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1.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 141-147, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976737

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. To compare the efficacy and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy with coblation for the treatment of inferior turbinate hypertrophy (ITH). @*Methods@#. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 20 patients underwent inferior turbinate surgery, which consisted of either HIFU or coblation therapy. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability were evaluated by subjective symptom scores, acoustic rhinometry, and nasal endoscopy. @*Results@#. The modified nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) score and nasal obstruction visual analog scale (NO-VAS) significantly decreased in both groups 12 weeks postoperatively. The between-group differences in the evaluation scores were not statistically significant. On nasal endoscopy, the HIFU patients showed improvements in mucosal swelling sooner than the patients undergoing coblation therapy. Nasal crusting significantly increased in the patients undergoing coblation compared to the patients undergoing HIFU therapy until postoperative week 4. Mucosal preservation was superior in the HIFU patients. Although HIFU was less painful than coblation therapy during the procedure, the difference was not significant (4.9 vs. 6.3, P=0.143). The difference in global satisfaction between the two groups was not statistically significant, although satisfaction was slightly higher among the HIFU patients than among the coblation patients (4.6 vs. 4.1, P=0.393). @*Conclusion@#. HIFU provided results similar to those of coblation therapy for patients with nasal obstruction due to ITH, but HIFU therapy caused less discomfort during the procedure. HIFU therapy appears to be a good noninvasive alternative to the current surgical modalities for ITH.

2.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 146-155, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966832

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to investigate the moderating effects of obesity, age, and sex on the association between sleep duration and the development of diabetes in Asians. @*Methods@#We analyzed data from a cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study conducted from 2001 to 2020. After excluding shift workers and those with diabetes at baseline, 7,407 participants were stratified into three groups according to sleep duration: ≤5 hoursight, >5 to 7 hoursight (reference), and >7 hoursight. The Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Subgroup analyses were performed according to obesity, age, and sex. @*Results@#During 16 years of follow-up, 2,024 cases of T2DM were identified. Individuals who slept ≤5 hight had a higher risk of incident diabetes than the reference group (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.33). The subgroup analysis observed a valid interaction with sleep duration only for obesity. A higher risk of T2DM was observed in the ≤5 hoursight group in non-obese individuals, men, and those aged 7 hoursight group in obese individuals (HRs were 1.34 [95% CI, 1.11 to 1.61], 1.22 [95% CI, 1 to 1.49], and 1.18 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.39], respectively). @*Conclusion@#This study confirmed the effect of sleep deprivation on the risk of T2DM throughout the 16-year follow-up period. This impact was confined to non-obese or young individuals and men. We observed a significant interaction between sleep duration and obesity.

3.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 826-836, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000265

ABSTRACT

Background@#There was limited evidence to evaluate the association between lifestyle habits and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics. Thus, we aimed to depict the behavioral and metabolic determinants of CGM metrics in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#This is a prospective observational study. We analyzed data from 122 insulin-treated patients with T2DM. Participants wore Dexcom G6 and Fitbit, and diet information was identified for 10 days. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed for the simultaneous achievement of CGM-based targets, defined by the percentage of time in terms of hyper, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability (GV). Intake of macronutrients and fiber, step counts, sleep, postprandial C-peptide-to-glucose ratio (PCGR), information about glucose lowering medications and metabolic factors were added to the analyses. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of the distribution of energy and macronutrient during a day, and snack consumption on CGM metrics. @*Results@#Logistic regression analysis revealed that female, participants with high PCGR, low glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and daytime step count had a higher probability of achieving all targets based on CGM (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] which were 0.24 [0.09 to 0.65], 1.34 [1.03 to 1.25], 0.95 [0.9 to 0.99], and 1.15 [1.03 to 1.29], respectively). And participants who ate snacks showed a shorter period of hyperglycemia and less GV compared to those without. @*Conclusion@#We confirmed that residual insulin secretion, daytime step count, HbA1c, and women were the most relevant determinants of adequate glycemic control in insulin-treated patients with T2DM. In addition, individuals with snack consumption were exposed to lower times of hyperglycemia and GV.

4.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 627-636, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000140

ABSTRACT

Background@#Deltoid function critically influences the results of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA), and spontaneous deltoid attrition tears are frequently detected in cuff tear arthropathy (CTA) patients; however, the clinical impacts of these tears on RTSA outcomes are undetermined. Our aim was to determine the effect of spontaneous deltoid attrition tears on postoperative outcomes after RTSA without an additional deltoid procedure. @*Methods@#Seventy-two patients who underwent RTSA for CTA with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a minimum clinical follow-up of 1 year (mean, 32 months) were retrospectively reviewed in the study. Patients with a history of previous shoulder surgery or injury were excluded. The presence and location of deltoid attrition tears were determined in preoperative MRI. Propensity score matching (1:1) was performed to construct tear and no-tear groups. Finally, 21 patients, matched with respect to age, sex, hand dominance, symptom duration, medical comorbidity (obesity, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease), Hamada grade, and implant type, were assigned to each group. Clinical outcomes (functional scores, isometric power, and range of motion) in the two groups were compared. @*Results@#Deltoid attrition tears were detected in 21 of the 72 enrolled cases (29.1%). Anterolateral deltoid was the most frequent location and no tear was detected in the posterior deltoid. The tear rate increased with disease severity (Hamada G2, 4.8%; G3, 23.8%; > G4, 71.4%). No pre- or postoperative clinical variables differed significantly between the tear and no tear groups. @*Conclusions@#Deltoid attrition tears were detected in 29% of CTA patients who underwent RTSA. The most common site was the anterolateral region and tear prevalence tended to increase with CTA progression. However, RTSA was found to provide satisfactory outcomes regardless of the presence of a deltoid attrition tear.

5.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 582-596, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926460

ABSTRACT

To accurately interpret knee MRI, it is important not only to know the basic meniscal anatomy but also to distinguish it from that under pathological conditions. Thus, it would be helpful to know the normal meniscus variants (false positives) that could be mistaken for meniscal tears, and tears that could easily be missed and incorrectly diagnosed as normal (false negatives).False positives include synovial recesses, meniscal flounce, the relationship between the popliteus tendon and lateral meniscus, transverse ligament, the anterior root of the meniscus, and meniscofemoral ligament. False negatives include focal radial tears, flap tears, posterior root tears, meniscocapsular separation, and discoid meniscal tears. In this pictorial essay, we reviewed the imaging data obtained in the aforementioned cases.

6.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 506-511, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924927

ABSTRACT

Endothelial dysfunction is strongly linked with inflammatory responses, which can impact cardiovascular disease. Recently, G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) has been investigated as a modulator of metabolic stress; however, the function of GPR40 in vascular endothelial cells has not been reported. We analyzed whether treatment of GPR40-specific agonists modulated the inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with LY2922470, a GPR40 agonist, significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation and movement into the nucleus from the cytosol. However, treatment with another GPR40 agonist, TAK875, did not inhibit LPS-induced NF-κB activation. LPS treatment induced expression of adhesion molecules vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and attachment of THP-1 cells to HUVECs, which were all decreased by LY2922470 but not TAK875. Our results showed that ligand-dependent agonism of GPR40 is a promising therapeutic target for overcoming inflammatory reactions in the endothelium.

7.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 552-557, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937422

ABSTRACT

Sestrin2, a well-known adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulator, plays a protective role against metabolic stress. The β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) induces fat browning and inhibits muscle atrophy in an AMPK-dependent manner. However, no prior research has examined the relationship of sestrin2 with β3AR in body composition changes. In this study, CL 316,243 (CL), a β3AR agonist, was administered to wild-type and sestrin2-knockout (KO) mice for 2 weeks, and fat and muscle tissues were harvested. CL induced AMPK phosphorylation, expression of brown-fat markers, and mitochondrial biogenesis, which resulted in the reduction of lipid droplet size in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). These effects were not observed in sestrin2-KO mice. In CL-treated soleus muscle, sestrin2-KO was related to decreased myogenic gene expression and increased levels of muscle atrophy-related molecules. Our results suggest that sestrin2 is associated with beneficial β3AR-mediated changes in body composition, especially in iWAT and in the soleus.

8.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 365-373, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890466

ABSTRACT

Background@#Serum calcitonin measurement contains various clinical and methodological aspects. Its reference level is wide and unclear despite sensitive calcitonin kits are available. This study aimed to identify the specific reference range in the healthy Korean adults. @*Methods@#Subjects were ≥20 years with available calcitonin (measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay) data by a routine health checkup. Three groups were defined as all eligible subjects (group 1, n=10,566); subjects without self or family history of thyroid disease (group 2, n=5,152); and subjects without chronic kidney disease, autoimmune thyroid disease, medication of proton pump inhibitor/H2 blocker/steroid, or other malignancies (group 3, n=4,638). @*Results@#This study included 6,341 male and 4,225 female subjects. Males had higher mean calcitonin than females (2.3 pg/mL vs. 1.9 pg/mL, P<0.001) in group 1. This gender difference remained similar in groups 2 and 3. Calcitonin according to age or body mass index was not significant in both genders. Higher calcitonin in smoking than nonsmoking men was observed but not in women. Sixty-nine subjects had calcitonin higher than the upper reference limit (10 pg/mL) and 64 of them had factors associated with hypercalcitoninemia besides medullary thyroid cancer. Our study suggests the reference intervals for men who were non, ex-, current smokers, and women (irrespective of smoking status) as <5.7, <7.1, <7.9, and <3.6 pg/mL, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Specific calcitonin reference range should be provided considering for sex and smoking status. Taking account for several factors known to induce hypercalcitoninemia can help interpret the gray zone of moderately elevated calcitonin.

9.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 368-378, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890389

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the association of time to reach the target glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with long-term durable glycemic control and risk of diabetic complications in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#In a longitudinal observational cohort, 194 patients with T2DM newly diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013 were followed up over 6 years. Patients were classified according to the time needed to reach the target HbA1c (<7.0%): <3, 3 to 6 (early achievement group), and ≥6 months (late achievement group). Risks of microvascular complications including diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy as well as macrovascular events including ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 6.53 years, 66 microvascular and 14 macrovascular events occurred. Maintenance of durable glycemic control over 6 years was more likely in the early achievement groups than in the late achievement group (34.5%, 30.0%, and 16.1% in <3, 3 to 6, and ≥6 months, respectively, P=0.039). Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with lower risk of composite diabetic complications (adjusted hazard ratio [HR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.86 in <3 months group) (adjusted HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.23 to 1.10 in 3 to 6 months group, in reference to ≥6 months group). Similar trends were maintained for risks of microvascular and macrovascular complications, although statistical significance was not reached for macrovascular complications. @*Conclusion@#Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with long-term durable glycemic control and reduced risk of diabetic complications in newly diagnosed T2DM.

10.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 183-194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890373

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe age- and sex-related differences on the impacts of body composition on diabetes mellitus (DM) remain uncertain.MethodsThe fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey included 15,586 subjects over 30 years of age who completed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate whether muscle mass index (MMI), defined as appendicular skeletal muscle divided by body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index (FMI), defined as trunk fat mass divided by BMI, were differently associated with DM according to age and sex.ResultsIn multivariate logistic regression, the risk for DM significantly increased across quartiles of FMI in men aged ≥70. Meanwhile, MMI showed a protective association with DM in men of the same age. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile of FMI and MMI were 3.116 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.405 to 6.914) and 0.295 (95% CI, 0.157 to 0.554), respectively. In women, the ORs of DM was significantly different across FMI quartiles in those over age 50. The highest quartile of FMI exhibited increased ORs of DM in subjects aged 50 to 69 (OR, 1.891; 95% CI, 1.229 to 2.908) and ≥70 (OR, 2.275; 95% CI, 1.103 to 4.69) compared to lowest quartile. However, MMI was not significantly associated with DM in women of all age groups.ConclusionBoth FMI and MMI were independent risk factors for DM in men aged 70 years or more. In women over 50 years, FMI was independently associated with DM. There was no significant association between MMI and DM in women.

11.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 89-95, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889497

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to explore and describe the lived experience of young adult heart transplant recipients in Korea. @*Methods@#Fifteen young adult heart transplant recipients participated in this qualitative study. Data were collected from March to August 2019 through in-depth individual interviews and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. @*Results@#Their experiences about the arduous journey of heart transplant surgery and life after surgery were captured in four themes: (1) unwelcome rebirth without vitality, (2) facing unreachable ordinary tasks in life, (3) lifestyle bordering between burdensome and self-valued, and (4) finding the true meaning of a newly given life. @*Conclusion@#Young adult heart transplant recipients struggled with the burdens of their health problems, which impacted their employment and relationships. The participants' lifelong challenges and psychological turbulence identified in this study provide guidance for health-care providers to understand this population.

12.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 365-373, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898170

ABSTRACT

Background@#Serum calcitonin measurement contains various clinical and methodological aspects. Its reference level is wide and unclear despite sensitive calcitonin kits are available. This study aimed to identify the specific reference range in the healthy Korean adults. @*Methods@#Subjects were ≥20 years with available calcitonin (measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay) data by a routine health checkup. Three groups were defined as all eligible subjects (group 1, n=10,566); subjects without self or family history of thyroid disease (group 2, n=5,152); and subjects without chronic kidney disease, autoimmune thyroid disease, medication of proton pump inhibitor/H2 blocker/steroid, or other malignancies (group 3, n=4,638). @*Results@#This study included 6,341 male and 4,225 female subjects. Males had higher mean calcitonin than females (2.3 pg/mL vs. 1.9 pg/mL, P<0.001) in group 1. This gender difference remained similar in groups 2 and 3. Calcitonin according to age or body mass index was not significant in both genders. Higher calcitonin in smoking than nonsmoking men was observed but not in women. Sixty-nine subjects had calcitonin higher than the upper reference limit (10 pg/mL) and 64 of them had factors associated with hypercalcitoninemia besides medullary thyroid cancer. Our study suggests the reference intervals for men who were non, ex-, current smokers, and women (irrespective of smoking status) as <5.7, <7.1, <7.9, and <3.6 pg/mL, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Specific calcitonin reference range should be provided considering for sex and smoking status. Taking account for several factors known to induce hypercalcitoninemia can help interpret the gray zone of moderately elevated calcitonin.

13.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 368-378, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898093

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the association of time to reach the target glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with long-term durable glycemic control and risk of diabetic complications in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#In a longitudinal observational cohort, 194 patients with T2DM newly diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013 were followed up over 6 years. Patients were classified according to the time needed to reach the target HbA1c (<7.0%): <3, 3 to 6 (early achievement group), and ≥6 months (late achievement group). Risks of microvascular complications including diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy as well as macrovascular events including ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 6.53 years, 66 microvascular and 14 macrovascular events occurred. Maintenance of durable glycemic control over 6 years was more likely in the early achievement groups than in the late achievement group (34.5%, 30.0%, and 16.1% in <3, 3 to 6, and ≥6 months, respectively, P=0.039). Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with lower risk of composite diabetic complications (adjusted hazard ratio [HR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.86 in <3 months group) (adjusted HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.23 to 1.10 in 3 to 6 months group, in reference to ≥6 months group). Similar trends were maintained for risks of microvascular and macrovascular complications, although statistical significance was not reached for macrovascular complications. @*Conclusion@#Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with long-term durable glycemic control and reduced risk of diabetic complications in newly diagnosed T2DM.

14.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 183-194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898077

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe age- and sex-related differences on the impacts of body composition on diabetes mellitus (DM) remain uncertain.MethodsThe fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey included 15,586 subjects over 30 years of age who completed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate whether muscle mass index (MMI), defined as appendicular skeletal muscle divided by body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index (FMI), defined as trunk fat mass divided by BMI, were differently associated with DM according to age and sex.ResultsIn multivariate logistic regression, the risk for DM significantly increased across quartiles of FMI in men aged ≥70. Meanwhile, MMI showed a protective association with DM in men of the same age. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile of FMI and MMI were 3.116 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.405 to 6.914) and 0.295 (95% CI, 0.157 to 0.554), respectively. In women, the ORs of DM was significantly different across FMI quartiles in those over age 50. The highest quartile of FMI exhibited increased ORs of DM in subjects aged 50 to 69 (OR, 1.891; 95% CI, 1.229 to 2.908) and ≥70 (OR, 2.275; 95% CI, 1.103 to 4.69) compared to lowest quartile. However, MMI was not significantly associated with DM in women of all age groups.ConclusionBoth FMI and MMI were independent risk factors for DM in men aged 70 years or more. In women over 50 years, FMI was independently associated with DM. There was no significant association between MMI and DM in women.

15.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 89-95, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897201

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to explore and describe the lived experience of young adult heart transplant recipients in Korea. @*Methods@#Fifteen young adult heart transplant recipients participated in this qualitative study. Data were collected from March to August 2019 through in-depth individual interviews and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. @*Results@#Their experiences about the arduous journey of heart transplant surgery and life after surgery were captured in four themes: (1) unwelcome rebirth without vitality, (2) facing unreachable ordinary tasks in life, (3) lifestyle bordering between burdensome and self-valued, and (4) finding the true meaning of a newly given life. @*Conclusion@#Young adult heart transplant recipients struggled with the burdens of their health problems, which impacted their employment and relationships. The participants' lifelong challenges and psychological turbulence identified in this study provide guidance for health-care providers to understand this population.

16.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 225-237, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918905

ABSTRACT

The accuracy and convenience of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), which efficiently evaluates glycemic variability and hypoglycemia, are improving. There are two types of CGM: professional CGM and personal CGM. Personal CGM is subdivided into real-time CGM (rt-CGM) and intermittently scanned CGM (isCGM). CGM is being emphasized in both domestic and foreign diabetes management guidelines. Regardless of age or type of diabetes, CGM is useful for diabetic patients undergoing multiple insulin injection therapy or using an insulin pump. rt-CGM is recommended for all adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and can also be used in type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatments using multiple insulin injections. In some cases, short-term or intermittent use of CGM may be helpful for patients with T2D who use insulin therapy other than multiple insulin injections and/or oral hypoglycemic agents. CGM can help to achieve A1C targets in diabetes patients during pregnancy. CGM is a safe and cost-effective alternative to self-monitoring blood glucose in T1D and some T2D patients. CGM used in diabetes management works optimally with proper education, training, and follow up. To achieve the activation of CGM and its associated benefits, it is necessary to secure sufficient repetitive training and time for data analysis, management, and education. Various supports such as compensation, insurance coverage expansion, and reimbursement are required to increase the effectiveness of CGM while considering the scale of benefit recipients, policy priorities, and financial requirements.

17.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 238-243, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918904

ABSTRACT

Representative body composition related to metabolic diseases in our body include fats and muscles, and accumulation of abdominal fats and loss of muscles caused by aging are the main causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Such changes in body composition vary according to sex and age; in particular, women exhibit significant changes, especially during menopause. Therefore it is necessary to determine new anthropometric indicators that reflect differences in muscles and fats mass changes caused by aging, as well as their distributions, and to establish diagnostic criteria for stratifying the risks of metabolic diseases in both men and women. This article summarizes the underlying mechanisms and recent epidemiological findings that support how muscles decrease and visceral fats increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1850-1857, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918200

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to assess whether a deep learning (DL) algorithm could enable simultaneous noise reduction and edge sharpening in low-dose lumbar spine CT. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included 52 patients (26 male and 26 female; median age, 60.5 years) who had undergone CT-guided lumbar bone biopsy between October 2015 and April 2020. Initial 100-mAs survey images and 50-mAs intraprocedural images were reconstructed by filtered back projection. Denoising was performed using a vendor-agnostic DL model (ClariCT.AI TM , ClariPI) for the 50-mAS images, and the 50-mAs, denoised 50-mAs, and 100-mAs CT images were compared. Noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and edge rise distance (ERD) for image sharpness were measured. The data were summarized as the mean ± standard deviation for these parameters. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed the visibility of the normal anatomical structures. @*Results@#Noise was lower in the denoised 50-mAs images (36.38 ± 7.03 Hounsfield unit [HU]) than the 50-mAs (93.33 ± 25.36 HU) and 100-mAs (63.33 ± 16.09 HU) images (p < 0.001). The SNRs for the images in descending order were as follows: denoised 50-mAs (1.46 ± 0.54), 100-mAs (0.99 ± 0.34), and 50-mAs (0.58 ± 0.18) images (p < 0.001). The denoised 50-mAs images had better edge sharpness than the 100-mAs images at the vertebral body (ERD; 0.94 ± 0.2 mm vs. 1.05 ± 0.24 mm, p = 0.036) and the psoas (ERD; 0.42 ± 0.09 mm vs. 0.50 ± 0.12 mm, p = 0.002). The denoised 50-mAs images significantly improved the visualization of the normal anatomical structures (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#DL-based reconstruction may enable simultaneous noise reduction and improvement in image quality with the preservation of edge sharpness on low-dose lumbar spine CT. Investigations on further radiation dose reduction and the clinical applicability of this technique are warranted.

19.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1277-1286, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914237

ABSTRACT

Background@#The detrimental effects of excessive thyroid hormone on glucose metabolism have been widely investigated. However, the risk of diabetes in patients with long-standing hyperthyroidism, especially according to treatment modality, remains uncertain, with few longitudinal studies. @*Methods@#The risk of diabetes in patients with Graves’ disease treated with antithyroid drugs (ATDs) for longer than the conventional duration (≥2 years) was compared with that in age-and sex-matched controls. The risk was further compared according to subsequent treatment modalities after a 24-month course of ATD: continuation of ATD (ATD group) vs. radioactive iodine ablation (RIA) group. @*Results@#A total of 4,593 patients were included. Diabetes was diagnosed in 751 (16.3%) patients over a follow-up of 7.3 years. The hazard ratio (HR) for diabetes, after adjusting for various known risk factors, was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.28) in patients with hyperthyroidism. Among the treatment modality groups, the RIA group (n=102) had a higher risk of diabetes than the ATD group (n=4,491) with HR of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.42). Further, the risk of diabetes increased with an increase in the ATD treatment duration (P for trend=0.019). @*Conclusion@#The risk of diabetes was significantly higher in patients with long-standing Graves’ disease than in the general population, especially in patients who underwent RIA and prolonged ATD treatment. Special attention to hyperglycemia during follow-up along with effective control of hyperthyroidism may be necessary to reduce the risk of diabetes in these patients.

20.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 322-333, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001288

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to investigate the association between statin use and the risk of major osteoporotic fractures in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). @*Methods@#A nested case-control study was performed in patients with MetS (≥50 years) who had no history of osteoporotic fracture using the Korean National Health Insurance ServiceHealth Screening Cohort. This study included 17,041 patients diagnosed with new-onset osteoporotic fractures and controls matched in a 1:1 ratio by age, sex, body mass index, cohort entry date, and follow-up duration. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate covariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). @*Results@#During a 4-year follow-up period, the risk of major osteoporotic fractures was significantly reduced by 9% (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85–0.97) in statin users compared with that in non-users. Among subtypes of major osteoporotic fracture, a risk reduction with statin therapy was significant for vertebral fracture (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79–0.94) but not for non-vertebral fracture (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.88–1.06). Longer duration (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96–0.99, per 1-year increase) and higher cumulative dose (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95–0.99, per 365 defined daily doses) of statins were negatively associated with the risk of major osteoporotic fracture. @*Conclusion@#This study supports the hypothesis that statin therapy has a beneficial effect on major osteoporotic fractures, especially vertebral fractures, in patients with MetS.

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