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3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832007

ABSTRACT

Background@#Limited information is available about the proportion of patients with degenerative lumbar spinal disease (DLSD) who have gastrointestinal (GI) and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Many DLSD patients are prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are known to carry risks to the GI and CV systems by increasing GI bleeding and thromboembolic events.This study aimed to measure the prevalence of GI and CV risk in patients with DLSD and to ascertain whether the prescription of NSAIDs is in line with current guidelines. @*Methods@#This study included 153 patients with symptomatic DLSD who were planning to undergo lumbar spinal surgery. The GI profile was checked using the GI Standardized Calculator of Risk for Event system and CV risk was evaluated using the presence of metabolic syndrome. The conformity of the prescription of NSAIDs was investigated according to the recommendations in current guidelines. @*Results@#More than half of the patients (59.5%) had high or very high GI risk, and 66% of the patients were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, which corresponds with CV risk. The rate of simultaneous GI and CV risk was 40.5% (n = 62 / 153; gastrointestinal Standardized Calculator of Risk for Event, > high and metabolic syndrome, yes). The actual prescription of NSAIDs was not in accordance with current guidelines. @*Conclusions@#Two out of 3 patients had GI or CV risk factors, and approximately 40% of patients had both. Detailed assessment of GI and CV risk in patients with DLSD by using effective evaluation tools is mandatory for optimal medical treatment.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831989

ABSTRACT

Background@#To compare the risk of low back pain (LBP) and related spinal diseases between smokers (exposure group) and nonsmokers (non-exposure group). No large registry study has so far investigated the association between smoking and LBP-related spinal diseases such as intervertebral disc disease, spinal stenosis, spinal instability, and spondylolisthesis. @*Methods@#A random sample was taken from the Korean National Health Insurance Research Database. In total, 204,066 men (160,105 smokers, 43,961 nonsmokers) who were followed up between 2002 and 2013 were included in the analysis. Patients with previous back pain or spinal disease in 2003 and 2004, patients with inappropriate data, and women (due to the lower percentage of smokers) were excluded. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to investigate the risk of LBP and related spinal diseases associated with smoking, while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic factors. @*Results@#The overall median follow-up period was 5.6 years (interquartile range, 3.48–8.43 years). Compared to the nonsmoker group, the smoker group had a higher incidence of LBP (p = 0.01), intervertebral disc disease (p < 0.001), spinal stenosis (p = 0.004), spinal instability (p < 0.001), and spondylolisthesis (p = 0.023). Compared to the nonsmoker group, the smoker group had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per year of LBP (HR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.21), intervertebral disc disease (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.30), spinal stenosis (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.41 to 1.64), spinal instability (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.44), and spondylolisthesis (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.80). @*Conclusions@#Smokers in male samples were at higher risk for LBP and related spinal diseases than nonsmokers.

5.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 682-693, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830888

ABSTRACT

Patients with lumbar spinal stenosis may exhibit symptoms such as back pain, radiating pain, and neurogenic claudication. Although long-term outcome of treatments manifests similar results for both nonsurgical and surgical treatments, positive effects such as short-term improvement in symptoms and decreased fall risk may be expected with surgery. Surgical treatment is basically decompression, and a combination of treatments can be added depending on the degree of decompression and the accompanying instability. Recently, minimally invasive surgery has been found to result in excellent outcomes in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. Therefore, better treatment effects can be anticipated with an approach aimed at understanding the overall pathophysiology and treatment methods of lumbar spinal stenosis.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765626

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVES: We report a case of Ogilvie's syndrome following posterior decompression surgery in a spinal stenosis patient who presented with acute abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Ogilvie's syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal disease that can easily be mistaken for postoperative ileus, and is also known as acute colonic pseudo-obstruction. Early recognition and diagnosis enable treatment prior to bowel perforation and requisite abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An 82-year-old woman presented with 6 months of worsening back pain with walking intolerance due to weakness in both legs. She had hypertension, asthma, and Cushing syndrome without bowel or bladder symptoms. Further workup demonstrated the presence of central spinal stenosis on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent an L2-3 laminectomy and posterior decompression. Surgery was uneventful. RESULTS: The patient presented with acute abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting on postoperative day 1. The patient was initially diagnosed with adynamic ileus and treated conservatively with bowel rest, reduction in narcotic dosage, and a regimen of stool softeners, laxatives, and enemas. Despite this treatment, her clinical course failed to improve, and she demonstrated significant colonic distension radiographically. Intravenous neostigmine was administered as a bolus with a rapid and dramatic response. CONCLUSION: Ogilvie's syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of postoperative ileus in patients developing prolonged unexplained abdominal distension and pain after lumbar spinal surgery. Early diagnosis and initiation of conservative management can prevent major morbidity and mortality due to bowel ischemia and perforation.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Asthma , Back Pain , Colon , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction , Cushing Syndrome , Decompression , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Enema , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Ileus , Ischemia , Laminectomy , Laxatives , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mortality , Nausea , Neostigmine , Spinal Stenosis , Urinary Bladder , Vomiting , Walking
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765604

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between lumbar disc degeneration and back muscle degeneration. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: In the degenerative cascade of the spine described by Kirkaldy-Willis, degeneration of the disc and of the facet joint co-occur with aging. However, the muscles of the back are not included in this model. Several studies have reported significant correlations between back muscle degeneration and facet joint arthritis. The purpose of our study was to evaluate relationships between lumbar disc degeneration and fatty degeneration of the back muscles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 65 patients over the age of 50 years who had undergone lumbar spine MRI in our orthopaedic clinic were recruited. Fatty degeneration of the back muscles was qualitatively graded from I to III by the degree of the fat signal in the muscle layer, including both the multifidus and erector spinae. Lumbar disc degeneration was graded from I to V according to the Pfirrmann grade. Correlations between the back muscle degeneration grade and radiological parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: The degeneration grade of the multifidus correlated positively with age and the grade of disc degeneration. Correlations with other radiologic parameters were not significant. The degeneration grade of the erector spinae correlated positively with age. Other radiologic parameters were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant correlation between lumbar disc degeneration and multifidus degeneration. Erector spinae degeneration was correlated with age, but not with lumbar disc degeneration. The degenerative cascade of the spine was accompanied by fatty changes of the multifidus with aging.


Subject(s)
Aging , Arthritis , Back Muscles , Humans , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Muscles , Paraspinal Muscles , Retrospective Studies , Spine , Zygapophyseal Joint
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717523

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the first results of surgical treatment using newly developed magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) for early onset scoliosis (EOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2013 to January 2017, 5 patients, who underwent surgical treatment with MCGR for EOS and were followed for more than one year, were analyzed retrospectively. The demographic and radiology data, including age at surgery, diagnosis, number of lengthening, Cobb angle, T1–S1 length, T1–T12 length, and complications, were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 6.0±2.7 years old. The subjects were 3 males and 2 females: 2 with neuromuscular scoliosis, 1 with syndromic scoliosis, 1 with idiopathic scoliosis, and 1 with congenital scoliosis. The mean number of lengthening was 9.8±2.9 times and the follow-up was 21.6±5.7 months. The Cobb angle improved from 82.0°±28.5° to 48.3°±28.8° at the last follow-up. The T1–S1 length increased from 283.1±72.7 mm to 342.6±86.3 mm at the last follow-up. The T1–T12 length increased from 163.1±50.5 mm to 202.3±65.5 mm at the last follow-up. One screw loosening complication was encountered and there were no neurological complications. CONCLUSION: The treatment using MCGR for EOS is effective and useful.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Scoliosis
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 415-422, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117401

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effect of relaxin in subsynovial fibroblasts activated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test the anti-fibrotic effect of an adenovirus-relaxin construct (Ad-RLN) on subsynovial fibroblasts in vitro, cells from subsynovial connective tissue of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome were activated with TGF-β1 and exposed to Ad-RLN (as a therapeutic gene) or adenovirus-lacZ construct (as a marker gene) for four hours. Subsynovial fibroblast cultures without adenoviral exposure served as controls. RESULTS: We observed induction of gene expressions of collagen I, III and IV, as well as the abatement of alpha-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) synthesis, Smad2 phosphorylation, and fibronectin at the protein level, in comparison to controls. In addition, protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) I was significantly induced, whereas the protein expressions of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) I and IV were reduced due to relaxin expression. CONCLUSION: RLN prevents excessive synthesis of extracellular matrix by reducing the expressions of its components, such as fibronectin, a-SMA, and phosphorylated Smad2, by increasing the expression of MMPs; and by decreasing the expression of TIMPs.


Subject(s)
Actins , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Collagen , Connective Tissue , Extracellular Matrix , Fibroblasts , Fibronectins , Gene Expression , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Phosphorylation , Relaxin , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases , Transforming Growth Factor beta
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177530

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between pelvic tilt and lumbar disc degeneration. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: The shape and the spatial orientation of the pelvis determine the organization of the lumbothoracic spine. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between pelvic tilt and lumbar disc degeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients over 50 years of age who had undergone lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging were recruited. In individuals between 41 and 60 years of age, the normal pelvic tilt is 14°. Patients were divided into a low pelvic tilt (PT) group (<14°) and a high pelvic tilt (PT) group (≥14°). Lumbar disc degeneration was graded from I to V according to the Pfirrmann grade. We defined grades IV and V as high-grade degeneration and the others as low-grade degeneration. Radiologic parameters and lumbar disc degeneration were compared between these 2 groups. RESULTS: In the low PT group, the average degeneration grade of each lumbar segment was 2.61 in L1-L2, 2.61 in L2-L3, 3.00 in L3-L4, 3.39 in L4-L5, and 3.84 in L5-S1. The corresponding grades in the high PT group were 2.34 in L1-L2, 2.62 in L2-L3, 3.07 in L3-L4, 3.76 in L4-L5, and 3.55 in L5-S1. The grade of degeneration of the high PT group was significantly higher than that of the low PT group for L4-L5 (p=0.031). High-grade degeneration of the L4-L5 segment was significantly more common in the high PT group (odds ratio=4.65; 95% CI, 1.406-15.381; p=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high pelvic tilt had a higher grade of lumbar disc degeneration in the L4-L5 segment regardless of age or gender.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pelvis , Retrospective Studies , Spine
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177529

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the outcomes of dual growing rod treatment over a follow-up period of at least 2 years in patients with progressive pediatric spinal deformity. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: The dual growing rod treatment is safe and effective in curve correction and maintenance in patients with progressive pediatric spinal deformity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2009 to 2017, 14 patients who underwent dual growing rod treatment were followed up for more than 2 years. We analyzed their demographic and radiologic data, including age at surgery, sex, diagnosis, instrumented levels, number of total operations, number of lengthening procedures, interval of lengthening, Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis angle, lumbar lordosis angle, T1-S1 length, and complications. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 11.0±2.9 years old. There were 10 male and 4 female patients, including 8 cases of neuromuscular scoliosis, 3 cases of idiopathic scoliosis, 2 cases of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and 1 case of congenital scoliosis. The mean follow-up period was 42.4±14.0 months. The total number of operations was 6.6±2.6. The average number of lengthening procedures was 4.3±2.3 at an interval of 6.9±2.1 months. The Cobb angle improved from 60.4°±27.9° to 33.5°±19.7° after the initial treatment and 29.1°±16.4° after the last follow-up or final fusion. The T1-S1 length increased from 328.2±57.5 mm to 388.0±64.9 mm after the initial treatment and 424.9±64.4 mm after the last follow-up or final spinal fusion. The average growth rate was 11.5 mm/year. Six patients experienced 11 complications, of which 4 were Implant-related, and 7 were Infections. CONCLUSIONS: The dual growing rod technique is an effective and relatively safe treatment in patients with progressive pediatric spinal deformity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Congenital Abnormalities , Diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Kyphosis , Lordosis , Male , Osteochondrodysplasias , Retrospective Studies , Scoliosis , Spinal Fusion
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 637-643, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124978

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a mainstay for medical treatment of chronic lower back pain (CLBP). Increased dose intervals for medication have been associated with increased patient adherence to prescriptions. The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of a once daily dose of aceclofenac controlled release (CR) and a twice daily dose of aceclofenac for CLBP management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized, single center, open-label clinical trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of aceclofenac CR (200 mg once daily) to aceclofenac dose (100 mg twice daily). Fifty patients in each group were enrolled for the study. The primary end point was Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) change at baseline to that at 2 weeks after medication and safety profiles. Also, change in quality of life measured by EuroQoL 5D (EQ-5D) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) functional score for the lumbar spine were also assessed. RESULTS: Within groups at pre- and post-treatment, there were significant VAS reductions for aceclofenac CR and aceclofenac (p=0.028). EQ-5D increased significantly in both groups (p=0.037). ODI scores decreased significantly in both groups (p=0.012). However, there were no significant differences between aceclofenac CR and aceclofenac at pre- and post-treatment. Patients with aceclofenac CR showed significant increases in heartburn and indigestion and adverse gastrointestinal effects, compared to aceclofenac. CONCLUSION: In patients with CLBP, aceclofenac CR and aceclofenac demonstrated significant symptomatic pain relief, improvement in quality of life and functional scores. Aceclofenac CR slightly increased gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as heartburn and indigestion.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Dyspepsia , Heartburn , Humans , Low Back Pain , Patient Compliance , Prescriptions , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Spine
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1177-1185, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15475

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To demonstrate the impact of correcting sagittal balance (SB) on functional outcomes of surgical treatment for degenerative spinal disease and actual falls via utilization of new minimally invasive lumbar fusion techniques via a lateral approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 2011 to March 2015, we enrolled 56 patients who underwent minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) and matched 112 patients receiving decompression/postero-lateral fusion (PLF) surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. According to SB status using C7-plumb line-distance (C7PL) and surgery type, patients were divided into three groups: SB PLF, sagittal imbalance (SI) PLF, and LLIF groups. We then compared their outcomes. RESULTS: The mean C7PL was 6.2±13.6 mm in the SB PLF group, 72.9±33.8 mm in the SI PLF group, and 74.8±38.2 mm in the LLIF group preoperatively. Postoperatively, C7PL in only the LLIF group improved significantly (p=0.000). Patients in the LLIF group showed greater improvement in fall-related functional test scores than the SI PLF group (p=0.007 for Alternate-Step test, p=0.032 for Sit-to-Stand test). The average number of postoperative falls was 0.4±0.7 in the SB PLF group, 1.1±1.4 in the SI PLF group, and 0.8±1.0 in the LLIF group (p=0.041). Oswestry Disability Index and the Euro-QoL 5 dimension visual analogue scale scores also showed greater improvements in the LLIF group than in the SI PLF group at postoperative 1 year (p=0.003, 0.016). CONCLUSION: Surgical correction of SI in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis using a combination of minimal invasive LLIF and posterior surgery achieved better surgical outcomes and a lower incidence of actual falls than PLF surgery.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Humans , Incidence , Spinal Diseases , Spinal Stenosis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis on the OSI (Jackson; Orthopaedic Systems Inc.) frame. Restoration of lumbar lordosis is important for maintaining sagittal balance. Physiologic lumbar lordosis has to be gained by intraoperative prone positioning with a hip extension and posterior instrumentation technique. There are some debates about changing lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame after an intraoperative prone position. We evaluated the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis after an intraoperative prone position. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients, who underwent spinal fusion at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of Gwangmyeong Sungae Hospital between May 2007 and February 2012, were included in this study. The study compared lumbar lordosis on preoperative upright, intraoperative prone and postoperative upright lateral X-rays between the simple stenosis (SS) group and spondylolisthesis group. The average age of patients was 67.86 years old. The average preoperative lordosis was 43.5degrees (+/- 14.9degrees), average intraoperative lordosis was 48.8degrees (+/- 13.2degrees), average postoperative lordosis was 46.5degrees (+/- 16.1degrees) and the average change on the frame was 5.3degrees (+/- 10.6degrees). RESULTS: Among all patients, 24 patients were diagnosed with simple spinal stenosis, 43 patients with spondylolisthesis (29 degenerative spondylolisthesis and 14 isthmic spondylolisthesis). Between the SS group and spondylolisthesis group, preoperative lordosis, intraoperative lordosis and postoperative lordosis were significantly larger in the spondylolisthesis group. The ratio of patients with increased lordosis on the OSI frame compared to preoperative lordosis was significantly higher in the spondylolisthesis group. The risk of increased lordosis on frame was significantly higher in the spondylolisthesis group (odds ratio, 3.325; 95% confidence interval, 1.101 to 10.039; p = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame with a prone position was larger in the SS patients than the spondylolisthesis patients, which also produced a larger postoperative lordosis angle after posterior spinal fusion surgery. An increase in lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame should be considered during posterior spinal fusion surgery, especially in spondylolisthesis patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intraoperative Care/methods , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Posture/physiology , Prone Position/physiology , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Stenosis/surgery , Spondylolisthesis/surgery
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1214-1221, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79771

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aim to introduce the predictive value of a quantitatively described formula model in a multicenter prospective analysis using the EuroQol-5 dimensions (EQ-5D) health scale to anticipate postoperative improvement in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease (DLSD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quality of life was evaluated in 376 patients from 17 tertiary hospitals before and after spinal decompression and fusion surgery. The five items of the EQ-5D, mobility (M), self-care (S), usual activities (A), pain/discomfort (P), and anxiety/depression (D), were checked as level 1, 2, or 3, with 3 being the worst. A minimal significant change in the calculated EQ-5D (cEQ-5D) was set as 0.05. Logistic regression analysis was performed to predict the highest successful outcome (cEQ-5D improvement after operation >0.05) with the given sets of 5 items of the EQ-5D. RESULTS: In the cEQ-5D analysis, among patients with a formula score of S+A+2×P+D≤8, 18/68 (27%) showed significant improvement in the cEQ-5D at 1 year postoperatively (p<0.05). However, in patients with a formula score of ≥9, 265/308 (86%) demonstrated significant improvements in the cEQ-5D at 1 year postoperatively (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: We suggest that S+A+2×P+D≥9 in the EQ-5D can quantitatively describe the better surgical outcome predictors for DLSD. With a definite DLSD lesion confirmed by an imaging study, patients who meet the formula scores of 9 or over and have refractory symptoms to non-operative treatment could be better surgical candidates resulting in satisfactory surgical outcomes of over 86%, than those who scored 8 or lower.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Decompression, Surgical/adverse effects , Female , Health , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Period , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Self Care , Spinal Diseases/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome
17.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 165-173, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: N-containing bisphosphonates (BPs), such as pamidronate and risedronate, can inhibit osteoclastic function and reduce osteoclast number by inducing apoptotic cell death in osteoclasts. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effect of pamidronate, second generation nitrogen-containing BPs and to elucidate matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) mRNA expression under serum starvation and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulation on metabolism of intervertebral disc (IVD) cells in vitro. METHODS: Firstly, to test the effect of pamidronate on IVD cells in vitro, various concentrations (10⁻¹², 10⁻¹⁰, 10⁻⁸, and 10⁻⁶ M) of pamidronate were administered to IVD cells. Then DNA and proteoglycan synthesis were measured and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of type I collagen, type II collagen, and aggrecan were analyzed. Secondly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in human IVD cells under the lower serum status, IVD cells were cultivated in full serum or 1% serum. Thirdly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in IVD cells under the stimulation of 1% serum and TNF-α (10 ng/mL) In this study, IVD cells were cultivated in three dimensional alginate bead. RESULTS: Under the lower serum culture, IVD cells in alginate beads showed upregulation of MMP 2, 3, 9, 13 mRNA. The cells in lower serum and TNF-α also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2, 3, 9, and 13 mRNA. The cells with various doses of pamidronate and lower serum and TNF-α were reveled partial down-regulation of MMPs. CONCLUSIONS: Pamidronate, N-containing second generation BPs, was safe in metabolism of IVD in vitro maintaining chondrogenic phenotype and matrix synthesis, and down-regulated TNF-α induced MMPs expression.


Subject(s)
Aggrecans , Cell Death , Collagen , Collagen Type I , Collagen Type II , Diphosphonates , DNA , Down-Regulation , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Intervertebral Disc , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Metabolism , Osteoclasts , Phenotype , Proteoglycans , Risedronic Acid , RNA, Messenger , Starvation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Up-Regulation
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14465

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between smoking and osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) in postmenopausal women. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Several studies have examined the relationship of smoking with hip fractures, but few studies have analyzed the relationship of smoking with spine fractures in women thus far. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study considered 1255 postmenopausal women aged 50 years and older (enrollment from April 2008 to January 2009) from 62 study sites in a nationwide hospital. The amount of smoking was calculated in pack-years. Further, OVFs were diagnosed using a semi-quantitative method. To analyze the relationship between smoking and OVFs, we used a paired t-test, a χ2-test, and a binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The past history of smoking was 7.2% in the patient group and 4.3% in the control group (p=0.025). The mean pack-years of smoking was 0.34 in the control group and 0.62 in the patient group (p=130). The mean T-score in the lumbar bone mass density (BMD) was –1.64 in the control group and –2.19 in the patient group (p=0.409). Smoking was a risk factor of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women (odd's ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.020–2.759, p=0.042) irrespective of the lumbar BMD and the medical treatment for osteoporosis and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a risk factor for osteoporotic vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women independently without regard to lumbar BMD. Therefore, cessation of smoking is important for the prevention of OVFs in postmenopausal women.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Female , Hip Fractures , Humans , Logistic Models , Obesity , Osteoporosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Spine
19.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 197-204, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bone mineral density (BMD) is known to have a positive correlation with lean body mass. Several studies have also reported the positive correlation between muscle power and BMD. From this point of view, we hypothesized BMD of lumbar spine to have a positive correlation with muscle mass. METHODS: Seventy-nine female patients aged between 60 and 75 years old and who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and BMD studies were included. Muscle mass in spine MRI was defined by the sum of the average muscle area of three axial images for each disc level. Lumbosacral muscle is the sum of paraspinal muscle and psoas muscle. RESULTS: In correlation analysis, paraspinal muscle mass showed positive correlation with BMD of lumbar spine. Lumbosacral muscle mass showed positive correlation with BMD of trochanteric area of the femur. However, BMD of other area showed no significant correlation with muscle mass. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, postmenopausal women older than 60 years with a well developed spine muscle mass, have a high BMD.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Female , Femur , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Osteoporosis , Paraspinal Muscles , Postmenopause , Psoas Muscles , Spine
20.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 757-761, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209951

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation. PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of T1 slope on degree of degeneration in patients with cervical disc degeneration. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: The T1 slope is well known parameter that may be very useful in evaluating sagittal balance. There are no reports on the analysis of the relationship between T1 slope and cervical disc degeneration. We hypothesized that T1 slope has an effect on the degree of cervical degeneration. METHODS: Sixty patients who had cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in our orthopedic clinic were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups according to T1 slope. Radiologic parameters obtained from radiography and cervical spine MRI were compared between low T1 slope group (25). RESULTS: Among low T1 slope group, average degeneration grade of each cervical segment was 2.65 in C2-3, 2.50 in C3-4, 2.62 in C4-5, 3.23 in C5-6, and 2.81 in C6-7. And that of high T1 group was 2.35 in C2-3, 2.32 in C3-4, 2.59 in C4-5, 2.79 in C5-6, and 2.32 in C6-7. Grade of degeneration of low T1 group was significantly higher, as compared with high T1 group in C5-6 (p=0.028) and C6-7 (p=0.009). Percentage of high grade degeneration of more than grand III was 65.4% in low T1 group and 32.4% in high T1 group (p=0.018). Risk of high grade degeneration of C6-7 was significantly higher in low T1 group (odds ratio, 5.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.665-19.057; p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low T1 slope had higher grade of degeneration regardless of age and gender. Low T1 slope is a potential risk factor of cervical spondylosis especially in the C6-7 cervical segment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Orthopedics , Radiography , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spine , Spondylosis
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