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1.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 271-278, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000127

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although the effects and safety of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) treatment in depressive patients are largely investigated, whether the self-administration of tDCS treatment at patient’s home is comparable to clinic-based treatment is still unknown. @*Methods@#In this single-arm, multi-center clinical trial, 61 patients with mild to moderate major depressive disorder were enrolled. tDCS treatment was delivered at the patient’s home once a day, 5 to 7 times a week for 6 weeks, and each session lasted for 30 minutes. The primary outcome was a total Beck-Depression Inventory-II score, and no concurrent antidepressants were used. @*Results@#The remission rates in both Full-Analysis (FA) (n = 61) and Per-Protocol (PP) (n = 43) groups were statistically significant (FA: 57.4% [0.44−0.70], PP: 62.8% [0.47−0.77]; percent [95% confidence interval]). The degree of depression-related symptoms was also significantly improved in 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the treatment when compared with baseline. There was no significant association between treatment compliance and remission rate in both FA and PP groups. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that acute treatment of patient-administered tDCS might be effective in improving the subjective feeling of depressive symptoms in mild to moderate major depressive disorder patients.

2.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 203-215, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977412

ABSTRACT

Background@#Surgical resection is the standard treatment for early-stage lung cancer. Since postoperative lung function is related to mortality, predicted postoperative lung function is used to determine the treatment modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of linear regression and machine learning models. @*Methods@#We extracted data from the Clinical Data Warehouse and developed three sets: set I, the linear regression model; set II, machine learning models omitting the missing data: and set III, machine learning models imputing the missing data. Six machine learning models, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Ridge regression, ElasticNet, Random Forest, eXtreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and the light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) were implemented. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second measured 6 months after surgery was defined as the outcome. Five-fold cross-validation was performed for hyperparameter tuning of the machine learning models. The dataset was split into training and test datasets at a 70:30 ratio. Implementation was done after dataset splitting in set III. Predictive performance was evaluated by R2 and mean squared error (MSE) in the three sets. @*Results@#A total of 1,487 patients were included in sets I and III and 896 patients were included in set II. In set I, the R2 value was 0.27 and in set II, LightGBM was the best model with the highest R2 value of 0.5 and the lowest MSE of 154.95. In set III, LightGBM was the best model with the highest R2 value of 0.56 and the lowest MSE of 174.07. @*Conclusion@#The LightGBM model showed the best performance in predicting postoperative lung function.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 452-460, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977347

ABSTRACT

Objective@#North Korean defectors (NKDs) have experienced substantial difficulties during the migration and settlement in South Korea. They have a high prevalence of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal behaviors. The high prevalence of mental disorders among NKDs can lead to a high suicide rate. However, there are no suicide prevention programs for NKDs. This study aims to customize a suicide prevention program with content suitable for NKDs’ particular circumstances. @*Methods@#A multidisciplinary research team developed this program based on domestic and international gatekeeper training programs for suicide prevention and articles related to suicide prevention. @*Results@#We developed a multi-part gatekeeper training program, “Suicide CARE for NKDs.” In the “Introduction,” trainees learn about the need for the program and its importance. In “Careful observation,” trainees learn to recognize linguistic, behavioral, and situational signals of suicide risk. In “Active listening,” trainees learn how to ask about suicidal thoughts and to listen empathetically. In “Risk evaluation and expert referral,” trainees learn to evaluate suicide risk and to connect NKDs with institutes or services. @*Conclusion@#We expect this program to become useful for training gatekeepers to prevent suicide among NKD. A future follow-up study is needed to confirm the efficacy of the program.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 904-911, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002753

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Providing inpatient nursing care inevitably involves night shift work. However, night shift work nurses often face psychiatric health problems such as burnout. If night shift work is an essential work type for nurses, it is necessary to select personnel suitable for night shift work or establish improvement measures such as psychiatric intervention through psychiatric evaluation. The objective of this study was to identify factors that could be interventional among factors affecting burnout in shift-working nurses. @*Methods@#A total of 231 night shift female nurses participated in this study. A questionnaire survey was given to assess their general characteristics. To assess burnout, the Maslach Burnout Inventory–General Survey Korean version was adopted. In addition, several mental health scales were used to identify individual psychological characteristics. To identify variables associated with the presence of burnout, odds ratios were calculated using a logistic regression model taking three dimensions of burnout as a dependent variable after adjusting for psychological and occupational factors. @*Results@#High resilience was a significant preventive factor in the three dimensions of burnout. Regarding occupational factor, the longer the duration of employment, the higher depersonalization, but the professional efficacy was good. @*Conclusion@#Our results indicate that resilience and social support could be prevention factors for burnout. This study is meaningful in examining items that require active intervention and support for burnout targeting night shift nurses who are indispensable for patient care.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 655-663, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002725

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop an integrated and comprehensive community-based mental healthcare model, opinions were collected on various issues from practitioners in mental health service institutions currently offering mental healthcare services in Seoul through a focus group interview, qualitative research method, and Delphi survey. @*Methods@#The focus group interview was conducted with six practitioners from mental health welfare centers and six hospital-based psychiatrists. A questionnaire of opinions on the mental healthcare model was filled by these practitioners and psychiatrists. A Delphi survey was additionally conducted with a panel of 20 experts from a community mental health welfare center and hospital-based psychiatrists. @*Results@#The focus group interview results showed the need for integrated community-based mental healthcare service and the need to establish a system for managing mental and physical health in an integrated manner. Based on the survey results, the current status of community-based mental healthcare services was investigated, and the direction of the revised model was established. The Delphi survey was then conducted to refine the revised model. @*Conclusion@#The present study presents the Seoul-type community-based mental healthcare model with integrated services between a psychiatric hospital with a mental health welfare center as well as combined mental and physical health services. This is ultimately expected to help people with mental illnesses live healthy lives by meeting their needs as community members.

6.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 3-8, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913335

ABSTRACT

An allergy skin test is used to diagnose certain allergies by identifying sensitized allergens. In other words, it is a test for patients who are already sensitized to certain allergens. Because of the prevailing perception that beta-lactam allergy can be dangerous and potentially lethal, the intradermal test has long been routinely performed before use to screen beta-lactam allergy in Korea. The prevalence of penicillin allergy is estimated to be 1% to 2%. However, only 14% of the subjects with perceived penicillin allergy is considered to have true penicillin allergy. Moreover, it is difficult to justify performing a skin test on subjects who are very unlikely to be sensitized to beta-lactam, such as those who never used beta-lactam or never experienced allergy after previous use of beta-lactam.Therefore, allergists recommend beta-lactam skin testing in those who have allergy after the use of beta-lactam. Nevertheless, many hospitals in Korea are conducting routine skin tests on patients regardless of a history of beta-lactam allergy, which are not clinically validated but consume considerable human and material resources. False-positive results can consequently result in inappropriate labeling of beta-lactam allergy, leading to the unnecessary restriction of medication prescriptions and the increase in medical expenses. Herein, the drug allergy working group affiliated with the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology announces an expert opinion on the preuse beta-lactam skin test for subjects without a history of beta-lactam allergy based on the objective evidence from the literature and clinical relevance.

7.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 167-179, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924824

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Childhood trauma is the most important environmental factor for several psychiatric disorders. Depressed patients with childhood trauma appear to have severe symptoms that frequently recur. This study investigated whether depressed patients with childhood trauma showed attenuated Nogo event-related potentials (ERPs) and source activity during response-inhibition tasks. @*Methods@#Forty-four patients patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were instructed to perform a Go/Nogo task during electroencephalography. Sensors and source activities of N2 and P3 of the Nogo ERPs were analyzed. The participants’ clinical symptoms were assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and Affective Lability Scale. The participants were divided into two groups (low and high), based on their total CTQ scores. @*Results@#MDD subjects with high CTQ scores showed significantly decreased Nogo P3 amplitudes at the frontal, frontocentral, central, and parietal electrodes than those with low CTQ scores (all p < 0.01). In Nogo P3, the source activities of the right cuneus, right posterior cingulate cortex, right precuneus, left supramarginal gyrus, and left lingual gyrus were significantly lower in the high CTQ group than in the low one (all p < 0.01). There were significant negative correlations between the total CTQ scores and the Nogo P3 amplitudes in the frontocentral (p = 0.03) and parietal regions (p = 0.02), which showed lower source activity in the Nogo P3 condition. @*Conclusion@#Depressed patients with severe childhood trauma showed different Nogo-ERP characteristics, which might reflect inhibitory failure and dysfunction in related brain regions.

8.
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology ; : 13-17, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895700

ABSTRACT

Sleep disturbance is a common health complaint affecting an estimated 10-25% of the general population. Pharmacotherapy is a traditional treatment and cognitive behavioral therapy is well demonstrated as an efficacious treatment for insomnia. There is a growing interest in the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation for sleep disturbed populations. Mindfulness involves focused, purposeful, nonjudgmental attention to a particular idea. In clinical application of mindfulness practice, mindfulnessbased stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy are used widely. Clinical trials support the effectiveness of meditation for the treatment of insomnia. The aim of this article is to review the effect of mindfulness meditation on insomnia.

9.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 48-52, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894551

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease is a chronic immune-mediated fibro-inflammatory disorder characterized by multiple organ infiltration with IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis or tumefactive lesions. Previous studies have explored IgG4-related kidney disease, increasing our understanding of its clinical manifestations, and pathological and radiologic findings. However, IgG4-related kidney disease can be misdiagnosed since it mimics malignancies. We report a case of a 77-year-old Korean man diagnosed with IgG4-related kidney disease with membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis, presenting with a renal pelvic mass suspected of being malignant.

10.
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology ; : 13-17, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903404

ABSTRACT

Sleep disturbance is a common health complaint affecting an estimated 10-25% of the general population. Pharmacotherapy is a traditional treatment and cognitive behavioral therapy is well demonstrated as an efficacious treatment for insomnia. There is a growing interest in the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation for sleep disturbed populations. Mindfulness involves focused, purposeful, nonjudgmental attention to a particular idea. In clinical application of mindfulness practice, mindfulnessbased stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy are used widely. Clinical trials support the effectiveness of meditation for the treatment of insomnia. The aim of this article is to review the effect of mindfulness meditation on insomnia.

11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 48-52, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902255

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease is a chronic immune-mediated fibro-inflammatory disorder characterized by multiple organ infiltration with IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis or tumefactive lesions. Previous studies have explored IgG4-related kidney disease, increasing our understanding of its clinical manifestations, and pathological and radiologic findings. However, IgG4-related kidney disease can be misdiagnosed since it mimics malignancies. We report a case of a 77-year-old Korean man diagnosed with IgG4-related kidney disease with membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis, presenting with a renal pelvic mass suspected of being malignant.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e253-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900068

ABSTRACT

Various digital healthcare devices and apps, such as blood glucose meters, blood pressure monitors, and step-trackers are commonly used by patients; however, digital healthcare devices have not been widely accepted in the medical market as of yet. Despite the various legal and privacy issues involved in their use, the main reason for its poor acceptance is that users do not use such devices voluntarily and continuously. Digital healthcare devices generally do not provide valuable information to users except for tracking self-checked glucose or walking. To increase the use of these devices, users must first understand the health data produced in the context of their personal health, and the devices must be easy to use and integrated into everyday life. Thus, users need to know how to manage their own data. Medical staff must teach and encourage users to analyze and manage their patient-generated healthcare data, and users should be able to find medical values from these digital devices. Eventually, a single customized service that can comprehensively analyze various medical data to provide valuable customized services to users, and which can be linked to various heterogeneous digital healthcare devices based on the integration of various health data should be developed. Digital healthcare professionals should have detailed knowledge about a variety of digital healthcare devices and fully understand the advantages and disadvantages of digital healthcare to help patients understand and embrace the use of such devices.

13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 986-996, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918737

ABSTRACT

Objective@#As of 2019, suicide is serious problem in Korea, with the highest suicide rate among OECD countries. To reduce suicide rates Emergency Department Based Post-Suicide Attempt Case Management carried out with government funding in South Korea, but it is insufficient to address the issue. Aim of this study is to prevent suicide attempts through continuous provision of mental health services even after discharge from acute care. @*Methods@#We selected 15 mental health specialists who are multidisciplinary experts in Suicide Prevention. Two-round Delphi survey was conducted on them to reach an agreement for hospital-based case management. @*Results@#The first Delphi survey consisted of 8 areas and 39 questions. Among them, 30 questions draw agreement above the reference value. The second Delphi survey, consisted of 37 questions, resulted in 32 above-standard questions. @*Conclusion@#Consensus was reached in most category of the Hospital Based Case Management for Suicide High-Risk Group. Core of the developed plan was to provide services to patients who visited the hospital, pursue the stability and universalization of services through a medical insurance fee system. In the future, hospital-based case management service will be implemented as a new model contributing to the reduction of suicide rates in Korea.

14.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1254-1267, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914241

ABSTRACT

Background@#We analyzed hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and various lung function test results in healthy individuals after a 6-year follow-up period to explore the influence of lung function changes on glycemic control. @*Methods@#Subjects whose HbA1c levels did not qualify as diabetes mellitus (DM) and who had at least two consecutive lung function tests were selected among the people who visited a health promotion center. Lung function parameters, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow 25% to 75% (FEF25%−75%), were divided into four groups based on their baseline quantiles. To evaluate future DM onset risk in relation to lung function changes, the correlation between baseline HbA1c levels and changes in lung function parameters after a 6-year follow-up period was analyzed. @*Results@#Overall, 17,568 individuals were included; 0.9% of the subjects were diagnosed with DM. The individuals included in the quartile with FEV1/FVC ratio values of 78% to 82% had lower risk of DM than those in the quartile with FEV1/FVC ratio values of ≥86% after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (P=0.04). Baseline percent predicted FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and FEF25%−75%, and differences in the FEV1/FVC ratio or FEF25%−75%, showed negative linear correlations with baseline HbA1c levels. @*Conclusion@#Healthy subjects with FEV1/FVC ratio values between 78% and 82% had 40% lower risk for future DM. Smaller differences and lower baseline FEV1/FVC ratio or FEF25%−75% values were associated with higher baseline HbA1c levels. These findings suggest that airflow limitation affects systemic glucose control and that the FEV1/FVC ratio could be one of the factors predicting future DM risk in healthy individuals.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e253-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892364

ABSTRACT

Various digital healthcare devices and apps, such as blood glucose meters, blood pressure monitors, and step-trackers are commonly used by patients; however, digital healthcare devices have not been widely accepted in the medical market as of yet. Despite the various legal and privacy issues involved in their use, the main reason for its poor acceptance is that users do not use such devices voluntarily and continuously. Digital healthcare devices generally do not provide valuable information to users except for tracking self-checked glucose or walking. To increase the use of these devices, users must first understand the health data produced in the context of their personal health, and the devices must be easy to use and integrated into everyday life. Thus, users need to know how to manage their own data. Medical staff must teach and encourage users to analyze and manage their patient-generated healthcare data, and users should be able to find medical values from these digital devices. Eventually, a single customized service that can comprehensively analyze various medical data to provide valuable customized services to users, and which can be linked to various heterogeneous digital healthcare devices based on the integration of various health data should be developed. Digital healthcare professionals should have detailed knowledge about a variety of digital healthcare devices and fully understand the advantages and disadvantages of digital healthcare to help patients understand and embrace the use of such devices.

16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 48-58, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875374

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Network analysis can be used in terms of a novel psychopathological approach for depressive syndrome. We aimed to estimate the successive network structures of depressive symptoms in patients with depressive disorder using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study. @*Methods@#We enrolled 1,152 South Korean adult patients with depressive disorders who were beginning treatment for first-onset or recurrent depressive episodes. We examined the network structure of the severities of the items on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) at baseline and at weeks 2, 12, 25, and 52. The node strength centrality of all the HAMD items at baseline and at week 2, 12, 25, and 52 in terms of network analysis. @*Results@#In the severity networks, the anxiety (psychic) item was the most centrally situated in the initial period (baseline and week 2), while loss of weight was the most centrally situated item in the later period (weeks 25 and 52). In addition, the number of strong edges (i.e., edges representing strong correlations) increased in the late period compared to the initial period. @*Conclusion@#Our findings support a period-specific and symptom-focused therapeutic approach that can provide complementary information to the unidimensional total HAMD score.

17.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 31-41, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic cough is defined as a cough lasting more than 8 weeks and socio-economic burden of chronic cough is enormous. The characteristics of chronic cough in Korea are not well understood. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) published guidelines on cough management in 2014. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics of chronic cough in Korea and the efficacy of the KATRD guidelines.@*METHODS@#This was a multi-center, retrospective observational study conducted in Korea. The participants were over 18 years of age. They had coughs lasting more than 8 weeks. Subjects with current pulmonary diseases, smokers, ex-smokers with more than 10 pack-years or who quit within the past 1 year, pregnant women, and users of cough-inducing medications were excluded. Evaluation and management of cough followed the KATRD cough-management guidelines.@*RESULTS@#Participants with chronic cough in Korea showed age in the late forties and cough duration of more than 1 year. Upper airway cough syndrome was the most common cause of cough, followed by cough-variant asthma (CVA). Gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and eosinophilic bronchitis were less frequently observed. Following the KATRD cough-management guidelines, 91.2% of the subjects improved after 4 weeks of treatment. Responders were younger, had a longer duration of cough, and an initial impression of CVA. In univariate and multivariate analyses, an initial impression of CVA was the only factor related to better treatment response.@*CONCLUSION@#The causes of chronic cough in Korea differed from those reported in other countries. The current Korean guidelines proved efficient for treating Korean patients with chronic cough.

18.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 31-41, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic cough is defined as a cough lasting more than 8 weeks and socio-economic burden of chronic cough is enormous. The characteristics of chronic cough in Korea are not well understood. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) published guidelines on cough management in 2014. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics of chronic cough in Korea and the efficacy of the KATRD guidelines.@*METHODS@#This was a multi-center, retrospective observational study conducted in Korea. The participants were over 18 years of age. They had coughs lasting more than 8 weeks. Subjects with current pulmonary diseases, smokers, ex-smokers with more than 10 pack-years or who quit within the past 1 year, pregnant women, and users of cough-inducing medications were excluded. Evaluation and management of cough followed the KATRD cough-management guidelines.@*RESULTS@#Participants with chronic cough in Korea showed age in the late forties and cough duration of more than 1 year. Upper airway cough syndrome was the most common cause of cough, followed by cough-variant asthma (CVA). Gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and eosinophilic bronchitis were less frequently observed. Following the KATRD cough-management guidelines, 91.2% of the subjects improved after 4 weeks of treatment. Responders were younger, had a longer duration of cough, and an initial impression of CVA. In univariate and multivariate analyses, an initial impression of CVA was the only factor related to better treatment response.@*CONCLUSION@#The causes of chronic cough in Korea differed from those reported in other countries. The current Korean guidelines proved efficient for treating Korean patients with chronic cough.

19.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 73-82, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918506

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to examine the changes in Nogo N2 and P3 amplitudes in patients with bipolar affective disorder (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) and in healthy controls (HCs). The association between attention and Nogo N2 and P3 changes was also investigated. @*Methods@#The study included 30 participants with BD, 30 participants with MDD, and 30 HCs aged 19-60 years. They performed a GoNogo task while their electroencephalograms were recorded. Beck Depression Inventory and StateTrait Anxiety Inventory were used for evaluation. Furthermore, behavioral measures and GoNogo N2 and P3 amplitudes were compared between the three groups. @*Results@#Patients with BD or MDD exhibited a significantly poorer performance in Nogo accuracy than the HCs. Patients with BD or MDD showed significantly lower Nogo N2 amplitudes at the frontal, fronto-central, and central electrodes than the HCs. In patients with BD or MDD, the Nogo N2 amplitudes at the frontal or fronto-central electrode were positively correlated with state of anxiety scores and inattention. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that decreased Nogo N2 amplitudes in the frontal or fronto-central areas could be a biological marker for inattention during depressive episodes associated with BD or MDD.

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