 265,086 subjects who underwent health-check examinations in 33 hospitals from January 2015 to December 2015 were enrolled. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive cases (n = 10,048), and age- and gender-matched HBsAg negative controls (n = 40,192) were identified. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² or proteinuria as at least grade 2+ of urine protein. RESULTS: HBsAg positive cases showed a significantly higher prevalence of GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² (3.3%), and proteinuria (18.9%) than that of the controls (2.6%, P < 0.001, and 14.1%, P < 0.001, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, HBsAg positivity was an independent factor associated with GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² along with age, blood levels of albumin, bilirubin, anemia, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Likewise, HBsAg positivity was an independent factor for proteinuria along with age, male, blood levels of bilirubin, protein, albumin, and HbA1c. A subgroup analysis showed that HBsAg positive men but not women had a significantly increased risk for GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m². CONCLUSION: Chronic HBV infection was significantly associated with a GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² and proteinuria (≥ 2+). Therefore, clinical concern about CKD in chronic HBV infected patients, especially in male, is warranted.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Anemia , Antigens, Surface , Bilirubin , Case-Control Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence , Proteinuria , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
10.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2017017-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786801

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related mortality. The new antiviral drugs against HCV, direct acting antivirals, result in >90% cure rate. This review aimed to summarize the current prevalence, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment response associated with HCV infection, and countermeasures for optimal HCV control in South Korea. Based on a literature review, the current anti-HCV prevalence in the Korean population is 0.6 to 0.8%, with increasing prevalence according to age. The major HCV genotypes in Korean patients were genotype 1b and genotype 2. Successful antiviral treatment leads to significantly reduced liver related complications and mortality. However, only about one third of the individuals with HCV infection seem to be managed under the current national health insurance system, suggesting a remarkable rate of underdiagnoses and subsequent loss of opportunity to cure. A recent study in South Korea showed that targeted population screening for HCV infection is cost-effective. To prevent recently developed clusters of HCV infection in some clinics, mandatory surveillance rather than sentinel surveillance for HCV infection is required and governmental countermeasures to prevent reuse of syringes or other medical devises, and public education should be maintained. Moreover, one-time screening for a targeted population should be considered and a cost-effectiveness study supporting an optimal screening strategy is warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Education , Epidemiology , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis , Korea , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Mass Screening , Mortality , National Health Programs , Prevalence , Sentinel Surveillance , Syringes
11.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2017017-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721346

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related mortality. The new antiviral drugs against HCV, direct acting antivirals, result in >90% cure rate. This review aimed to summarize the current prevalence, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment response associated with HCV infection, and countermeasures for optimal HCV control in South Korea. Based on a literature review, the current anti-HCV prevalence in the Korean population is 0.6 to 0.8%, with increasing prevalence according to age. The major HCV genotypes in Korean patients were genotype 1b and genotype 2. Successful antiviral treatment leads to significantly reduced liver related complications and mortality. However, only about one third of the individuals with HCV infection seem to be managed under the current national health insurance system, suggesting a remarkable rate of underdiagnoses and subsequent loss of opportunity to cure. A recent study in South Korea showed that targeted population screening for HCV infection is cost-effective. To prevent recently developed clusters of HCV infection in some clinics, mandatory surveillance rather than sentinel surveillance for HCV infection is required and governmental countermeasures to prevent reuse of syringes or other medical devises, and public education should be maintained. Moreover, one-time screening for a targeted population should be considered and a cost-effectiveness study supporting an optimal screening strategy is warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Education , Epidemiology , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis , Korea , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Mass Screening , Mortality , National Health Programs , Prevalence , Sentinel Surveillance , Syringes
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 835-842, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in 2013 revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, offering a cure rate >90%. However, this therapy is expensive, and estimations of the number of chronic HCV-infected (CHC) patients and their treatment costs pre-2013 are therefore essential for creating policies and expanding drug access. Herein, we aimed to investigate the number of HCV-related liver disease patients, their healthcare utilization, their annual direct medical costs, and the interferon-based antiviral treatment rates and costs from 2009 to 2013 in South Korea. METHODS: The National Health Insurance database was reviewed, and patients diagnosed with CHC from 2009 to 2013 were extracted. Data regarding detailed healthcare utilization, prescribed drugs, and direct medical costs were obtained. For annual direct healthcare cost calculations, a prevalence-based approach was used. RESULTS: Overall, 181,768 CHC patients were identified. In 2013, the annual per-patient costs for chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and the first year post-liver transplant were 895, 1,873, 6,945, and 67,359 United States dollars, respectively. Interferon-based antiviral therapeutics were prescribed to 25,223 patients (13.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare costs have increased remarkably with increasing liver disease severity. Thus, efforts to stop disease progression are needed. Moreover, the low rate of interferon-based therapy indicates an unmet need for DAA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Costs and Cost Analysis , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Progression , Health Care Costs , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Korea , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , National Health Programs , Ribavirin , United States
13.
Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine ; : 224-231, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226341

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We studied the association between sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and several clinical in vitro fertilization outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 169 consecutive fresh IVF cycles. Semen was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval, and we assessed standard semen parameters and the SDF level (by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling). Poor ovarian response (POR) was defined as the collection of three or fewer mature oocytes. Oocytes were inseminated by the conventional method or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. RESULTS: SDF did not affect the fertilization or pregnancy rate, but did have a significant effect on the miscarriage rate. In the miscarriage group (n=10), the SDF level was significantly higher (23.9% vs. 14.1%) and number of mature oocytes was significantly lower (4.3 vs. 7.6) than in the live birth group (n=45). Multiple regression analysis showed that SDF was an independent predictor of miscarriage (odds ratio, 1.051; 95% confidence interval, 1.001–1.104). The cutoffs for the SDF level and number of mature oocytes that could predict miscarriage were >13% and ≤3, respectively. In the low-SDF group (≤13%), the miscarriage rate was similar in POR patients and those with a normal ovarian response (NOR; 14.2% vs. 4.3%). In the high-SDF group (>13%), the miscarriage rate was significantly higher in the POR group than in the NOR group (60.0% vs. 13.3%, p=0.045). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that a high SDF level (>13%) was associated with a high miscarriage rate, and that it mainly contributed to miscarriage in the POR group. The results suggest that SDF measurements should be considered in couples with POR in order to predict the prognosis of the pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abortion, Spontaneous , DNA Fragmentation , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , DNA , Family Characteristics , Fertilization , Fertilization in Vitro , In Vitro Techniques , Live Birth , Methods , Oocyte Retrieval , Oocytes , Pregnancy Rate , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Semen , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Spermatozoa
14.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 91-96, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158477

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to propose simple mathematical formulae to estimate median values of fetal biometry including biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) at each gestational age (GA) easily without looking up the previously established reference values. METHODS: Simple mathematical formulae to estimate median values of fetal biometric values at each gestational week were inferred. To validate these formulae, three different linear equations were derived from previously reported reference values of median BPD, AC and FL using regression analysis at each gestational week. Finally, calculated data through the inferred formula were compared to retrospectively collected data (observed data). RESULTS: The equation revealing the relationship between BPD and GA was: median BPD (cm)=GA (wk)/4. Using this simple mathematical formula, the absolute percentage error between observed data and calculated data ranged from 0.12% to 7.50%. The equation between AC and GA was: median AC (cm)=GA (wk)-5. Through this formula, the absolute percentage error was analyzed same as above and it ranged from 0.30% to 4.76%. Lastly the derived formula between FL and GA was: median FL (cm)=GA (wk)/5 and the absolute percentage error ranged from 4.52% to 16.75%. CONCLUSION: The three simple formulae suggested in our study showed a significantly easy way to estimate the median values of fetal biometry at each gestational week with good reliability.


Subject(s)
Biometry , Femur , Gestational Age , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 126-132, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Busan, Gyeongnam, and Jeonnam Provinces in Korea is more than twice the national average. This study aimed to examine whether demographic and lifestyle characteristics are associated with HCV infection in these areas. METHODS: A case control study was performed at three study hospitals. HCV cases were matched with two controls for sex and age. Patient controls were selected from non-HCV patients at the same hospital. Healthy controls were subjects participating in medical checkups. Conditional logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: A total of 234 matched-case and patient- and healthy-control pairs were analyzed. The significant risk factors for both controls were sharing razors (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.39 and 3.29, respectively) and having more than four lifetime sexual partners (aOR, 2.15 and 6.89, respectively). Contact dockworkers (aOR, 1.91) and tattoos (aOR, 2.20) were significant risk factors for the patient controls. Transfusion (aOR, 5.38), a bloody operation (aOR, 5.02), acupuncture (aOR, 2.08), and piercing (aOR, 5.95) were significant risk factors for the healthy controls. Needle stick injuries and intravenous drug abuse were significant in the univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: More education concerning the dangers of sharing razors, tattoos and piercings is required to prevent HCV infection. More attention should be paid to needle stick injuries in hospitals and the community.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acupuncture Therapy/adverse effects , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Body Piercing/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Equipment Reuse , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Life Style , Logistic Models , Needlestick Injuries/complications , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Tattooing/adverse effects , Workplace
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 250-258, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64182

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared the predictive and prognostic values of leukocyte differential counts, systemic inflammatory (SIR) markers and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) levels, and identified the most useful marker in patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 109 patients with OCCC who did not have any inflammatory conditions except endometriosis, and underwent primary debulking surgery between 1997 and 2012. Leukocyte differential counts (neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, and platelet), SIR markers including neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and CA-125 levels were estimated to select potential markers for clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Among potential markers (neutrophil, monocyte, platelet, NLR, MLR, PLR, and CA-125 levels) selected by stepwise comparison, CA-125 levels were best at predicting advanced stage disease, suboptimal debulking and platinum-resistance (cut-off values, > or = 46.5, > or = 11.45, and > or = 66.4 U/mL; accuracies, 69.4%, 78.7%, and 68.5%) while PLR > or = 205.4 predicted non-complete response (CR; accuracy, 71.6%) most accurately. Moreover, PLR < 205.4 was an independent factor for the reduced risk of non-CR (adjusted odds ratio, 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 0.69), and NLR < 2.8 was a favorable factor for improved progression-free survival (PFS; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.99) despite lack of a marker for overall survival among the potential markers. CONCLUSION: CA-125 levels may be the most useful marker for predicting advanced-stage disease. Suboptimal debulking and platinum-resistance, and PLR and NLR may be most effective to predict non-CR and PFS in patients with OCCC.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell , Basophils , Blood Platelets , CA-125 Antigen , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Endometriosis , Eosinophils , Leukocytes , Lymphocytes , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Odds Ratio , Ovarian Neoplasms
17.
Imaging Science in Dentistry ; : 31-39, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221771

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of visualizing soft tissue lesions and vascular structures using contrast-enhanced cone-beam computed tomography (CE-CBCT) after the intravenous administration of a contrast medium in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CBCT was performed on six rabbits after a contrast medium was administered using an injection dose of 2 mL/kg body weight and an injection rate of 1 mL/s via the ear vein or femoral vein under general anesthesia. Artificial soft tissue lesions were created through the transplantation of autologous fatty tissue into the salivary gland. Volume rendering reconstruction, maximum intensity projection, and multiplanar reconstruction images were reconstructed and evaluated in order to visualize soft tissue contrast and vascular structures. RESULTS: The contrast enhancement of soft tissue was possible using all contrast medium injection parameters. An adequate contrast medium injection parameter for facilitating effective CE-CBCT was a 5-mL injection before exposure combined with a continuous 5-mL injection during scanning. Artificial soft tissue lesions were successfully created in the animals. The CE-CBCT images demonstrated adequate opacification of the soft tissues and vascular structures. CONCLUSION: Despite limited soft tissue resolution, the opacification of vascular structures was observed and artificial soft tissue lesions were visualized with sufficient contrast to the surrounding structures. The vascular structures and soft tissue lesions appeared well delineated in the CE-CBCT images, which was probably due to the superior spatial resolution of CE-CBCT compared to other techniques, such as multislice computed tomography.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Adipose Tissue , Administration, Intravenous , Anesthesia, General , Body Weight , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Contrast Media , Ear , Femoral Vein , Models, Animal , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Radiography , Salivary Glands , Veins
18.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 249-256, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study compared the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the Republic of Korea and estimated the high-risk regions and towns. METHODS: National Health Insurance Service data for 8 years from 2005 to 2012 were used. The subjects of the study had visited medical facilities and been diagnosed with or received treatment for acute or chronic HCV as a primary or secondary disease according to ICD-10 codes of B17.1 or B18.2, respectively. Any patient who received treatment for the same disease multiple times during 1 year was counted as one patient in that year. To correct for the effect of the age structure of the population by year and region, the age-adjusted prevalence was calculated using the direct method based on the registered population in 2010. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of HCV infection among Korean adults (>20 years old) increased from 0.14% in 2005 to 0.18% in 2012. The sex-, age-, and region-adjusted prevalence in 2012 was 0.18%. The prevalence was highest in Busan, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam, and there were towns with noticeably higher prevalences within these regions: Jindo (0.97%) in Jeonnam, Namhae (0.90%) in Gyeongnam, and Seo-gu (0.86%) in Busan. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCV infection differs by regions as well as towns in the Republic of Korea, and is highest in Busan, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam. The reasons for the high prevalence in these specific regions should be identified, since this could help prevent HCV infections in the future. In addition, active surveillance and treatment policies should be introduced to stop any further spread of infection in these high-prevalence regions.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Age Factors , Databases, Factual , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors
19.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 217-222, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125647

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the laboratory outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and conventional insemination using sibling oocytes in poor prognosis IVF cycles where ICSI is not indicated. METHODS: Couples undergoing IVF with following conditions were enrolled: history of more than 3 years of unexplained infertility, history of > or =3 failed intrauterine insemination, leukocytospermia or wide variation in semen analysis, poor oocyte quality, or > or =50% of embryos had poor quality in previous IVF cycle(s). Couples with severe male factor requiring ICSI were excluded. Oocytes were randomly assigned to the conventional insemination (conventional group) or ICSI (ICSI group). Fertilization rate (FR), total fertilization failure, and embryonic development at day 3 and day 5 were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 309 mature oocytes from 37 IVF cycles (32 couples) were obtained: 161 were assigned to conventional group and 148 to ICSI group. FR was significantly higher in the ICSI group compared to the conventional group (90.5% vs. 72.7%, P<0.001). Total fertilization failure occurred in only one cycle in conventional group. On day 3, the percentage of cleavage stage embryos was higher in ICSI group however the difference was marginally significant (P=0.055). In 11 cycles in which day 5 culture was attempted, the percentage of blastocyst (per cleaved embryo) was significantly higher in the ICSI group than the conventional group (55.9% vs. 25.9%, P=0.029). CONCLUSION: Higher FR and more blastocyst could be achieved by ICSI in specific circumstances. Fertilization method can be tailored accordingly to improve IVF outcomes.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Blastocyst , Embryonic Development , Embryonic Structures , Family Characteristics , Fertilization , Fertilization in Vitro , Infertility , Insemination , Oocytes , Prognosis , Semen Analysis , Siblings , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic
20.
Imaging Science in Dentistry ; : 53-60, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12989

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the incidence and configuration of the bifid mandibular canal in a Korean population by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CBCT images of 1933 patients (884 male and 1049 female) were evaluated using PSR-9000N and Alphard-Vega 3030 Dental CT units (Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd, Kyoto, Japan). Image analysis was performed by using OnDemand3D software (CyberMed Inc., Seoul, Korea). The bifid mandibular canal was identified and classified into four types, namely, the forward canal, buccolingual canal, dental canal, and retromolar canal. Statistical analysis was performed by using the chi-squared test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Bifid mandibular canals were observed in 198 (10.2%) of 1933 patients. The most frequently observed type of bifid mandibular canal was the retromolar canal (n=104, rate: 52.5%) without any significant difference among the incidence of each age and gender. The mean diameter of the accessory canal was 1.27 mm (range: 0.27-3.29 mm) without any significant difference among the mean diameter of each type of the bifid mandibular canal. The mean length of the bifid mandibular canals was 14.97mm(range: 2.17-38.8 mm) with only a significant difference between the dental canal and the other types. CONCLUSION: The bifid mandibular canal is not uncommon in Koreans and has a prevalence of 10.2% as indicated in the present study. It is suggested that a CBCT examination be recommended for detecting a bifid canal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Incidence , Mandibular Nerve , Prevalence , Radiography , Seoul
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