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Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 927-938, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999778


Purpose@#Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is emerging as a valuable non-invasive tool to identify tumor heterogeneity and tumor burden. This study investigated ctDNA dynamics in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with regorafenib. @*Materials and Methods@#In this prospective biomarker study, plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples obtained at baseline, at the first response evaluation after 2 cycles of treatment, and at the time of progressive disease were sequenced using a targeted next-generation sequencing platform which included 106 genes. @*Results@#A total of 285 blood samples from 110 patients were analyzed. Higher baseline cfDNA concentration was associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). After 2 cycles of treatment, variant allele frequency (VAF) in the majority of ctDNA mutations decreased with a mean relative change of –31.6%. Decreases in the VAF of TP53, APC, TCF7L2, and ROS1 after 2 cycles of regorafenib were associated with longer PFS. We used the sum of VAF at each time point as a surrogate for the overall ctDNA burden. A reduction in sum (VAF) of ≥ 50% after 2 cycles was associated with longer PFS (6.1 vs. 2.7 months, p=0.002), OS (11.3 vs. 5.9 months, p=0.001), and higher disease control rate (86.3% vs. 51.1%, p < 0.001). VAF of the majority of the ctDNA mutations increased at the time of disease progression, and VAF of BRAF increased markedly. @*Conclusion@#Reduction in ctDNA burden as estimated by sum (VAF) could be used to predict treatment outcome of regorafenib.

Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 391-401, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719329


PURPOSE: This study was designed to identify novel fusion transcripts (FTs) and their functional significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed paired-end RNA sequencing of 28 CRC cell lines. FT candidates were identified using TopHat-fusion, ChimeraScan, and FusionMap tools and further experimental validation was conducted through reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. FT was depleted in human CRC line and the effects on cell proliferation, cell migration, and cell invasion were analyzed. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred eighty FT candidates were detected through bioinformatics filtering. We selected six candidate FTs, including four inter-chromosomal and two intrachromosomal FTs and each FT was found in at least one of the 28 cell lines. Moreover, when we tested 19 pairs of CRC tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples, NFATC3–PLA2G15 FT was found in two. Knockdown of NFATC3–PLA2G15 using siRNA reduced mRNA expression of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers such as vimentin, twist, and fibronectin and increased mesenchymal–epithelial transition markers of E-cadherin, claudin-1, and FOXC2 in colo-320 cell line harboring NFATC3–PLA2G15 FT. The NFATC3–PLA2G15 knockdown also inhibited invasion, colony formation capacity, and cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that that NFATC3–PLA2G15 FTs may contribute to tumor progression by enhancing invasion by EMT and proliferation.

Humans , Cadherins , Cell Line , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Claudin-1 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Computational Biology , Fibronectins , RNA , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Vimentin
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1077-1087, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160266


PURPOSE: RNA editing generates protein diversity by altering RNA sequences in coding regions without changing the overall DNA sequence. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing events have recently been reported in some types of cancer, but they are rare in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, this study was conducted to identify diverse RNA editing in CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared transcriptome data of 39 CRC samples and paired adjacent tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas database to identify RNA editing patterns in CRC, focusing on canonical A-to-I RNA edits in coding sequence regions. We investigated nonsynonymous RNA editing patterns by comparing tumor and normal tissue transcriptome data. RESULTS: The number of RNA edits varied from 12 to 42 per sample. We also observed that hypoand hyper-RNA editing patterns were distinguishable within the samples. We found 10 recurrent nonsynonymous RNA editing candidates in nine genes (PDLIM, NEIL1, SRP9, GLI1, APMAP, IGFBP7, ZNF358, COPA, and ZNF587B) and validated some by Sanger sequencing and the inosine chemical erasing assay. We further showed that editing at these positions was performed by the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 enzyme. Most of these genes are hypoedited in CRC, but editing of GLI1 was increased in cancer tissues compared with normal tissues. CONCLUSION: Our results show that nonsynonymous RNA editing patterns can be used to identify CRC patients and could serve as novel biomarkers for CRC.

Humans , Adenosine Deaminase , Base Sequence , Biomarkers , Clinical Coding , Colorectal Neoplasms , Genome , Inosine , RNA Editing , RNA , Transcriptome
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 676-686, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26793


PURPOSE: Epigenetic alterations of specific genes have recently been identified as diagnostic biomarkers for human cancers. However, there are currently no standardized epigenetic biomarkers for drug sensitivity in human gastrointestinal cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify a novel epigenetic biomarker in gastrointestinal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing analysis, DNA methylation patterns of gastric, colon primary tissues and their cancer cells were analyzed, and histone modifications were analyzed using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. In addition, cancer cells were exposed to cisplatin and treated with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. RESULTS: We report that in human gastric and colon cancers, latrophilin 2 (LPHN2) is silenced by epigenetic modifications, including CpG island methylation and aberrant histone modifications. We also confirmed that LPHN2 was silenced by DNA hypermethylation in primary gastric and colon tumor tissues compared to their normal counterparts. Interestingly, we found that cancer cells with methylated LPHN2 showed higher sensitivity to cisplatin. Also, 5-aza- 2′-deoxycytidine combined with cisplatin decreased the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in cancer cells with methylated LPHN2. In addition, LPHN2 knockdown in cancer cells with high LPHN2 expression sensitized these cells to the anti-proliferative effects of cisplatin. CONCLUSION: In human gastrointestinal cancer, we found that LPHN2 is regulated by epigenetic modifications, and that cancer cells with lower LPHN2 expression show higher sensitivity to cisplatin. Therefore, the methylation status of LPHN2 is a potential novel epigenetic biomarker for cisplatin treatment in human gastric and colon cancers.

Humans , Biomarkers , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation , Cisplatin , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , CpG Islands , DNA , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Histones , Methylation
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e64-2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152458


Lapatinib, a dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) tyrosine kinases, has shown promising results as a growth inhibitor of HER2-positive cancer cells in vitro. However, similar to other EGFR-targeting drugs, acquired resistance to lapatinib by HER2-positive cancer cells remains a major clinical challenge. To elucidate resistance mechanisms to EGFR/HER2-targeting agents, we performed a systematic quantitative comparison of the phosphoproteome of lapatinib-resistant (LR) human gastric cancer cells (SNU216-LR) versus parental cells (SNU216) using a titanium dioxide (TiO2) phosphopeptide enrichment method and analysis with a Q-Exactive hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Biological network analysis of differentially expressed phosphoproteins revealed apparent constitutive activation of the MET-axis phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/alpha-serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways in SNU216-LR. Inhibition of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways in SNU216-LR also leads to cell cycle arrest, confirming the biological network analysis. Lapatinib sensitivity was restored when cells were treated with several molecular targeting agents in combination with lapatinib. Thus, by integrating phosphoproteomic data, protein networks and effects of signaling pathway modulation on cell proliferation, we found that SNU216-LR maintains constitutive activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways in a MET-dependent manner. These findings suggest that pathway activation is a key compensatory intracellular phospho-signaling event that may govern gastric cancer cell resistance to drug treatment.

Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Proteomics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/metabolism , Quinazolines/pharmacology