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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926111

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To analyze various adverse events (AEs) related to the peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) procedure and to analyze whether these AEs are related to an extended hospital stay. @*Methods@#Patients admitted for POEM for esophageal motility disorders from August 2012 to February 2020 at 5 centers were retrospectively collected. Length of hospital stay, AEs during or after the POEM procedure were analyzed. @*Results@#Of the 328 patients, 63.1% did not have any AEs, but 2.4% had major AEs, and 33.4% had minor AEs. Major AEs included mucosal injury, bleeding, and hemothorax, accounting for 1.5%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively. Among the minor AEs, pneumoperitoneum was the most common gas-related AEs. Among non-gas-related minor AEs, pneumonia was the most common at 4.6%, followed by pain, fever, and pleural effusion. All major AEs had meaningful delayed discharge and significantly extended hospital stay compared to the no AEs group (median differences range 4.5-9.0 days). Among gas-related minor AEs, except for 4 cases of emphysema, the extended hospital stay was meaningless. All non-gas-related minor AEs was associated with a significant prolongation of hospital stay compared to that in the no AEs group (median differences range 2.0-4.0 days). @*Conclusions@#In conclusion, most gas-related minor AEs do not significantly affect the patient’s clinical course. However, subcutaneous emphysema and minor non-gas related AEs such as pneumonia, pain, fever, and pleural effusion can prolong the hospital stay, therefore careful observation is required. Efforts will be made to reduce major AEs that significantly prolong hospitalization.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925919

ABSTRACT

Background@#No definite guidelines for the management of small esophageal subepithelial tumors (SETs) have been established, because there are limited data and studies on their natural history. We aimed to assess the natural history and propose optimal management strategies for small esophageal SETs. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed as esophageal SETs ≤ 30 mm in size between 2003 and 2017 using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with a minimal follow-up of 3 months were enrolled, and their esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and EUS were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Of 275 esophageal SETs in 262 patients, the initial size was < 10 mm, 10–20 mm, and 20–30 mm in 104 (37.8%), 105 (38.2%), and 66 (24.0%) lesions, respectively. Only 22 (8.0%) SETs showed significant changes in size and/or echogenicity and/or morphology at a median of 40 months (range, 4–120 months). Tissues of 6 SETs showing interval changes were obtained using EUS-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy; 1 was identified as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and was surgically resected, while the other 5 were leiomyomas and were regularly observed. Eight SETs showing interval changes were resected surgically or endoscopically without pathological confirmation; 1 was a GIST, 2 were granular cell tumors, and the other 5 were leiomyomas. @*Conclusion@#Regular follow-up with EGD or EUS may be necessary for esophageal SETs ≤ 30 mm in size considering that small portion of them has a possibility of malignant potential. When esophageal SETs ≤ 30 mm show significant interval changes, pathological confirmation may precede treatment to avoid unnecessary resection.

3.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 381-389, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925798

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The treatment of superficial esophageal neoplasms (SENs) in cirrhotic patients is challenging and rarely investigated. We evaluated the outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to determine the efficacy and safety of treating SENs in patients with liver cirrhosis. @*Methods@#The baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients who underwent ESD for SENs between November 2005 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#ESD was performed in 437 patients with 481 SENs, including 15 cirrhotic patients with 17 SENs. En bloc resection (88.2% vs. 97.0%) and curative resection (64.7% vs. 78.9%) rates were not different between the cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis groups (p=0.105 and p=0.224, respectively). Bleeding was more common in cirrhotic patients (p=0.054), and all cases were successfully controlled endoscopically. The median procedure and hospitalization duration did not differ between the groups. Overall survival was lower in cirrhotic patients (p=0.003), while disease-specific survival did not differ between the groups (p=0.85). @*Conclusions@#ESD could be a safe and effective treatment option for SENs in patients with cirrhosis. Detailed preprocedural assessments are needed, including determination of liver function, esophageal varix status, and remaining life expectancy, to identify patients who will obtain the greatest benefit.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925688

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the real-world efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and to identify clinicolaboratory factors to predict treatment outcomes in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving ICIs. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty patients with metastatic or unresectable ESCC treated with nivolumab (n=48) or pembrolizumab (n=12) as ≥ second-line treatment between 2016 and 2019 at Asan Medical Center were included. @*Results@#The median age of the patients was 68 years (range, 52 to 76 years), and 93.3% were male. Most patients had metastatic disease (81.7%) and had been previously treated with fluoropyrimidines, platinum, and taxane. In 53 patients with measurable disease, the overall response rate and disease control rate were 15.1% and 35.8%, respectively. With a median follow-up duration of 16.0 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54 to 2.19) and 6.4 months (95% CI, 4.77 to 8.11), respectively. After multivariate analysis, recent use of antibiotics, low prognostic nutrition index (< 35.93), high Glasgow Prognosis Score (≥ 1) at baseline, and ≥ 1.4-fold increase in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio after one cycle from baseline were significantly unfavorable factors for both PFS and OS. Younger age (< 65 years) was a significant factor for unfavorable PFS and hyponatremia (< 135 mmol/L) for unfavorable OS. @*Conclusion@#The use of ICIs after the failure of chemotherapy showed comparable efficacy in patients with advanced ESCC in real practice; this may be associated with host immune-nutritional status, which could be predicted by clinical and routine laboratory factors.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 483-486, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925021

ABSTRACT

A pyloric gland adenoma is a rare neoplasm that occurs most frequently in the stomach and should be removed because of its precancerous potential. Although there have been case reports of pyloric gland adenomas in extragastric areas such as the duodenum, pancreas, and bile duct, esophageal pyloric gland adenoma has never been reported in Korea. Herein, we report a case of esophageal pyloric gland adenoma that was successfully treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 198-206, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925006

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Postprocedural bleeding is known to be relatively low after argon plasma coagulation (APC) for gastric neoplasms; however, there are few studies proving the effect of antithrombotic agents. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of delayed bleeding (DB) based on antithrombotic agents administered and to identify the risk factors for DB in APC for gastric tumors. @*Methods@#A total of 785 patients with 824 lesions underwent APC for single gastric neoplasm between January 2011 and January 2018. After exclusion, 719 and 102 lesions were classified as belonging to the non-antithrombotics (non-AT) and AT groups, respectively. The clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups, and we determined the risk factors for DB in gastric APC. @*Results@#Of the total 821 cases, DB occurred in 20 cases (2.4%): 17 cases in the non-AT group and three cases in the AT group (2.4% vs 2.9%, p=0.728). Multivariate analysis of the risk factors for DB confirmed the following significant, independent risk factors: male sex (odds ratio, 7.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 57.69; p=0.048) and chronic kidney disease (odds ratio, 4.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.57 to 13.02; p=0.005). Thromboembolic events and perforation were not observed in all patients regardless of whether they took AT agents. @*Conclusions@#AT therapy is acceptably safe in gastric APC because it does not significantly increase the incidence of DB. However, patients with chronic kidney disease or male sex need to receive careful follow-up on the incidence of post-APC bleeding.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892142

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endoscopic surveillance after total gastrectomy (TG) for gastric cancer is routinely performed to detect tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events.However, the reports on the clinical benefits of endoscopic surveillance are ambiguous. We investigated the clinical benefit of endoscopic surveillance after TG for gastric cancer. @*Methods@#We analyzed 848 patients who underwent TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer between 2011 and 2012 (380 early gastric cancer and 468 advanced gastric cancer) and underwent regular postoperative surveillance with endoscopy and abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) with contrast. @*Results@#Median follow-up periods were 58 months for both endoscopy (range, 3–96) and abdominopelvic CT (range, 1–96). Tumor recurrence occurred in 167 patients (19.7%), of whom seven (4.2%) were locoregional recurrences in the peri-anastomotic area (n = 5) or regional gastric lymph nodes (n = 2). Whereas the peri-anastomotic recurrences were detected by both endoscopy and abdominopelvic CT, regional lymph node recurrences were only detected by abdominopelvic CT. Out of the 23 events of postoperative adverse events, the majority (87%) were detected by radiologic examinations; three events of benign strictures in the anastomotic site were detected only by endoscopy. @*Conclusion@#Endoscopic surveillance did not have a significant role in detecting locoregional tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events after TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer. Routine endoscopic surveillance after TG may be considered optional and performed according to the capacities of each clinical setting.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 705-712, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890774

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Data regarding the prognosis of early esophageal cancer are lacking. This study investigated the long-term outcomes and factors affecting the survival of patients with mucosal esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (T1aESCC). @*Methods@#We analyzed the clinical and tumor-specific parameters of 263 patients who received surgical resection (SR; n=63) or endoscopic resection (ER; n=200) for T1aESCC. Underlying comorbidities were scored using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome, and multivariate regression analysis was performed to predict factors for OS. @*Results@#Of the study patients (age, 64.5±8.0 years), the CCI was 1.0±1.4 in the ER group and 0.6±0.9 in the SR group (p=0.107). The 5-year OS rate during follow-up (54.4±20.4 months) was 85.7% (ER group, 86.8%; SR group, 82.4%; p=0.631). The cumulative 5-year incidence of esophageal cancer recurrence was 10.5% in the ER group (vs 0% in the SR group). The overall mortality rate was 12.9% (ER group, 12.0%; SR group, 15.9%; p=0.399). The most common cause of mortality was second primary cancers in the ER group (75%) and organ dysfunction or postoperative complications in the SR group (70%). According to multivariate analysis, only CCI was significantly associated with OS (p2 and in those with a CCI ≤2 was 60.2% and 88.2%, respectively (p<0.001). The treatment method (ER vs SR) was not a significant affecting factor (p=0.238). @*Conclusions@#The long-term prognosis of patients with T1aESCC was significantly associated with underlying comorbidities.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 537-545, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890741

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The incidence of peptic ulcer disease has decreased in past decades; however, the trends in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) are inconsistent among regions. This study aimed to investigate the trends in PUB incidence and the effect of risk factors on PUB in Korea. @*Methods@#The records of patients hospitalized with PUB from 2006 to 2015 were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database. Standardized incidences of PUB were calculated, and the clinical characteristics such as age, sex, Helicobacter pylori infection, drug exposure, comorbidities, and mortality were obtained. @*Results@#In total, 151,507 hospitalizations with PUB were identified. The overall annual hospitalization rate was 34.98 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of PUB showed no significant change from 2006 to 2008 and decreased from 2008 to 2015, with an annual change of –2.7% (p<0.05); however, this change was only significant in men. The incidence of PUB was higher in men than in women between 40 and 70 years old and higher in women than in men older than 80 years. From 2006 to 2015, the H. pylori infection rate increased significantly in patients with PUB;however, there was no significant change in exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or other drugs that increase the risk of PUB. @*Conclusions@#Over the past decade, the incidence of PUB has decreased in a sex-specific manner. There has been a decreasing trend in the H. pylori infection rate and no change in exposure to drugs that increase the risk of PUB in Korea.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889716

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The association of serum lipids with gastric cancer is controversial. We clarified the role of serum lipids in the development, progression, and prognosis of gastric cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#In total, 412 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer were prospectively recruited, and 2,934 control subjects who underwent screening endoscopy were enrolled from December 2013 to March 2017 to conduct a case-control study in a tertiary center. Serum lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), and apolipoprotein B, and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. @*Results@#The gastric cancer group showed significantly lower HDL-C, higher LDL-C, and lower apoA-I level than the control group. In multivariate analysis, old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.051; p < 0.001), smoking (OR, 1.337; p < 0.001), a family history of gastric cancer (OR, 2.038; p < 0.001), Helicobacter pylori seropositivity (OR, 4.240; p < 0.001), lower HDL-C (OR, 0.712; p=0.020), and higher LDL-C (p=0.002) were significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Lower HDL-C and higher LDL-C remained significant after adjustments for covariates, including age and sex. In a subgroup analysis of the gastric cancer group, lower TG levels were associated with undifferentiated histology. No serum lipids were associated with overall survival. @*Conclusion@#Lower HDL-C and higher LDL-C were associated with the risk of gastric cancer, even after adjusting for age, sex, and other factors. In the gastric cancer group, undifferentiated histology was associated with lower TG levels.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903620

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The learning curve is essential in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) training to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of procedure-related complications. We compared the outcomes of gastric ESD in live pigs performed by inexperienced endoscopists with or without ex vivo training. @*Materials and Methods@#At the Olympus Medical Training and Education Center, nine endoscopists inexperienced in ESD were randomly divided into two groups (group A: ex vivo training followed by in vivo training; group B: in vivo training only), and they performed gastric ESDs. @*Results@#A total of 18 ESDs were performed. The en bloc resection rate was 88.9% (16/18), and the complete resection rate was 94.4% (17/18). The median specimen size was 2.5 cm in group A and 2.1 cm in group B (P=0.227). There was no significant difference in the procedure time between the two groups, except for the marking time (0′58″ vs. 2′58″, P=0.027). However, group A took a shorter time in dissecting the same area than group B (109 vs. 246 sec/cm2, P=0.083). Complication rates were not significantly different between both groups. @*Conclusions@#The procedure time during in vivo ESD training in pigs may be shortened by prior ex vivo training. However, the ex vivo model presented poor air inflation, unstable fixation, and excessive mucosal hardness for cutting. An advanced simulator or sufficient ex vivo training may be effective in training for the ESD procedure.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900385

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#S-isomer (S) pantoprazole is more bioavailable and less dependent on cytochrome 2C19 than is racemic pantoprazole. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 10 mg S-pantoprazole for treatment of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). @*Methods@#In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled, multicenter study, 174 NERD patients were randomized to one of both treatment groups: 10 mg S-pantoprazole, or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. Symptoms and safety were assessed. The efficacy endpoints were complete relief of symptoms, > 50% improvement of all reflux symptoms and recurrence. @*Results@#Eighty-eight patients were assigned to the S-pantoprazole group (25 males, mean 43.7 years old) and 86 to the placebo group (32 males, mean 43.0 years old), and 163 patients were subjected to full Analysis Set. A higher proportion of patients in the S-pantoprazole group had complete symptom relief (42.0 % [34/81] vs 17.1% [14/82], P 50% symptom responses (66.0% vs 50.0%, P = 0.010 for heartburn; 64.2% vs 28.0%, P = 0.010 for acid regurgitation; and 51.9% vs 30.5%, P = 0.03 for epigastric discomfort) compared to the placebo group. The factors associated with poor responsiveness to PPI were older age, female, greater body mass index, and severe baseline symptoms. @*Conclusions@#Low dose of S-pantoprazole (10 mg) for 4 weeks was more efficacious than placebo in providing reflux symptom relief in patients with NERD, especially acid regurgitation. More doses or longer periods of treatment with S-pantoprazole would be needed to completely eliminate symptoms.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899846

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endoscopic surveillance after total gastrectomy (TG) for gastric cancer is routinely performed to detect tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events.However, the reports on the clinical benefits of endoscopic surveillance are ambiguous. We investigated the clinical benefit of endoscopic surveillance after TG for gastric cancer. @*Methods@#We analyzed 848 patients who underwent TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer between 2011 and 2012 (380 early gastric cancer and 468 advanced gastric cancer) and underwent regular postoperative surveillance with endoscopy and abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) with contrast. @*Results@#Median follow-up periods were 58 months for both endoscopy (range, 3–96) and abdominopelvic CT (range, 1–96). Tumor recurrence occurred in 167 patients (19.7%), of whom seven (4.2%) were locoregional recurrences in the peri-anastomotic area (n = 5) or regional gastric lymph nodes (n = 2). Whereas the peri-anastomotic recurrences were detected by both endoscopy and abdominopelvic CT, regional lymph node recurrences were only detected by abdominopelvic CT. Out of the 23 events of postoperative adverse events, the majority (87%) were detected by radiologic examinations; three events of benign strictures in the anastomotic site were detected only by endoscopy. @*Conclusion@#Endoscopic surveillance did not have a significant role in detecting locoregional tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events after TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer. Routine endoscopic surveillance after TG may be considered optional and performed according to the capacities of each clinical setting.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 705-712, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898478

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Data regarding the prognosis of early esophageal cancer are lacking. This study investigated the long-term outcomes and factors affecting the survival of patients with mucosal esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (T1aESCC). @*Methods@#We analyzed the clinical and tumor-specific parameters of 263 patients who received surgical resection (SR; n=63) or endoscopic resection (ER; n=200) for T1aESCC. Underlying comorbidities were scored using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome, and multivariate regression analysis was performed to predict factors for OS. @*Results@#Of the study patients (age, 64.5±8.0 years), the CCI was 1.0±1.4 in the ER group and 0.6±0.9 in the SR group (p=0.107). The 5-year OS rate during follow-up (54.4±20.4 months) was 85.7% (ER group, 86.8%; SR group, 82.4%; p=0.631). The cumulative 5-year incidence of esophageal cancer recurrence was 10.5% in the ER group (vs 0% in the SR group). The overall mortality rate was 12.9% (ER group, 12.0%; SR group, 15.9%; p=0.399). The most common cause of mortality was second primary cancers in the ER group (75%) and organ dysfunction or postoperative complications in the SR group (70%). According to multivariate analysis, only CCI was significantly associated with OS (p2 and in those with a CCI ≤2 was 60.2% and 88.2%, respectively (p<0.001). The treatment method (ER vs SR) was not a significant affecting factor (p=0.238). @*Conclusions@#The long-term prognosis of patients with T1aESCC was significantly associated with underlying comorbidities.

15.
Gut and Liver ; : 537-545, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898445

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The incidence of peptic ulcer disease has decreased in past decades; however, the trends in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) are inconsistent among regions. This study aimed to investigate the trends in PUB incidence and the effect of risk factors on PUB in Korea. @*Methods@#The records of patients hospitalized with PUB from 2006 to 2015 were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database. Standardized incidences of PUB were calculated, and the clinical characteristics such as age, sex, Helicobacter pylori infection, drug exposure, comorbidities, and mortality were obtained. @*Results@#In total, 151,507 hospitalizations with PUB were identified. The overall annual hospitalization rate was 34.98 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of PUB showed no significant change from 2006 to 2008 and decreased from 2008 to 2015, with an annual change of –2.7% (p<0.05); however, this change was only significant in men. The incidence of PUB was higher in men than in women between 40 and 70 years old and higher in women than in men older than 80 years. From 2006 to 2015, the H. pylori infection rate increased significantly in patients with PUB;however, there was no significant change in exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or other drugs that increase the risk of PUB. @*Conclusions@#Over the past decade, the incidence of PUB has decreased in a sex-specific manner. There has been a decreasing trend in the H. pylori infection rate and no change in exposure to drugs that increase the risk of PUB in Korea.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897420

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The association of serum lipids with gastric cancer is controversial. We clarified the role of serum lipids in the development, progression, and prognosis of gastric cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#In total, 412 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer were prospectively recruited, and 2,934 control subjects who underwent screening endoscopy were enrolled from December 2013 to March 2017 to conduct a case-control study in a tertiary center. Serum lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), and apolipoprotein B, and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. @*Results@#The gastric cancer group showed significantly lower HDL-C, higher LDL-C, and lower apoA-I level than the control group. In multivariate analysis, old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.051; p < 0.001), smoking (OR, 1.337; p < 0.001), a family history of gastric cancer (OR, 2.038; p < 0.001), Helicobacter pylori seropositivity (OR, 4.240; p < 0.001), lower HDL-C (OR, 0.712; p=0.020), and higher LDL-C (p=0.002) were significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Lower HDL-C and higher LDL-C remained significant after adjustments for covariates, including age and sex. In a subgroup analysis of the gastric cancer group, lower TG levels were associated with undifferentiated histology. No serum lipids were associated with overall survival. @*Conclusion@#Lower HDL-C and higher LDL-C were associated with the risk of gastric cancer, even after adjusting for age, sex, and other factors. In the gastric cancer group, undifferentiated histology was associated with lower TG levels.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895916

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The learning curve is essential in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) training to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of procedure-related complications. We compared the outcomes of gastric ESD in live pigs performed by inexperienced endoscopists with or without ex vivo training. @*Materials and Methods@#At the Olympus Medical Training and Education Center, nine endoscopists inexperienced in ESD were randomly divided into two groups (group A: ex vivo training followed by in vivo training; group B: in vivo training only), and they performed gastric ESDs. @*Results@#A total of 18 ESDs were performed. The en bloc resection rate was 88.9% (16/18), and the complete resection rate was 94.4% (17/18). The median specimen size was 2.5 cm in group A and 2.1 cm in group B (P=0.227). There was no significant difference in the procedure time between the two groups, except for the marking time (0′58″ vs. 2′58″, P=0.027). However, group A took a shorter time in dissecting the same area than group B (109 vs. 246 sec/cm2, P=0.083). Complication rates were not significantly different between both groups. @*Conclusions@#The procedure time during in vivo ESD training in pigs may be shortened by prior ex vivo training. However, the ex vivo model presented poor air inflation, unstable fixation, and excessive mucosal hardness for cutting. An advanced simulator or sufficient ex vivo training may be effective in training for the ESD procedure.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892681

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#S-isomer (S) pantoprazole is more bioavailable and less dependent on cytochrome 2C19 than is racemic pantoprazole. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 10 mg S-pantoprazole for treatment of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). @*Methods@#In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled, multicenter study, 174 NERD patients were randomized to one of both treatment groups: 10 mg S-pantoprazole, or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. Symptoms and safety were assessed. The efficacy endpoints were complete relief of symptoms, > 50% improvement of all reflux symptoms and recurrence. @*Results@#Eighty-eight patients were assigned to the S-pantoprazole group (25 males, mean 43.7 years old) and 86 to the placebo group (32 males, mean 43.0 years old), and 163 patients were subjected to full Analysis Set. A higher proportion of patients in the S-pantoprazole group had complete symptom relief (42.0 % [34/81] vs 17.1% [14/82], P 50% symptom responses (66.0% vs 50.0%, P = 0.010 for heartburn; 64.2% vs 28.0%, P = 0.010 for acid regurgitation; and 51.9% vs 30.5%, P = 0.03 for epigastric discomfort) compared to the placebo group. The factors associated with poor responsiveness to PPI were older age, female, greater body mass index, and severe baseline symptoms. @*Conclusions@#Low dose of S-pantoprazole (10 mg) for 4 weeks was more efficacious than placebo in providing reflux symptom relief in patients with NERD, especially acid regurgitation. More doses or longer periods of treatment with S-pantoprazole would be needed to completely eliminate symptoms.

19.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 705-716, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890003

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is usually performed on patients with chronic underlying diseases in the general ward (GW). This study evaluated the clinical outcomes of PEG performed on patients in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) compared with those of PEG performed in the GW. @*Methods@#The medical records of 27 patients in the SICU and 263 in the GW, who underwent PEG between January 2013 and July 2017, were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#The median age of the 27 SICU patients was 66 years, and their median body mass index was 21.1 kg/m2. In the SICU group, the median baseline Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 4, and the median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 16. The median interval between surgery and PEG in SICU patients was 30 days, with a PEG failure rate of 3.7%. Acute complications in SICU patients included bleeding (7.4%) and ileus (11.1%), while chronic complications included aspiration pneumonia (7.4%) and tube obstruction (3.7%). The rates of acute and chronic complications did not differ significantly between the SICU and GW groups. The 30-day mortality rate was 14.8% in SICU patients and 5.3% in GW patients (p=0.073). @*Conclusions@#PEG is a safe and feasible method of enteral feeding for critically ill patients who require ICU care after surgery.

20.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 705-716, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897707

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is usually performed on patients with chronic underlying diseases in the general ward (GW). This study evaluated the clinical outcomes of PEG performed on patients in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) compared with those of PEG performed in the GW. @*Methods@#The medical records of 27 patients in the SICU and 263 in the GW, who underwent PEG between January 2013 and July 2017, were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#The median age of the 27 SICU patients was 66 years, and their median body mass index was 21.1 kg/m2. In the SICU group, the median baseline Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 4, and the median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 16. The median interval between surgery and PEG in SICU patients was 30 days, with a PEG failure rate of 3.7%. Acute complications in SICU patients included bleeding (7.4%) and ileus (11.1%), while chronic complications included aspiration pneumonia (7.4%) and tube obstruction (3.7%). The rates of acute and chronic complications did not differ significantly between the SICU and GW groups. The 30-day mortality rate was 14.8% in SICU patients and 5.3% in GW patients (p=0.073). @*Conclusions@#PEG is a safe and feasible method of enteral feeding for critically ill patients who require ICU care after surgery.

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