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Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 735-741, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762112


PURPOSE: The most common method of monitoring cardiac output (CO) is thermodilution using pulmonary artery catheter (PAC), but this method is associated with complications. Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a non-invasive CO monitoring technique. This study compared the accuracy and efficacy of ICG as a non-invasive cardiac function monitoring technique to those of thermodilution and arterial pressure contour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients undergoing liver transplantation were included. Cardiac index (CI) was measured by thermodilution using PAC, arterial waveform analysis, and ICG simultaneously in each patient. Statistical analysis was performed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis to assess the degree of agreement. RESULTS: The difference by thermodilution and ICG was 1.13 L/min/m², and the limits of agreement were −0.93 and 3.20 L/min/m². The difference by thermodilution and arterial pressure contour was 0.62 L/min/m², and the limits of agreement were −1.43 and 2.67 L/min/m². The difference by arterial pressure contour and ICG was 0.50 L/min/m², and the limits of agreement were −1.32 and 2.32 L/min/m². All three percentage errors exceeded the 30% limit of acceptance. Substantial agreement was observed between CI of thermodilution with PAC and ICG at preanhepatic and anhepatic phases, as well as between CI of thermodilution and arterial waveform analysis at preanhepatic phase. Others showed moderate agreement. CONCLUSION: Although neither method was clinically equivalent to thermodilution, ICG showed more substantial correlation with thermodilution method than with arterial waveform analysis. As a non-invasive cardiac function monitor, ICG would likely require further studies in other settings.

Arterial Pressure , Cardiac Output , Cardiography, Impedance , Catheters , Electric Impedance , Humans , Liver Transplantation , Methods , Pulmonary Artery , Thermodilution
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1216-1221, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15470


PURPOSE: We aimed to establish the propofol effect-site concentration (Ce) for appropriate sedation by pharmacodynamic analysis and to determine the propofol Ce during occurrence of sedation-related side effects in pediatric patients undergoing brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 50 pediatric patients scheduled for brain MRI, sedation was induced with 2.0 mg/kg propofol; additional propofol doses were 0.5–1 mg/kg. Propofol Ce was simulated by inputting the propofol administration profiles of patients into a pediatric compartmental model (Choi model). The relationship between propofol Ce and probabilities of sedation and recovery were analyzed using a sigmoidal Emax model. The simulated propofol Ce for sedation-related side effects was investigated. Population model parameters were estimated using the Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modelling software. RESULTS: The mean values of propofol Ce₅₀ for sedation during the preparation, scanning, and recovery phases were 1.23, 0.43, and 0.39 µg/mL. The simulated propofol Ce values during oxygen desaturation (SpO₂<90%) (3 patients; 6%), hypotension (16 patients; 32%), and bradycardia (12 patients; 24%) were 3.01±0.04, 2.05±0.63, and 2.41±0.89 µg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSION: The required propofol Ce₅₀ for applying monitors during the preparation phase before the start of MRI was higher than the propofol Ce₅₀ required during the scanning phase. During low-intensity stimulation phases, such as scanning, propofol bolus dose should be strictly titrated not to exceed the propofol Ce that can lead to oxygen desaturation because of the relatively low propofol Ce (Ce₉₅, 1.43 µg/mL) required for sedation in most patients.

Bradycardia , Brain , Colon, Sigmoid , Humans , Hypotension , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Oxygen , Propofol