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1.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 95-101, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967644

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although the Korean Society for Cytopathology has developed educational goals as guidelines for cytopathology education in Korea, there is still no systematic approach to cytopathology education status for pathology residents. Furthermore, satisfaction with cytopathology education and with the outcome of the current training/educational program has not been investigated in Korea. This study aimed to obtain comprehensive data on the current state of cytopathology education for residents and evaluate education outcomes. @*Methods@#An online survey was conducted in December 2020 for the board-certified pathologists and training residents registered as members of the Korean Society for Cytopathology. The questionnaire comprised questions that investigated the current status of cytopathology at each training institution, the degree of satisfaction with the work and education related to cytopathology, outcomes of cytopathology training, and educational accomplishments. @*Results@#Of the participants surveyed, 12.3% (132/1,075) completed the questionnaire, and 36.8% (32/87) of cytopathology residents participated. The mean overall satisfaction with cytopathology education was 3.1 points (on a 1- to 5-point scale, 5: very satisfied). The most frequent suggestion among the free description format responses was to expand educational opportunities, such as online education opportunities, outside of the individual institutions. @*Conclusions@#Our results showed that cytopathology training in Korea needs further improvement. We expect that this study will inform systematic training of competent medical personnel armed with broad cytopathology knowledge and strong problem-solving abilities.

2.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 380-387, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915798

ABSTRACT

Background@#Papillary breast lesions (PBLs) comprise diverse entities from benign and atypical lesions to malignant tumors. Although PBLs are characterized by a papillary growth pattern, it is challenging to achieve high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. Thus, we investigated the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens with World Health Organization (WHO) classification. @*Methods@#Diagnostic reproducibility was assessed using interobserver variability (kappa value, κ) and agreement rate in the pathologic diagnosis of 60 PBL cases on CNB among 20 breast pathologists affiliated with 20 medical institutions in Korea. This analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and p63. The pathologic diagnosis of PBLs was based on WHO classification, which was used to establish simple classifications (4-tier, 3-tier, and 2-tier). @*Results@#On WHO classification, H&E staining exhibited ‘fair agreement’ (κ = 0.21) with a 47.0% agreement rate. Simple classifications presented improvement in interobserver variability and agreement rate. IHC staining increased the kappa value and agreement rate in all the classifications. Despite IHC staining, the encapsulated/solid papillary carcinoma (EPC/SPC) subgroup (κ = 0.16) exhibited lower agreement compared to the non-EPC/SPC subgroup (κ = 0.35) with WHO classification, which was similar to the results of any other classification systems. @*Conclusions@#Although the use of IHC staining for CK5 and p63 increased the diagnostic agreement of PBLs in CNB specimens, WHO classification exhibited a higher discordance rate compared to any other classifications. Therefore, this result warrants further intensive consensus studies to improve the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs with WHO classification.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898999

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

4.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891295

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

5.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 1-15, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874885

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

6.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 246-252, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834558

ABSTRACT

Since 1995, the Korean Society for Cytopathology has overseen the Continuous Quality Improvement program for cytopathology laboratories. The Committee of Quality Improvement has carried out an annual survey of cytology data for each laboratory and set standards for proficiency tests. Methods: Evaluations were conducted four times per year from 2008 to 2018 and comprised statistics regarding cytology diagnoses of previous years, proficiency tests using cytology slides provided by the committee, assessment of adequacy of gynecology (GYN) cytology slides, and submission of cytology slides for proficiency tests. Results: A total of 206 institutes participated in 2017, and the results were as follows. The number of cytology tests increased from year to year. The ratio of liquid-based cytology in GYN gradually decreased, as most of the GYN cytology had been performed at commercial laboratories. The distribution of GYN diagnoses demonstrated nearly 3.0% as atypical squamous cells. The rate for squamous cell carcinoma was less than 0.02%. The atypical squamous cell/squamous intraepithelial lesion ratio was about 3:1 and showed an upward trend. The major discordant rate of cytology-histology in GYN cytology was less than 1%. The proficiency test maintained a major discordant rate less than 2%. The rate of inappropriate specimens for GYN cytology slides gradually decreased. Conclusions: The Continuous Quality Improvement program should be included in quality assurance programs. Moreover, these data can contribute to development of national cancer examination guidelines and facilitate cancer prevention and treatment.

7.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 428-435, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901268

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of synchronous bilateral triple negative invasive ductal breast carcinoma in a patient with discrepant pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Right and left breast cancer stages at the initial diagnosis were T1cN0M0 and T4dN3aM0, respectively. The patient was identified as a BRCA1 mutation carrier and treated with four cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide, followed by four cycles of docetaxel. Bilateral breast cancer stages decreased with the first regimen. However, the bilateral breast cancers showed discrepant responses to chemotherapy with docetaxel. The right breast cancer showed a continuous tumor volume reduction while the left breast cancer showed marked progression. Finally, the tumor size was 0.3 cm and 12 cm in the right and left mastectomy specimens, respectively. As bilateral breast cancers of the same subtype may show discrepant responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, close monitoring and follow-up imaging are required to avoid delayed surgery.

8.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 428-435, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893564

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of synchronous bilateral triple negative invasive ductal breast carcinoma in a patient with discrepant pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Right and left breast cancer stages at the initial diagnosis were T1cN0M0 and T4dN3aM0, respectively. The patient was identified as a BRCA1 mutation carrier and treated with four cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide, followed by four cycles of docetaxel. Bilateral breast cancer stages decreased with the first regimen. However, the bilateral breast cancers showed discrepant responses to chemotherapy with docetaxel. The right breast cancer showed a continuous tumor volume reduction while the left breast cancer showed marked progression. Finally, the tumor size was 0.3 cm and 12 cm in the right and left mastectomy specimens, respectively. As bilateral breast cancers of the same subtype may show discrepant responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, close monitoring and follow-up imaging are required to avoid delayed surgery.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e16-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Even though cervico-vaginal smears have been used as a primary screening test for cervical carcinoma, the diagnostic accuracy has been controversial. The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of cytology for squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) of the uterine cervix through a diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) review. METHODS: A DTA review was performed using 38 eligible studies that showed concordance between cytology and histology. In the DTA review, sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (OR), and the area under the curve (AUC) on the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve were calculated. RESULTS: In the comparison between abnormal cytology and histology, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 93.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.7%–94.1%) and 77.6% (95% CI, 77.4–77.8%), respectively. The diagnostic OR and AUC on the SROC curve were 8.90 (95% CI, 5.57–14.23) and 0.8148, respectively. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cytology had a higher sensitivity (97.6%; 95% CI, 94.7%–97.8%) for predicting HSIL or worse histology. In the comparison between SqCC identified on cytology and on histological analysis, the pooled sensitivity and specificity, diagnostic OR, and AUC were 92.7% (95% CI, 87.3%–96.3%), 87.5% (95% CI, 87.2%–87.8%), 865.81 (95% CI, 68.61–10,925.12), and 0.9855, respectively. Geographic locations with well-organized screening programs had higher sensitivity than areas with insufficient screening programs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that cytology had a higher sensitivity and specificity for detecting SIL and SqCC of the uterine cervix during primary screening.


Subject(s)
Female , Area Under Curve , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cervix Uteri , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Epithelial Cells , Geographic Locations , Mass Screening , Odds Ratio , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix
11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 425-438, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764279

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The role of the host immunologic environment is crucial in cancer progression. Recent studies revealed that neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), are possible surrogate markers of outcome in various cancers. In breast cancer, the therapeutic effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) differs in patients, and higher response rate reflects better outcomes. This study aimed to determine the predictive value of peripheral blood NLR and PLR for NAC response along with their prognostic role in breast cancer. METHOD: A total of 105 patients with breast cancer treated with NAC between 2009 and 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. NAC response and prognosis (disease-free-survival [DFS], progression-free-survival [PFS] and overall survival [OS]) according to NLR and PLR were evaluated. According to the optimal cut-off values for NAC response obtained from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, patients satisfying both low NLR and PLR levels (low-ratio group) were compared to those who did not (high-ratio group). RESULTS: The NLR cut-off value was ≤ 2.21 (area under the ROC curve [AUC], 0.617; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.517–0.710; p=0.030) with 94.1% sensitivity and 38.0% specificity. The PLR cut-off value was ≤ 143.36 (AUC, 0.618; 95% CI, 0.518–0.711; p = 0.040) with 85.3% sensitivity and 39.4% specificity. The low-ratio group demonstrated a better NAC response (p = 0.006) in multivariate analysis than the high-ratio group. The low-ratio group showed better DFS and PFS (p = 0.046 and p = 0.040, respectively) and longer OS (p = 0.078) in univariate survival analysis than the high-ratio group. In multivariate analysis, the low-ratio group had significantly better PFS (p = 0.049) and higher DFS (p = 0.054) than the high-ratio group. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of NLR and PLR showed improved prediction of NAC response, revealing their potential as screening tools, significant prognostic role in breast cancer patients who receive NAC. Further studies with subgroup analysis, larger population and longer follow up duration are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Blood Cell Count , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Mass Screening , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 303-307, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761499

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous regression of tumors is an extremely rare event in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with only a few reports available. With the accumulation of clinical information and tumor immunogenetics, several mechanisms for the cystic changes of HCC have been suggested, including arterial thrombosis, inflammation, and rapid tumor growth. This paper reports an uncommon case of the partial regression of HCC, which was initially misdiagnosed as a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver due to the unusual radiologic findings. A 78-year-old female with the hepatitis B virus and liver cirrhosis presented with an approximately 5 cm-sized cystic mass of the liver. From the radiologic evidence of a papillary-like projection from the cyst wall toward the inner side, the initial impression was a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver. The patient underwent a surgical resection and finally, cystic degeneration of HCC, in which approximately 80% necrosis was noted. This case suggests that if a cystic neoplasm of liver appears in a patient with a high risk of HCC on a hepatobiliary imaging study, it is prudent to consider the cystic degeneration of HCC in a differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Hepatitis B virus , Immunogenetics , Inflammation , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mucins , Necrosis , Thrombosis
13.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 303-307, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787147

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous regression of tumors is an extremely rare event in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with only a few reports available. With the accumulation of clinical information and tumor immunogenetics, several mechanisms for the cystic changes of HCC have been suggested, including arterial thrombosis, inflammation, and rapid tumor growth. This paper reports an uncommon case of the partial regression of HCC, which was initially misdiagnosed as a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver due to the unusual radiologic findings. A 78-year-old female with the hepatitis B virus and liver cirrhosis presented with an approximately 5 cm-sized cystic mass of the liver. From the radiologic evidence of a papillary-like projection from the cyst wall toward the inner side, the initial impression was a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver. The patient underwent a surgical resection and finally, cystic degeneration of HCC, in which approximately 80% necrosis was noted. This case suggests that if a cystic neoplasm of liver appears in a patient with a high risk of HCC on a hepatobiliary imaging study, it is prudent to consider the cystic degeneration of HCC in a differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Hepatitis B virus , Immunogenetics , Inflammation , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mucins , Necrosis , Thrombosis
14.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 579-587, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the current status of cytology practices in Korea. This nationwide study presents Korean cytology statistics from 2015. METHODS: A nationwide survey was conducted in 2016 as a part of the mandatory quality-control program by the Korean Society for Cytopathology. The questionnaire was sent to 208 medical institutions performing cytopathologic examinations in Korea. Individual institutions were asked to submit their annual cytology statistical reports and gynecologic cytology-histology correlation data for 2015. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 206 medical institutions including 83 university hospitals, 87 general hospitals, and 36 commercial laboratories. A total of 8,284,952 cytologic examinations were performed in 2015, primarily in commercial laboratories (74.9%). The most common cytology specimens were gynecologic samples (81.3%). Conventional smears and liquid-based cytology were performed in 6,190,526 (74.7%) and 2,094,426 (25.3%) cases, respectively. The overall diagnostic concordance rate between cytologic and histologic diagnoses of uterine cervical samples was 70.5%. Discordant cases were classified into three categories: category A (minimal clinical impact, 17.4%), category B (moderate clinical impact, 10.2%), and category C (major clinical impact, 1.9%). The ratio of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to squamous intraepithelial lesion was 1.6 in university hospitals, 2.9 in general hospitals, and 4.9 in commercial laboratories. CONCLUSIONS: This survey reveals the current status and trend of cytology practices in Korea. The results of this study can serve as basic data for the establishment of nationwide cytopathology policies and quality improvement guidelines in Korean medical institutions.


Subject(s)
Atypical Squamous Cells of the Cervix , Diagnosis , Hospitals, General , Hospitals, University , Korea , Quality Improvement , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix
15.
Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine ; : 79-85, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786898

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the SUVmax of primary breast cancer lesions and the molecular subtypes based on the recommendations of the St. Gallen consensus meeting 2013.METHODS: Clinical records of patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT for initial staging of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of SUVmax was correlated with the molecular subtypes defined by the St. Gallen Consensus Meeting 2013, i.e., luminal A-like (LA), luminal B-like HER2 negative (LBHER2−), luminal Blike HER2 positive (LBHER2+), HER2 positive (HER2+), and triple negative (TN), and with the clinicohistopathologic characteristics.RESULTS: The molecular subtype was LA in 38 patients, LBHER2− in 72, LBHER2+ in 21, HER2+ in 30, and TN in 22. The mean SUVmax in the LA, LBHER2−, LBHER2+, HER2+, and TN groups were 4.5 ± 2.3, 7.2 ± 4.9, 7.2 ± 4.3, 10.2 ± 5.5, and 8.8 ± 7.1, respectively. Although SUVmax differed significantly among these subtypes (p < 0.001), the values showed a wide overlap. Optimal cut-off SUVmax to differentiate LA from LBHER2−, LBHER2+, HER2+ and TN were 5.9, 5.8, 7.5, and 10.2 respectively, with area under curve (AUC) of 0.648, 0.709, 0.833, and 0.697 respectively. The cut-off value of 5.9 yielded the highest accuracy for differentiation between the LA and non-LA subtypes, with sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 79.4 %, 57.9 %, and 0.704 respectively.CONCLUSION: The SUVmax showed a significant correlation with the molecular subtype. Although SUVmax measurements could be used along with immunohistochemical analysis for differentiating between molecular subtypes, its application to individual patients may be limited due to the wide overlaps in SUVmax.


Subject(s)
Humans , Area Under Curve , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Consensus , Glucose , Metabolism , Phenobarbital , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
17.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 314-319, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cervical cytology for uterine cervical cancer screening has transitioned from conventional smear (CS) to liquid-based cytology (LBC), which has many advantages. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of unsatisfactory specimens from CS versus LBC at multiple institutions including general hospitals and commercial laboratories. METHODS: Each participating institution provided a minimum of 500 Papanicolaou (Pap) test results for analysis. Pap tests were classified according to the participating institution (commercial laboratory or general hospital) and the processing method (CS, ThinPrep, SurePath, or CellPrep). The causes of unsatisfactory results were classified as technical problems, scant cellularity, or complete obscuring factors. RESULTS: A total of 38,956 Pap test results from eight general hospitals and three commercial laboratories were analyzed. The mean unsatisfactory rate of LBC was significantly lower than that of CS (1.26% and 3.31%, p = .018). In the LBC method, samples from general hospitals had lower unsatisfactory rates than those from commercial laboratories (0.65% vs 2.89%, p = .006). The reasons for unsatisfactory results were heterogeneous in CS. On the other hand, 66.2% of unsatisfactory results in LBC were due to the scant cellularity. CONCLUSIONS: Unsatisfactory rate of cervical cancer screening test results varies according to the institution and the processing method. LBC has a significantly lower unsatisfactory rate than CS.


Subject(s)
Hand , Hospitals, General , Mass Screening , Methods , Papanicolaou Test , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
18.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 28-32, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643645

ABSTRACT

A 34-year-old woman presented with sudden breast enlargement that had occurred within 6 months. She also had an accessory breast mass on the left axilla. Clinical impression was phyllodes tumor. Needle biopsy revealed fibroepithelial tumor, a mixture of fibrous stroma and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. The final pathologic report was hamartoma associated with focal pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia and macromastia. This is the first reported case of bilateral breast hamartoma with hamartoma in ectopic breast tissue. The masses on the right and left breasts weighed 1,980 g and 1,233 g, respectively, while the mass on the left axilla weighed 36 g.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Axilla , Biopsy, Needle , Breast , Hamartoma , Hyperplasia , Phyllodes Tumor
19.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 233-237, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123081

ABSTRACT

Placental chorioangioma is a benign non-trophoblastic tumor of the placenta that can have various adverse effects on the mother and fetus depending on its size. Chorioamniotic membrane separation is rare condition of detachment between the amniotic membrane and chorionic membrane. Chorioamniotic membrane separation after the second trimester of pregnancy is usually occurs after invasive procedures or may occur spontaneously; it is mostly associated with fetal abnormalities. Here, we report a case of chorioamniotic membrane separation that might be occurred caused by the seromucinous secretion from a placental chorioangioma.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Amnion , Chorion , Fetus , Hemangioma , Membranes , Mothers , Placenta , Pregnancy Trimester, Second
20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 459-464, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28531

ABSTRACT

In patients with advanced breast cancer, most new calcifications detected on a mammogram after neoadjuvant chemotherapy are benign dystrophic calcifications, but this is not always observed. We present a patient with advanced breast cancer who had paradoxically increased malignant microcalcifications concomitant with primary tumor regression after undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After the neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the follow-up mammogram revealed that local, fine pleomorphic microcalcifications had markedly increased. Pathologically, these calcifications were ductal carcinoma in situ. We concluded that, in patients with breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, newly developed microcalcifications on follow-up mammograms should be carefully evaluated, and any suspicious malignant microcalcifications should be included in surgical excision planning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Calcinosis , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Mammography , Neoadjuvant Therapy
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