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1.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 7-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967612

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal motility disorders have a wide range of symptoms and affect patients’ quality of life. With the advancement of endoscopy, the diagnostic and therapeutic roles of endoscopy in motility disorders is becoming more significant. Endoscopy is necessary to rule out possible organic diseases in patients with suspected motility disorders and provide significant clues for their diagnosis. Moreover, interventional endoscopy may be a primary or alternative treatment option for selected patients with motility disorders, and it is becoming a promising field as new therapeutic applications are developed and utilized for various motility disorders. This review may provide suitable indications for the use of endoscopy in diagnosing and treating motility disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 69-77, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966881

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Helicobacter pylori (HP) coinfection may synergistically induce severe inflammatory responses in the stomach tissue, increasing the risk of developing gastric cancer. We aimed to analyze the effect of EBV and HP coinfection on the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of gastric cancer, as well as to evaluate the role of EBV infection in non-gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma (non-GCLS). @*Methods@#Overall, 956 patients who underwent surgery for gastric cancer between September 2014 and August 2015 were eligible and divided into groups, according to GCLS morphology, EBV infection, and HP infection. Clinicopathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. @*Results@#EBV and HP coinfection was significantly associated with male sex, proximal location, GCLS morphology, and equivocal p53 expression (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that EBV infection alone (hazard ratio [HR], 0.362; 95% CI, 0.131 to 0.996; p=0.049) and lower third location (HR, 0.624; 95% CI, 0.413 to 0.943; p=0.025) were inversely correlated with overall survival. During median follow-up period of 72 months, overall survival rate was not significantly different between the EBV and HP coinfection group and others (97.6% vs 86.8%, log-rank p=0.144). In non-GCLS patients (n=920), overall survival rate was not significantly different between the EBV infection group and others (96.9% vs 86.4%, log-rank p=0.126). @*Conclusions@#EBV and HP coinfection is not an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer. EBV infection status, regardless of HP infection, affects the clinicopathologic features of all types of gastric cancer. However, it does not lead to a significant difference in overall survival of nonGCLS patients.

3.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 1-13, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966638

ABSTRACT

The apprenticeship-based training method (ABTM) is highly effective for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic training. However, the conventional ABTM has significant issues. Although many supplementary training methods (TMs) have been developed and utilized, they cannot entirely replace the ABTM, which remains the major TM strategy. Currently, new TM construction is crucial and necessary due to financial constraints, difficulty of obtaining sufficient training time due to patient safety-related regulations, and catastrophic damage caused by disasters such as the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The simulator-based TM (SBTM) is widely accepted as an alternative to the ABTM, owing to the SBTM’s advantages. Since the 1960s, many GI endoscopy training simulators have been developed and numerous studies have been published on their effectiveness. While previous studies have focused on the simulator’s validity, this review focused on the accessibility of simulators that were introduced by the end of 2021. Although the current SBTM is effective in GI endoscopic education, extensive improvements are needed to replace the ABTM. Incorporating simulator-incorporated TMs into an improved ABTM is an attempt to overcome the incompleteness of the current SBTM. Until a new simulator is developed to replace the ABTM, it is desirable to operate a simulator-integrated and well-coordinated TM that is suitable for each country and institution.

4.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 188-196, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003030

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The treatment for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) generally involves eradication of Helicobacter pylori. However, MALToma lesions may recur even without H. pylori re-infection. Furthermore, the remission rate of H. pylori-negative MALToma after eradication is low. Therefore, herein, we report on endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) as a treatment strategy for gastric MALToma. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the data of all patients of gastric MALToma who underwent endoscopic resection at our institution between January 2000 and December 2021. Clinical remission was defined as complete histological remission or probable minimal residual disease according to the GELA grading system for post-treatment evaluation of gastric MALToma. @*Results@#Six patients with gastric MALToma underwent ESD. Two patients were diagnosed with gastric MALToma, which improved after eradication treatment and relapsed approximately 36 and 41 months later, respectively. These patients had singular lesions localized to the mucosa and did not experience H. pylori re-infection. The lesions were successfully removed via ESD. The remaining four patients had H. pylori-negative gastric MALToma. These patients also had single, localized lesions that were removed via ESD. All the patients remained in clinical remission until the final follow-up. @*Conclusions@#ESD is a safe and effective intervention for H. pylori-negative gastric MALToma when the lesion is single and confined to the mucosal layer.

5.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 277-282, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002995

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The incidence of treatment failures following standard triple therapy (STT) for Helicobacter pylori eradication (HPE) has reached an unacceptable level. Sequential therapy (SQ) has emerged as a promising approach to counteract the escalation of antibiotic resistance. In this study, we used a chronological cohort dataset to conduct a comparative analysis of the eradication rates, compliance, and adverse events associated with the 7-day STT and SQ. @*Methods@#A total of 789 patients underwent HPE treatment at Asan Medical Center between July 2013 and August 2017. Among them, 378 received a 7-day STT and 411 received a 10-day SQ. Baseline clinical data and treatment parameters were compared between the two treatment groups. @*Results@#SQ demonstrated an eradication rate of 84.7% (348/411), which was superior to that of the 7-day STT (74.1%; p<0.001). The incidence of adverse events was also higher in the SQ group than in the STT group (17.5% vs. 11.1%; p=0.01). Nonetheless, treatment compliance was not significantly different between the groups (98.1% [SQ] vs. 96.8% [STT]; p=0.38). Among the patients undergoing second-line eradication, the SQ group displayed a lower eradication rate than the STT group (77.8% vs. 92.4%; p=0.028). Notably, the overall eradication rate did not differ significantly between the two groups (98.3% [STT] vs. 97.4% [SQ]; p=0.56). @*Conclusions@#SQ exhibited superior efficacy compared with the 7-day STT as a first-line H. pylori treatment. Thus, SQ holds potential to serve as the replacement for the 7-day STT in treatment-naïve patients.

6.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 326-334, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001427

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aim to investigate the diagnostic accuracy and differences between Chicago classification version 3.0 (CC v3.0) and 4.0 (CC v4.0). @*Methods@#Patients who underwent high-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) for suspected esophageal motility disorders were prospectively recruited between May 2020 and February 2021. The protocol of HRM studies included additional positional change and provocative testing designed by CC v4.0. @*Results@#Two hundred forty-four patients were included. The median age was 59 (interquartile range, 45-66) years, and 46.7% were males.Of these, 53.3% (n = 130) and 61.9% (n = 151) were categorized as normalcy by CC v3.0 and CC v4.0, respectively. The 15 patients diagnosed of esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJOO) by CC v3.0 was changed to normalcy by position (n = 2) and symptom (n = 13) by CC v4.0. In seven patients, the ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) diagnosis by CC v3.0 was changed to normalcy by CC v4.0. The diagnostic rate of achalasia increased from 11.1% (n = 27) to 13.9% (n = 34) by CC v4.0. Of patients diagnosed IEM by CC v3.0, 4 was changed to achalasia based on the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) results by CC v4.0. Three patients (2 with absent contractility and 1 with IEM in CC v3.0) were newly diagnosed with achalasia using a provocative test and barium esophagography by CC v4.0. @*Conclusions@#CC v4.0 is more rigorous than CC v3.0 for the diagnosis of EGJOO and IEM and diagnoses achalasia more accurately by using provocative tests and FLIP. Further studies on the treatment outcomes following diagnosis with CC v4.0 are needed.

7.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 183-191, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001410

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Diverticular peroral endoscopic myotomy (D-POEM) is known to be a safe and feasible technique for managing diverticular diseases of the esophagus. In this study, we aim to report our experience with D-POEM and to investigate the usefulness of endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe (EndoFLIP) in determining the need for cardiomyotomy with septotomy for symptomatic epiphrenic diverticulum. @*Methods@#Consecutive patients who underwent D-POEM for symptomatic epiphrenic diverticulum between September 2019 and September 2021 were eligible for this study. EndoFLIP and high-resolution manometry results and endoscopic treatment outcomes were retrospectively investigated. @*Results@#A total of 9 patients with symptomatic epiphrenic diverticulum were included. The median size of the diverticulum and septum was 50 (interquartile range [IQR], 48-80) mm and 20 (IQR, 20-30) mm, respectively. The overall technical success rate was 100%, with a median procedure time of 60 (IQR, 46-100) minutes. The 5 patients (high-resolution manometry results; 3 normal, 1 ineffective esophageal motility, and 1 Jackhammer esophagus) who had decreased esophagogastric junction distensibility index on pre-procedure EndoFLIP underwent cardiomyotomy with septotomy regardless of the presence of esophageal motility disorders, and the distensibility index increased and normalized after procedure. The mean dysphagia score decreased from 2.0 ± 1.0 pre-procedure to 0.4 ± 0.7 during a median follow-up of 11 (IQR, 4-21) months post-procedure. No serious adverse events that required surgical intervention or delayed discharge were noted. @*Conclusions@#EndoFLIP may help decide whether to perform combined cardiomyotomy and septotomy for the treatment of an epiphrenic diverticulum. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm these results.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 884-893, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000399

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Fexuprazan is a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker that could be of benefit to patients with gastric mucosal injury. The aim of this study was to assess the 2-week efficacy and safety of fexuprazan in patients with acute or chronic gastritis. @*Methods@#In this study, 327 patients with acute or chronic gastritis who had one or more gastric erosions on endoscopy and subjective symptoms were randomized into three groups receiving fexuprazan 20 mg once a day (q.d.), fexuprazan 10 mg twice a day (b.i.d.), or placebo for 2 weeks. The posttreatment assessments were the primary endpoint (erosion improvement rate), secondary endpoints (cure rates of erosion and edema and improvement rates of redness, hemorrhage, and subjective symptoms), and drug-related adverse events. @*Results@#Among the patients, 57.8% (59/102), 65.7% (67/102), and 40.6% (39/96) showed erosion improvement 2 weeks after receiving fexuprazan 20 mg q.d., fexuprazan 10 mg b.i.d., and placebo, respectively. Both fexuprazan 20 mg q.d. and 10 mg b.i.d. showed superior efficacy to the placebo (p=0.017 and p<0.001, respectively). Likewise, both fexuprazan 20 mg q.d. and 10 mg b.i.d. also showed higher erosion healing rates than the placebo (p=0.033 and p=0.010, respectively). No difference was noted in the edema healing rate and the improvement rates for redness, hemorrhage, and subjective symptoms between the fexuprazan and placebo groups.No significant difference was noted in the incidence of adverse drug reactions. @*Conclusions@#Fexuprazan 20 mg q.d. and 10 mg b.i.d. for 2 weeks showed therapeutic efficacy superior to that of placebo in patients with acute or chronic gastritis (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04341454).

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 894-904, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000396

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although an association between achalasia and esophageal cancer has been reported, whether achalasia confers a substantial increase in mortality is unknown. Moreover, the causes of death related to achalasia have not been investigated. We performed this nationwide, population-based cohort study on achalasia because no such study has been performed since the introduction of high-resolution manometry in 2008. @*Methods@#This study was performed using data extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, covering a 9-year period from 2009 to 2017. Control participants without a diagnostic code for achalasia were randomly selected and matched by sex and birth year at a case-to-control ratio of 1:4. Data on the cause of death from Statistics Korea were also analyzed. @*Results@#The overall incidence of achalasia was 0.68 per 100,000 person-years, and the prevalence was 6.46 per 100,000 population. Patients with achalasia (n=3,063) had significantly higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for esophageal cancer (aHR, 3.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 9.22; p=0.017), pneumonia (aHR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.89 to 2.81; p<0.001), aspiration pneumonia (aHR, 3.92; 95% CI, 2.38 to 6.48; p<0.001), and mortality (aHR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.44 to 1.94; p<0.001). Esophageal cancer carried the highest mortality risk (aHR, 8.82; 95% CI, 2.35 to 33.16; p=0.001), while pneumonia had the highest non-cancer mortality risk (aHR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.31 to 3.96; p=0.004). @*Conclusions@#In this nationwide study, achalasia was associated with increased risk of mortality.Esophageal cancer and pneumonia were the most common comorbidities and the major causes of death in patients with achalasia.

10.
Gut and Liver ; : 375-381, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000380

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a fast and simple method for the simultaneous detection of clarithromycin (CLR) resistance and Helicobacter pylori. We evaluated the effectiveness of RT-PCR compared to that of the rapid urease test (RUT) and assessed its value in verifying CLR resistance. @*Methods@#A total of 70 specimens with confirmed H. pylori infection in culture were enrolled and analyzed in this prospective study. All specimens were subjected to RT-PCR assay using fluorescence melting peak signals to detect H. pylori infection and CLR resistances caused by either A2142G or A2143G mutations in the 23S ribosomal RNA gene (23S rRNA). The results were compared to those of RUT and antimicrobial susceptibility culturing tests to investigate the efficacy of RT-PCR. @*Results@#Among the 70 specimens analyzed, the positivity rate was 97.1% (68/70) with RT-PCR and 82.9% (58/70) with RUT. CLR resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration >1.0 μg/mL) was confirmed in 18.6% (13/70), and fluorescence melting curve analysis showed that 84.6% (11/13) had point mutations in 23S rRNA. Ten specimens had only A2143G mutation, and one specimen contained both A2142G and A2143G mutations. @*Conclusions@#RT-PCR assay was found to be more efficient than RUT in detecting H. pylori infection and could effectively verify CLR resistance compared to the antimicrobial susceptibility culturing test. Considering the high sensitivity and accessibility of RT-PCR method, it could be used to easily detect CLR-resistant H. pylori, thus helping clinicians select suitable treatment regimen and improve the eradication rate.

11.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 474-482, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938105

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We evaluated the clinical significance and prognostic power of functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry in patients with achalasia treated with peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), and examined the clinical parameters associated with symptomatic improvement and the presence of contractility (POC) following POEM. @*Methods@#We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients with achalasia treated with FLIP panometry and POEM at a tertiary teaching hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Follow-up examination was composed of esophageal manometry and questionnaires on symptoms. We analyzed the FLIP data by interpolating using the cubic spline method in MATLAB. @*Results@#We retrospectively analyzed 33 men and 35 women (mean age: 52 ± 17 years), of whom 14, 39, and 15 patients were diagnosed with achalasia types I, II, and III, respectively. The FLIP panometry diagnoses were reduced esophagogastric junction opening (REO) with a retrograde contractile response (n = 43); REO with an absent contractile response (n = 5); REO with a normal contractile response (n = 11); and a retrograde contractile response (n = 9). Overall, the patients showed improvements in Eckardt scores following POEM from 6.48 ± 2.20 to 1.16 ± 1.15 (P < 0.01). Post-POEM symptomatic improvement was not significantly associated with any of the clinical parameters, including panometry diagnosis. Conversely, post-POEM POC was significantly associated with the presence of repetitive antegrade contractions and achalasia subtypes (both P < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#While FLIP panometry was not significantly associated with the clinical course of achalasia, FLIP panometry was associated with POC following POEM and may complement manometry in the functional evaluation of esophageal motility disorders.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e227-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938061

ABSTRACT

Background@#The rapid urease test (RUT) is a major diagnostic tool for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection. This study aimed to establish an objective method for measuring the color changes in the RUT kit to improve the test’s diagnostic accuracy. @*Methods@#A UV-visible spectrophotometer was selected as the colorimeter; experiments were conducted in three stages to objectively identify the color changes in the RUT kit. @*Results@#First, the urea broth solution showed an identifiable color change from yellow to red as the pH increased by 0.2. The largest transmittance difference detected using the UV-visible spectrophotometer was observed at a 590-nm wavelength. Second, the commercialized RUT kit also showed a gradual color change according to the pH change detected using the UV-visible spectrophotometer. Third, 13 cases of negative RUT results with a biopsy specimen and 16 of positive RUT results were collected. The transmittance detected using the UV-visible spectrophotometer showed a clear division between the positive and negative RUT groups; the largest difference was observed at a 559-nm wavelength. The lowest transmittance in the negative RUT group was 64, while the highest in the positive RUT group was 56, at the 559-nm wavelength. The UV-visible spectrophotometry reading showed a consistency of 92.7% compared with that of manual reading. @*Conclusion@#A transmittance of 60 at a 559-nm wavelength detected using UV-visible spectrophotometer can be used as a cutoff value for interpreting RUT results; this will help develop an automatic RUT kit reader with a high accuracy.

13.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 247-254, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926111

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To analyze various adverse events (AEs) related to the peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) procedure and to analyze whether these AEs are related to an extended hospital stay. @*Methods@#Patients admitted for POEM for esophageal motility disorders from August 2012 to February 2020 at 5 centers were retrospectively collected. Length of hospital stay, AEs during or after the POEM procedure were analyzed. @*Results@#Of the 328 patients, 63.1% did not have any AEs, but 2.4% had major AEs, and 33.4% had minor AEs. Major AEs included mucosal injury, bleeding, and hemothorax, accounting for 1.5%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively. Among the minor AEs, pneumoperitoneum was the most common gas-related AEs. Among non-gas-related minor AEs, pneumonia was the most common at 4.6%, followed by pain, fever, and pleural effusion. All major AEs had meaningful delayed discharge and significantly extended hospital stay compared to the no AEs group (median differences range 4.5-9.0 days). Among gas-related minor AEs, except for 4 cases of emphysema, the extended hospital stay was meaningless. All non-gas-related minor AEs was associated with a significant prolongation of hospital stay compared to that in the no AEs group (median differences range 2.0-4.0 days). @*Conclusions@#In conclusion, most gas-related minor AEs do not significantly affect the patient’s clinical course. However, subcutaneous emphysema and minor non-gas related AEs such as pneumonia, pain, fever, and pleural effusion can prolong the hospital stay, therefore careful observation is required. Efforts will be made to reduce major AEs that significantly prolong hospitalization.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e184-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925919

ABSTRACT

Background@#No definite guidelines for the management of small esophageal subepithelial tumors (SETs) have been established, because there are limited data and studies on their natural history. We aimed to assess the natural history and propose optimal management strategies for small esophageal SETs. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed as esophageal SETs ≤ 30 mm in size between 2003 and 2017 using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with a minimal follow-up of 3 months were enrolled, and their esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and EUS were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Of 275 esophageal SETs in 262 patients, the initial size was < 10 mm, 10–20 mm, and 20–30 mm in 104 (37.8%), 105 (38.2%), and 66 (24.0%) lesions, respectively. Only 22 (8.0%) SETs showed significant changes in size and/or echogenicity and/or morphology at a median of 40 months (range, 4–120 months). Tissues of 6 SETs showing interval changes were obtained using EUS-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy; 1 was identified as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and was surgically resected, while the other 5 were leiomyomas and were regularly observed. Eight SETs showing interval changes were resected surgically or endoscopically without pathological confirmation; 1 was a GIST, 2 were granular cell tumors, and the other 5 were leiomyomas. @*Conclusion@#Regular follow-up with EGD or EUS may be necessary for esophageal SETs ≤ 30 mm in size considering that small portion of them has a possibility of malignant potential. When esophageal SETs ≤ 30 mm show significant interval changes, pathological confirmation may precede treatment to avoid unnecessary resection.

15.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 381-389, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925798

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The treatment of superficial esophageal neoplasms (SENs) in cirrhotic patients is challenging and rarely investigated. We evaluated the outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to determine the efficacy and safety of treating SENs in patients with liver cirrhosis. @*Methods@#The baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients who underwent ESD for SENs between November 2005 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#ESD was performed in 437 patients with 481 SENs, including 15 cirrhotic patients with 17 SENs. En bloc resection (88.2% vs. 97.0%) and curative resection (64.7% vs. 78.9%) rates were not different between the cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis groups (p=0.105 and p=0.224, respectively). Bleeding was more common in cirrhotic patients (p=0.054), and all cases were successfully controlled endoscopically. The median procedure and hospitalization duration did not differ between the groups. Overall survival was lower in cirrhotic patients (p=0.003), while disease-specific survival did not differ between the groups (p=0.85). @*Conclusions@#ESD could be a safe and effective treatment option for SENs in patients with cirrhosis. Detailed preprocedural assessments are needed, including determination of liver function, esophageal varix status, and remaining life expectancy, to identify patients who will obtain the greatest benefit.

16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 505-516, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925688

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the real-world efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and to identify clinicolaboratory factors to predict treatment outcomes in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving ICIs. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty patients with metastatic or unresectable ESCC treated with nivolumab (n=48) or pembrolizumab (n=12) as ≥ second-line treatment between 2016 and 2019 at Asan Medical Center were included. @*Results@#The median age of the patients was 68 years (range, 52 to 76 years), and 93.3% were male. Most patients had metastatic disease (81.7%) and had been previously treated with fluoropyrimidines, platinum, and taxane. In 53 patients with measurable disease, the overall response rate and disease control rate were 15.1% and 35.8%, respectively. With a median follow-up duration of 16.0 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54 to 2.19) and 6.4 months (95% CI, 4.77 to 8.11), respectively. After multivariate analysis, recent use of antibiotics, low prognostic nutrition index (< 35.93), high Glasgow Prognosis Score (≥ 1) at baseline, and ≥ 1.4-fold increase in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio after one cycle from baseline were significantly unfavorable factors for both PFS and OS. Younger age (< 65 years) was a significant factor for unfavorable PFS and hyponatremia (< 135 mmol/L) for unfavorable OS. @*Conclusion@#The use of ICIs after the failure of chemotherapy showed comparable efficacy in patients with advanced ESCC in real practice; this may be associated with host immune-nutritional status, which could be predicted by clinical and routine laboratory factors.

17.
Gut and Liver ; : 483-486, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925021

ABSTRACT

A pyloric gland adenoma is a rare neoplasm that occurs most frequently in the stomach and should be removed because of its precancerous potential. Although there have been case reports of pyloric gland adenomas in extragastric areas such as the duodenum, pancreas, and bile duct, esophageal pyloric gland adenoma has never been reported in Korea. Herein, we report a case of esophageal pyloric gland adenoma that was successfully treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

18.
Gut and Liver ; : 198-206, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925006

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Postprocedural bleeding is known to be relatively low after argon plasma coagulation (APC) for gastric neoplasms; however, there are few studies proving the effect of antithrombotic agents. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of delayed bleeding (DB) based on antithrombotic agents administered and to identify the risk factors for DB in APC for gastric tumors. @*Methods@#A total of 785 patients with 824 lesions underwent APC for single gastric neoplasm between January 2011 and January 2018. After exclusion, 719 and 102 lesions were classified as belonging to the non-antithrombotics (non-AT) and AT groups, respectively. The clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups, and we determined the risk factors for DB in gastric APC. @*Results@#Of the total 821 cases, DB occurred in 20 cases (2.4%): 17 cases in the non-AT group and three cases in the AT group (2.4% vs 2.9%, p=0.728). Multivariate analysis of the risk factors for DB confirmed the following significant, independent risk factors: male sex (odds ratio, 7.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 57.69; p=0.048) and chronic kidney disease (odds ratio, 4.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.57 to 13.02; p=0.005). Thromboembolic events and perforation were not observed in all patients regardless of whether they took AT agents. @*Conclusions@#AT therapy is acceptably safe in gastric APC because it does not significantly increase the incidence of DB. However, patients with chronic kidney disease or male sex need to receive careful follow-up on the incidence of post-APC bleeding.

19.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 223-230, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900385

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#S-isomer (S) pantoprazole is more bioavailable and less dependent on cytochrome 2C19 than is racemic pantoprazole. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 10 mg S-pantoprazole for treatment of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). @*Methods@#In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled, multicenter study, 174 NERD patients were randomized to one of both treatment groups: 10 mg S-pantoprazole, or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. Symptoms and safety were assessed. The efficacy endpoints were complete relief of symptoms, > 50% improvement of all reflux symptoms and recurrence. @*Results@#Eighty-eight patients were assigned to the S-pantoprazole group (25 males, mean 43.7 years old) and 86 to the placebo group (32 males, mean 43.0 years old), and 163 patients were subjected to full Analysis Set. A higher proportion of patients in the S-pantoprazole group had complete symptom relief (42.0 % [34/81] vs 17.1% [14/82], P 50% symptom responses (66.0% vs 50.0%, P = 0.010 for heartburn; 64.2% vs 28.0%, P = 0.010 for acid regurgitation; and 51.9% vs 30.5%, P = 0.03 for epigastric discomfort) compared to the placebo group. The factors associated with poor responsiveness to PPI were older age, female, greater body mass index, and severe baseline symptoms. @*Conclusions@#Low dose of S-pantoprazole (10 mg) for 4 weeks was more efficacious than placebo in providing reflux symptom relief in patients with NERD, especially acid regurgitation. More doses or longer periods of treatment with S-pantoprazole would be needed to completely eliminate symptoms.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e88-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899846

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endoscopic surveillance after total gastrectomy (TG) for gastric cancer is routinely performed to detect tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events.However, the reports on the clinical benefits of endoscopic surveillance are ambiguous. We investigated the clinical benefit of endoscopic surveillance after TG for gastric cancer. @*Methods@#We analyzed 848 patients who underwent TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer between 2011 and 2012 (380 early gastric cancer and 468 advanced gastric cancer) and underwent regular postoperative surveillance with endoscopy and abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) with contrast. @*Results@#Median follow-up periods were 58 months for both endoscopy (range, 3–96) and abdominopelvic CT (range, 1–96). Tumor recurrence occurred in 167 patients (19.7%), of whom seven (4.2%) were locoregional recurrences in the peri-anastomotic area (n = 5) or regional gastric lymph nodes (n = 2). Whereas the peri-anastomotic recurrences were detected by both endoscopy and abdominopelvic CT, regional lymph node recurrences were only detected by abdominopelvic CT. Out of the 23 events of postoperative adverse events, the majority (87%) were detected by radiologic examinations; three events of benign strictures in the anastomotic site were detected only by endoscopy. @*Conclusion@#Endoscopic surveillance did not have a significant role in detecting locoregional tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events after TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer. Routine endoscopic surveillance after TG may be considered optional and performed according to the capacities of each clinical setting.

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