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1.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 758-771, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002021

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major potential cause of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). However, identifying AF remains challenging because it occurs sporadically. Deep learning could be used to identify hidden AF based on the sinus rhythm (SR) electrocardiogram (ECG). We combined known AF risk factors and developed a deep learning algorithm (DLA) for predicting AF to optimize diagnostic performance in ESUS patients. @*Methods@#A DLA was developed to identify AF using SR 12-lead ECG with the database consisting of AF patients and non-AF patients. The accuracy of the DLA was validated in 221 ESUS patients who underwent insertable cardiac monitor (ICM) insertion to identify AF. @*Results@#A total of 44,085 ECGs from 12,666 patient were used for developing the DLA. The internal validation of the DLA revealed 0.862 (95% confidence interval, 0.850–0.873) area under the curve (AUC) in the receiver operating curve analysis. In external validation data from 221 ESUS patients, the diagnostic accuracy of DLA and AUC were 0.811 and 0.827, respectively, and DLA outperformed conventional predictive models, including CHARGE-AF,C2HEST, and HATCH. The combined model, comprising atrial ectopic burden, left atrial diameter and the DLA, showed excellent performance in AF prediction with AUC of 0.906. @*Conclusions@#The DLA accurately identified paroxysmal AF using 12-lead SR ECG in patients with ESUS and outperformed the conventional models. The DLA model along with the traditional AF risk factors could be a useful tool to identify paroxysmal AF in ESUS patients.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e258-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001072

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to identify the specific T cell co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory factors that play prognostic roles in patients with glioblastoma. Additionally, the unique histone H3 modification enzymes that regulate the expression levels of these specific costimulatory and co-inhibitory factors were investigated. @*Methods@#The medical records of 84 patients newly diagnosed with glioblastoma at our institution from January 2006 to December 2020 were retrospectively reviewed.Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for T cell co-stimulatory factors (CD27, CD28, CD137, OX40, and ICOS), T cell co-inhibitory factors (CTLA4, PD1, PD-L1, TIM3, and CD200R), and histone H3 lysine modification enzymes (MLL4, RIZ, EZH1, NSD2, KDM5c, JMJD1a, UTX, and JMJD5) was performed on archived paraffin-embedded tissues obtained by biopsy or resection. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed for specific factors, which demonstrated causal relationships, in order to validate the findings of the IHC examinations. @*Results@#The mean follow-up duration was 27.5 months (range, 4.1–43.5 months). During this period, 76 patients (90.5%) died, and the mean OS was 19.4 months (95% confidence interval, 16.3–20.9 months). Linear positive correlations were observed between the expression levels of CD28 and JMJD1a (R2 linear = 0.982) and those of CD137 and UTX (R2 linear = 1.528). Alternatively, significant negative correlations were observed between the expression levels of CTLA4 and RIZ (R2 linear = −1.746) and those of PD-L1 and EZH1 (R2 linear = −2.118); relationships were confirmed by qRT-PCR. In the multivariate analysis, increased expression levels of CD28 (P = 0.042), and CD137 (P = 0.009), and decreased expression levels of CTLA4 (P = 0.003), PD-L1 (P = 0.020), and EZH1 (P = 0.040) were significantly associated with longer survival. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that the expression of certain T cell co-stimulatory factors, such as CD28 and CD 137, and co-inhibitory factors, such as CTLA4 and PD-L1 are associated with prognosis of glioblastoma patients.

3.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 953-959, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000164

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of atelocollagen injections in isolated grade III medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries of the knee joint. @*Methods@#A total of 50 participants were included in this retrospective study. Twenty-six patients underwent conservative treatment with a single atelocollagen injection, while the remaining patients underwent only typical conservative treatment. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to identify and grade MCL injury. Valgus stress radiography was performed on both knees at 6 and 12 months after the injury. The visual analog scale (VAS) score was collected at the first visit and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after injury. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) formula activity level and Lysholm score were evaluated for patient-reported outcomes at the first visit and at 6 and 12 months after injury. The participant's return to the pre-injury activity level ratio was measured by comparing the IKDC formula activity level at 12 months after the injury with that before the injury. @*Results@#The VAS and Lysholm scores improved over time in both groups. The VAS and Lysholm scores were significantly better in the collagen injection group than in the control group. Regarding the activity level, the collagen injection group showed significantly better results at the 6-month follow-up, but there was no significant difference at the 12-month follow-up. The medial gap in the injured knee and the side-to-side difference (SSD) in both groups gradually decreased over time. The SSD in the collagen injection group was significantly smaller than that in the control group. @*Conclusions@#Atelocollagen injections resulted in better clinical and radiologic outcomes along with a higher rate of return to the pre-injury activity level, thereby exhibiting a positive effect in the nonsurgical treatment of grade III MCL injuries.

4.
The Korean Journal of Sports Medicine ; : 1-10, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968794

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aims to determine the effectiveness of high physical activity (PA) on shoulder pain, functional recovery, and structural outcome in the early healing phase after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR). @*Methods@#Forty-two patients were included in this study according to inclusion criteria. Subjects were classified into high PA (HPA) group (n=22) and low PA (LPA) group (n=20) according to the classification criteria. Differences between groups according to the PA level were analyzed by comparing visual analogue scale (VAS), range of motion (ROM), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Score (ASES), and isokinetic strength before and 6 weeks, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Structural outcome was analyzed by evaluating magnetic resonance imaging performed 6 months after ARCR. @*Results@#VAS, ROM, and ASES were significantly higher in the HPA group at 6 weeks and 3 months after ARCR with a significant interaction effect between time and group (p< 0.05). The isokinetic muscle strength was significantly higher in the HPA group at 3 months after surgery with a significant interaction effect on forward flexion and external rotation strength (p< 0.05). There was no significant difference in extension and internal rotation strength. In the structural outcome of 6 months after surgery, the retear rate was lower in the HPA group with a significant trend (p< 0.05). @*Conclusion@#In this study, higher PA levels in the early healing phase after ARCR were found to result in faster pain relief and restoration of shoulder function. In addition, higher PA level was associated with lower retear rates in structural outcomes related to tendon healing.

5.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 24-32, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967507

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: With the recent increase in mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS), the role of neurosurgeons in AIS treatment has become increasingly important. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of patients with AIS treated by neurosurgeons and neurologists in the emergency room (ER) of a tertiary hospital in South Korea. @*Methods@#: From January 2020 to June 2021, 536 patients with AIS within 24 hours of symptom onset were admitted to our hospital via the ER. Based on the type of doctors who provided initial care for AIS in the ER, patients were divided into two groups : (a) neurosurgeon group (n=119, 22.2%) and (b) neurologist group (n=417, 77.8%). @*Results@#: Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was administered in 82 (15.3%) of 536 patients (n=17 [14.3%] in the neurosurgeon group and n=65 [15.6%] in the neurologist group). The door-to-tPA time was not significantly different between both groups (median, 53 minutes; interquartile range [IQR], 45–58 vs. median, 54 minutes; IQR, 46–74; p=0.372). MT was performed in 69 patients (12.9%) (n=25, 36.2% in the neurosurgeon group and n=44, 63.8% in the neurologist group). The neurosurgeon group achieved a shorter door-to-puncture time than the neurologist group (median, 115 minutes; IQR, 107–151 vs. median, 162 minutes; IQR, 117–189; p=0.049). Good clinical outcomes (3-month modified Rankin Scale 0–2) did not differ significantly between the two groups (96/119 [80.7%] vs. 322/417 [77.2%], p=0.454). @*Conclusion@#: The neurosurgeon group showed similar door-to-treatment time and clinical outcomes to the neurologist group in patients with AIS in the ER. This study suggests that neurosurgeons have comparable abilities to care for patients with AIS in the ER.

6.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 269-275, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926016

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is affecting the characteristics of patients with head injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with head injuries at a regional emergency medical center in South Korea. @*Methods@#: From April 2019 to November 2020, 350 patients with head injuries were admitted to our hospital. The study period was divided into the pre-COVID-19 (n=169) and COVID-19 (n=181) eras (10 months each). Patients with severe head injuries requiring surgery (n=74) were categorized into those who underwent surgery (n=41) and those who refused surgery (n=33). @*Results@#: Head injuries in pediatric patients (<3 years) were more frequent in the COVID-19 era than in the pre-COVID-19 era (8.8% vs. 3.6%, p=0.048). More patients refused surgery in the COVID-19 era than in the pre-COVID-19 era (57.9% vs. 30.6%, p=0.021). Refusal of surgery was associated with old age (67.7±14.5 vs. 52.4±19.1, p<0.001), marital status (married, 84.8% vs. 61.0%, p=0.037), unemployment (42.4% vs. 68.3%, p=0.034), COVID-19 era (66.7% vs. 39.0%, p=0.021), and lower Glasgow coma scale scores (6.12±3.08 vs. 10.6±3.80, p<0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that refusal of surgery was independently associated with old age (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.084; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.030–1.140; p=0.002), COVID-19 era (adjusted OR, 6.869; 95% CI, 1.624–29.054; p=0.009), and lower Glasgow coma scale scores (adjusted OR, 0.694; 95% CI, 0.568–0.848; p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#: We observed an increased prevalence of head injuries in pediatric patients (<3 years) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, among patients with severe head injuries requiring surgery, more patients refused to undergo surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e198-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892168

ABSTRACT

Background@#Vaccine safety surveillance is important because it is related to vaccine hesitancy, which affects vaccination rate. To increase confidence in vaccination, the active monitoring of vaccine adverse events is important. For effective active surveillance, we developed and verified a machine learning-based active surveillance system using national claim data. @*Methods@#We used two databases, one from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, which contains flu vaccination records for the elderly, and another from the National Health Insurance Service, which contains the claim data of vaccinated people. We developed a casecrossover design based machine learning model to predict the health outcome of interest events (anaphylaxis and agranulocytosis) using a random forest. Feature importance values were evaluated to determine candidate associations with each outcome. We investigated the relationship of the features to each event via a literature review, comparison with the Side Effect Resource, and using the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanation method. @*Results@#The trained model predicted each health outcome of interest with a high accuracy (approximately 70%). We found literature supporting our results, and most of the important drug-related features were listed in the Side Effect Resource database as inducing the health outcome of interest. For anaphylaxis, flu vaccination ranked high in our feature importance analysis and had a positive association in Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanation analysis. Although the feature importance of vaccination was lower for agranulocytosis, it also had a positive relationship in the Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanation analysis. @*Conclusion@#We developed a machine learning-based active surveillance system for detecting possible factors that can induce adverse events using health claim and vaccination databases. The results of the study demonstrated a potentially useful application of two linked national health record databases. Our model can contribute to the establishment of a system for conducting active surveillance on vaccination.

8.
Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow ; : 253-260, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914153

ABSTRACT

To suggest a reasonable isometric point based on the anatomical consistency of interosseous membrane (IOM) attachment in association with topographic characteristics of the interosseous crests, the footprints of the central band (CB) of the IOM on the radial and ulnar interosseous crests (RIC and UIC) were measured. Methods: We measured the distance from the CB footprints from each apex of both interosseous crests in 14 cadavers and the angles between the forearm axis of rotation (AOR) and the distal slopes of the RIC and UIC in 33 volunteers. Results: The CB footprints lay on the downslope of both interosseous crests with its upper margin on average 3-mm proximal from the RIC’s apex consistently in the radial length, showing normality (p>0.05), and on average 16-mm distal from the UIC’s apex on the ulna without satisfying normality (p0.05), and there was no side-to-side difference in both forearms (p<0.05). Conclusions: The CB attached to the downslope just distal to the RIC’s apex constrains the radius to the UIC that coincides with the AOR of the forearm circumduction, maintaining itself both isometrically and isotonically.

9.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 721-730, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914070

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The relationship among physical functional decline, low-grade inflammation, and depression remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between hand grip strength (HGS) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in a large sample with depression. @*Methods@#This study used data obtained from a representative Korean sample of 9,402 people who participated in the seventh Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical function was assessed using a digital grip strength dynamometer. Depression was identified using a cutoff of 5 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and high hs-CPR level was defined as ≥ 3.0 mg/L. @*Results@#In older adults (≥ 60 years) with depression, 43.8% of those with high hs-CRP levels had low HGS, compared to 21.8% of those with hs-CRP levels < 3.0 mg/L (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed that, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, high hs-CRP was independently associated with lower HGS (B = −2.25; 95% confidence interval = −4.49 to −0.02) in older adults with depression, but not in younger or middle-aged adults with depression. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest a significant correlation between physical functional decline and low-grade inflammation in older adults with depression.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e198-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899872

ABSTRACT

Background@#Vaccine safety surveillance is important because it is related to vaccine hesitancy, which affects vaccination rate. To increase confidence in vaccination, the active monitoring of vaccine adverse events is important. For effective active surveillance, we developed and verified a machine learning-based active surveillance system using national claim data. @*Methods@#We used two databases, one from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, which contains flu vaccination records for the elderly, and another from the National Health Insurance Service, which contains the claim data of vaccinated people. We developed a casecrossover design based machine learning model to predict the health outcome of interest events (anaphylaxis and agranulocytosis) using a random forest. Feature importance values were evaluated to determine candidate associations with each outcome. We investigated the relationship of the features to each event via a literature review, comparison with the Side Effect Resource, and using the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanation method. @*Results@#The trained model predicted each health outcome of interest with a high accuracy (approximately 70%). We found literature supporting our results, and most of the important drug-related features were listed in the Side Effect Resource database as inducing the health outcome of interest. For anaphylaxis, flu vaccination ranked high in our feature importance analysis and had a positive association in Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanation analysis. Although the feature importance of vaccination was lower for agranulocytosis, it also had a positive relationship in the Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanation analysis. @*Conclusion@#We developed a machine learning-based active surveillance system for detecting possible factors that can induce adverse events using health claim and vaccination databases. The results of the study demonstrated a potentially useful application of two linked national health record databases. Our model can contribute to the establishment of a system for conducting active surveillance on vaccination.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e4-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874749

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to compare the characteristics of patients with spontaneous thalamic hemorrhage (STH) accompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) with those of patients without IVH. @*Methods@#The medical records of consecutive patients with STH admitted to our institute between January 2000 and December 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. The laboratory and radiological results, mortality, and functional recovery were compared between the STH patients with IVH and those without IVH. @*Results@#Among 2,389 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, 233 (9.8%) patients were included in this study. Concurrent IVH was detected in 159 (68.2%) patients with STH, and more frequently in those with body mass index ≥ 25, Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3–8, underlying disease, family history of stoke, posterior/medial/global location of hematoma, ventriculomegaly, large volume of hemorrhage, and midline shift ≥ 5 mm. The 3-month mortality was 25.8% and 8.1% (P = 0.039), the rate of good functional recovery at 6 months was 52.2% and 31.0% (P = 0.040), and incidence of delayed normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) at 12 months was 10.8% and 24.5% (P = 0.062) in the STH patients with IVH and those without IVH, respectively. At 12 months, delayed NPH developed in 28 of 47 (59.6%) patients who received external ventricular drainage (EVD)-based treatment, 5 of 45 (11.1%) patients who underwent endoscopic evacuation-based treatment, and 8 of 45 (17.8%) patients who underwent other surgeries. @*Conclusion@#Concurrent IVH is strongly associated with mortality in patients with STH. Delayed NPH may develop more frequently in STH patients with IVH who were treated with EVD.

12.
Healthcare Informatics Research ; : 19-28, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874606

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Many deep learning-based predictive models evaluate the waveforms of electrocardiograms (ECGs). Because deep learning-based models are data-driven, large and labeled biosignal datasets are required. Most individual researchers find it difficult to collect adequate training data. We suggest that transfer learning can be used to solve this problem and increase the effectiveness of biosignal analysis. @*Methods@#We applied the weights of a pretrained model to another model that performed a different task (i.e., transfer learning). We used 2,648,100 unlabeled 8.2-second-long samples of ECG II data to pretrain a convolutional autoencoder (CAE) and employed the CAE to classify 12 ECG rhythms within a dataset, which had 10,646 10-second-long 12-lead ECGs with 11 rhythm labels. We split the datasets into training and test datasets in an 8:2 ratio. To confirm that transfer learning was effective, we evaluated the performance of the classifier after the proposed transfer learning, random initialization, and two-dimensional transfer learning as the size of the training dataset was reduced. All experiments were repeated 10 times using a bootstrapping method. The CAE performance was evaluated by calculating the mean squared errors (MSEs) and that of the ECG rhythm classifier by deriving F1-scores. @*Results@#The MSE of the CAE was 626.583. The mean F1-scores of the classifiers after bootstrapping of 100%, 50%, and 25% of the training dataset were 0.857, 0.843, and 0.835, respectively, when the proposed transfer learning was applied and 0.843, 0.831, and 0.543, respectively, after random initialization was applied. @*Conclusions@#Transfer learning effectively overcomes the data shortages that can compromise ECG domain analysis by deep learning.

13.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1164-1168, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893287

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the short-term ophthalmic side effects of bilateral same-day intravitreal bevacizumab injections. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent intravitreal bevacizumab injection in both eyes on the same day from January 2015 to June 2019. The patients were followed up at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after the injection. @*Results@#A total of 281 patients (153 males and 128 females) and 562 eyes were included in the study, and 950 bilateral same-day intravitreal bevacizumab injections were performed. The mean age of patients was 58.87 ± 13.44 years. The most common cause of bilateral injection was that of complications due to diabetic retinopathy, which accounted for 66.3%, followed by age-related macular degeneration at 22.2%, retinal vein occlusion at 5.1%, and central serious chorioretinopathy at 2.1%. There were 0 cases of endophthalmitis after 950 injections, 13 cases of subconjunctival hemorrhage, and 17 patients with a temporary elevation of intraocular pressure. There were 11 patients with acute intraocular inflammation after bilateral injection, but none in both eyes. Patients with acute intraocular inflammation were followed up at short-term intervals until they improved. All patients showed complete improvement within 2 weeks after injection. Comparing the patients’ condition before and after injection, visual acuity improved (p < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#In terms of the frequency of short-term ophthalmic adverse events, bilateral same-day intravitreal bevacizumab injection is a safe procedure with fewer side effects and is more convenient for both the patient and the doctor.

14.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 453-469, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890641

ABSTRACT

Major depressive disorder is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with few treatment options. Non-targeted antidepressants have low efficacy and can induce series of side effects. While a neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), is known to exhibit regulator of affective state, no study to date has assessed the anti-depressive effects of MCH in a stress-induced depression model. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of intranasal administration of MCH on depression-related behavior in stressed rats and mice. Using a number of behavioral tests, we found that MCH treatment significantly decreased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors induced by stress. Notably, the effects of MCH were equivalent to those of fluoxetine. MCH treatment also restored the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and normalized the levels of synaptic proteins, including postsynaptic density 95, glutamate receptor 1, and synapsin 1, which were all downregulated by stress. Interestingly, the protective effects of MCH were blocked by the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. These results suggest that MCH exhibits antidepressant properties by modulating the mTOR pathway. Altogether, this study provides an insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the antidepressant-like effects of MCH, thereby paving the way for the future clinical application of MCH.

15.
Journal of Sleep Medicine ; : 84-92, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836299

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) is frequently found in critically ill patients and is associated with poor prognosis. However, CSR has not been evaluated in neurocritical patients. This study investigated the frequency and prognostic impact of CSR in neurocritical patients using biosignal big data obtained from intensive care units. @*Methods@#This study included all patients who received neurocritical care at the tertiary hospital from January 2018 to December 2019. Clinical information and biosignal data of intensive care units were used and analyzed. The respiratory curve was visually assessed to determine whether CSR and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were present, and a heart rate variability (HRV) was obtained from the electrocardiogram. @*Results@#CSR was confirmed in 166 of 406 patients (40.9%). Patients with CSR were older, had a higher frequency of cardiovascular risk factors as well as heart failure, and had a poor outcome (modified Rankin scale ≥4). As a result of multiple regression analysis adjusted for other variables, CSR was significantly associated with poor outcome with an odds ratio of 2.27 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.25–4.14, p=0.007). HRV analysis demonstrated that CSR and OSA had distinct autonomic characteristics. @*Conclusions@#This study first revealed the substantial frequency of CSR in neurocritical patients and suggests that it can be used as a predictor of poor prognosis in neurocritical care.

16.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 194-203, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834808

ABSTRACT

Background@#Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disease characterized by various combinations of parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, autonomic dysfunction and pyramidal signs. Two clinical subtypes are recognized: MSA with predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C) and MSA with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P). The aim of this study was to compare pathological features between MSA-C and MSA-P. @*Methods@#Two autopsy confirmed cases with MSA were included from the Pusan National University Hospital Brain Bank. Case 1 had been clinically diagnosed as MSA-C and case 2 as MSA-P. The severity of neuronal loss and gliosis as well as the glial and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions were semiquantitatively assessed in both striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar regions. Based on the grading system, pathological phenotypes of MSA were classified as striatonigral degeneration (SND) predominant (SND type), olivopontocerebellar degeneration (OPC) predominant (OPC type), or equivalent SND and OPC pathology (SND=OPC type). @*Results@#Both cases showed widespread and abundant α-synuclein positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions in association with neurodegenerative changes in striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar structures, leading to the primary pathological diagnosis of MSA. Primary age-related tauopathy was incidentally found but Lewy bodies were not in both cases. The pathological phenotypes of MSA were MSA-OPC type in case 1 and MSA-SND=OPC type in case 2. @*Conclusions@#Our data suggest that clinical phenotypes of MSA reflect the pathological characteristics.

17.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 275-284, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833990

ABSTRACT

Biosignals such as electrocardiogram or photoplethysmogram are widely used for determining and monitoring the medical condition of patients. It was recently discovered that more information could be gathered from biosignals by applying artificial intelligence (AI). At present, one of the most impactful advancements in AI is deep learning. Deep learning-based models can extract important features from raw data without feature engineering by humans, provided the amount of data is sufficient. This AI-enabled feature presents opportunities to obtain latent information that may be used as a digital biomarker for detecting or predicting a clinical outcome or event without further invasive evaluation. However, the black box model of deep learning is difficult to understand for clinicians familiar with a conventional method of analysis of biosignals. A basic knowledge of AI and machine learning is required for the clinicians to properly interpret the extracted information and to adopt it in clinical practice. This review covers the basics of AI and machine learning, and the feasibility of their application to real-life situations by clinicians in the near future.

18.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 341-346, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833214

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the influence of intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering eye drops on myopic retinoschisis. @*Methods@#We investigated myopic retinoschisis patients with high myopia (defined as a myopic refractive error more than -8.0 dioptersor an axial length longer than 26.5 mm), who were suspected of having glaucomatous optic neuropathy, using IOP-loweringeye drops between April 2014 and December 2018. We retrospectively analyzed the changes in optical coherence tomographyfindings after 6 months using IOP-lowering eye drops. The progression of retinoschisis was assessed by analyzing retinalvolume changes. A decrease in the total retina volume and a decrease in volume more than 10% in one section out of five withoutmore than a 10% volume increase in any other section was defined as resolution of myopic retinoschisis. The opposite casewas defined as an aggravation. @*Results@#We analyzed 17 eyes of 15 patients with high myopia. Six of 17 eyes (35.3%) showed a resolution of myopic retinoschisisat 6 months after using IOP-lowering eye drops. Of the 17 eyes, two (11.8%) experienced progression of myopicretinoschisis. Seven out of 14 eyes (50.0%) who were followed-up over 1 year showed resolution of myopic retinoschisis, andtwo eyes (14.3%) experienced progression of myopic retinoschisis. There was no macular hole development or posterior vitreousdetachment during the follow-up period in the seven eyes, and there was no significant correlation between the absolute valueof the initial IOP, axial length, IOP change, and degree of improvement of myopic retinoschisis. @*Conclusions@#The use of IOP-lowering eye drops on highly myopic eyes with retinoschisis showed a significant improvement ofmyopic retinoschisis, when compared to previous studies. These findings suggest the possibility of IOP-lowering eye drops delayingor improving the natural course of myopic retinoschisis.

19.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1164-1168, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900991

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the short-term ophthalmic side effects of bilateral same-day intravitreal bevacizumab injections. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent intravitreal bevacizumab injection in both eyes on the same day from January 2015 to June 2019. The patients were followed up at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after the injection. @*Results@#A total of 281 patients (153 males and 128 females) and 562 eyes were included in the study, and 950 bilateral same-day intravitreal bevacizumab injections were performed. The mean age of patients was 58.87 ± 13.44 years. The most common cause of bilateral injection was that of complications due to diabetic retinopathy, which accounted for 66.3%, followed by age-related macular degeneration at 22.2%, retinal vein occlusion at 5.1%, and central serious chorioretinopathy at 2.1%. There were 0 cases of endophthalmitis after 950 injections, 13 cases of subconjunctival hemorrhage, and 17 patients with a temporary elevation of intraocular pressure. There were 11 patients with acute intraocular inflammation after bilateral injection, but none in both eyes. Patients with acute intraocular inflammation were followed up at short-term intervals until they improved. All patients showed complete improvement within 2 weeks after injection. Comparing the patients’ condition before and after injection, visual acuity improved (p < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#In terms of the frequency of short-term ophthalmic adverse events, bilateral same-day intravitreal bevacizumab injection is a safe procedure with fewer side effects and is more convenient for both the patient and the doctor.

20.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 453-469, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898345

ABSTRACT

Major depressive disorder is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with few treatment options. Non-targeted antidepressants have low efficacy and can induce series of side effects. While a neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), is known to exhibit regulator of affective state, no study to date has assessed the anti-depressive effects of MCH in a stress-induced depression model. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of intranasal administration of MCH on depression-related behavior in stressed rats and mice. Using a number of behavioral tests, we found that MCH treatment significantly decreased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors induced by stress. Notably, the effects of MCH were equivalent to those of fluoxetine. MCH treatment also restored the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and normalized the levels of synaptic proteins, including postsynaptic density 95, glutamate receptor 1, and synapsin 1, which were all downregulated by stress. Interestingly, the protective effects of MCH were blocked by the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. These results suggest that MCH exhibits antidepressant properties by modulating the mTOR pathway. Altogether, this study provides an insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the antidepressant-like effects of MCH, thereby paving the way for the future clinical application of MCH.

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