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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915513

ABSTRACT

Background@#Some reports have suggested that the clinical and economic burdens of asthma are associated with blood eosinophil levels. The association between clinical burden and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated in a Korean adult asthma cohort. @*Methods@#Clinical information including blood eosinophil counts that were not affected by systemic corticosteroids were extracted from the Cohort for Reality and Evolution of Adult Asthma in Korea database. Clinical burden was defined as 1) asthma control status, 2) medication demand and 3) acute exacerbation (AE) events during 1 consecutive year after enrollment. All patients were divided into atopic and non-atopic asthmatics. The associations between asthma outcomes and the blood eosinophil count were evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 302 patients (124 atopic and 178 non-atopic asthmatics) were enrolled. In all asthmatics, the risk of severe AE was higher in patients with blood eosinophil levels < 100 cells/µL than in patients with levels ≥ 100 cells/µL (odds ratio [OR], 5.406; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.266–23.078; adjusted P = 0.023). Among atopic asthmatics, the risk of moderate AE was higher in patients with blood eosinophil levels ≥ 300 cells/µL than in patients with levels < 300 cells/µL (OR, 3.558; 95% CI, 1.083–11.686; adjusted P = 0.036). Among non-atopic asthmatics, the risk of medication of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) steps 4 or 5 was higher in patients with high blood eosinophil levels than in patients with low blood eosinophil levels at cutoffs of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cells/µL. @*Conclusion@#The baseline blood eosinophil count may predict the future clinical burden of asthma.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925921

ABSTRACT

Erythritol is a natural sugar alcohol found in some fruits and fermented foods, which is used as a dietary sweetener because it has few calories. Here, we describe a 36-year-old woman who experienced anaphylaxis upon ingestion of an erythritol-containing drink. She presented to the emergency department with dyspnea and angioedema after drinking a peachcontaining diet beverage. Her blood pressure dropped to 70/40 mmHg and the symptoms improved after administration of an antihistamine, glucocorticoid, and epinephrine. After 10 days, she drank another peach-containing diet beverage and experienced urticaria. No serumspecific immunoglobulin E findings were observed, including against peach components.A skin prick test (SPT) was performed using a peach, the two ingested diet beverages, and another peach-containing beverage. The SPT results for the peach and the peach-containing product were negative, but the wheal sizes for the two diet beverages were > 3 mm. The diet beverages contained erythritol as a food additive. The SPT result was positive for erythritol. The patient was diagnosed with anaphylaxis to erythritol and was instructed to avoid foods containing erythritol. She was prescribed a self-injectable epinephrine pen. To our knowledge, this is the first case of erythritol-induced anaphylaxis in Korea. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions to food additives, and additives should be evaluated to prevent the recurrence of symptoms.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875553

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study compared the treatment outcomes of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) before and after the implementation of public–private mix (PPM). Factors affecting treatment success were also investigated. @*Methods@#Data from culture-confirmed pulmonary MDR-TB patients who commenced MDR-TB treatment at Pusan National University Hospital between January 2003 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups in terms of PPM status: pre-PPM period, patients who commenced MDR-TB treatment between 2003 and 2010; and post-PPM period, patients treated between 2011 and 2017. @*Results@#A total of 176 patients were included (64 and 112 in the pre- and post-PPM periods, respectively). 36.9% of the patients were resistant to a fluoroquinolone or a second-line injectable drug, or both. The overall treatment success rate was 72.7%. The success rate of post-PPM patients was higher than that of pre-PPM patients (79.5% vs. 60.9%, p=0.008). Also, loss to follow-up was lower in the post-PPM period (5.4% vs. 15.6%, p=0.023). In multivariate regression analysis, age ≥65 years, body mass index ≤18.5 kg/m2, previous TB treatment, bilateral lung involvement, and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)- or pre-XDR-TB were associated with poorer treatment outcomes. However, the use of bedaquiline or delamanid for ≥1 month increased the treatment success. @*Conclusion@#The treatment success rate in MDR-TB patients was higher in the post-PPM period than in the pre-PPM period, particularly because of the low rate of loss to follow-up. To ensure comprehensive patient-centered PPM in South Korea, investment and other support must be adequate.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874067

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare systemic disease and a potentially life‐threatening systemic necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small vessels. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old man with EGPA misdiagnosed as non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. He presented to the Emergency Department with indigestion and diarrhea. He had been diagnosed with asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis 3 years earlier and was taking antibiotics due to worsening sinusitis. In laboratory tests, peripheral blood eosinophils, serum creatinine, and serum troponin were elevated to 4,641 cells/μL, 13.40 ng/mL, and 1.26 ng/ mL, respectively. Electrocardiography showed ST-segment depression on the inferior wall, and echocardiography indicated an ischemic insult in the right coronary artery territory. A non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction as well as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, eosinophilia and acute kidney injury was initially suspected. However, fever persisted and eosinophilia worsened despite cessation of antibiotics after admission. There was no significant stenosis of the coronary arteries on coronary angiography. Meanwhile, abdominal computed tomography suggested medical renal disease, and magnetic resonance imaging showed late gadolinium enhancement at the mid wall and the subepicardial area in the left ventricle of the heart. As a workup for eosinophilia, serum anti-MPO was measured and turned out to be positive. A kidney biopsy was performed, which yielded membranous nephropathy superimposed on antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-mediated crescent formation. He was diagnosed as EGPA with cardiac and renal involvement, and received systemic steroid, cyclophosphamide, and plasmapheresis. Then, peripheral eosinophil counts and renal function were normalized. He is now in clinical remission even after stopping the use of steroids and immunosuppressive agents.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903734

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Weather and air pollution are associated with the exacerbation of respiratory diseases. We investigated patterns of medical care use according to meteorological factors and air pollution in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). @*Methods@#We analyzed the medical care utilization patterns of patients with asthma or COPD registered in the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment database for the period 2007 to 2013. The patterns were divided into hospitalization and emergency department (ED) use. @*Results@#The medical care use of patients with asthma or COPD increased when the mean temperature and relative humidity were lower, and the temperature difference and atmospheric pressure were greater. Medical care use increased with the concentrations of particulate matter and ozone. Among age groups, sensitivity to pollutants was greatest in patients aged ≥ 65 years. The effect of being elderly was greater for asthma than for COPD, with a higher hospitalization rate. ED utilization affected by environmental factors was significantly greater for females and hospitalization was significantly more common for males. @*Conclusions@#Meteorological factors and air pollutants were shown to contribute to increased medical care utilization by patients with asthma and COPD, particularly elderly patients. The overall effect was greater for COPD, but the effect in elderly patients was greater for asthma. In addition, the patterns of change in medical care use due to environmental factors differed according to sex.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896030

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Weather and air pollution are associated with the exacerbation of respiratory diseases. We investigated patterns of medical care use according to meteorological factors and air pollution in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). @*Methods@#We analyzed the medical care utilization patterns of patients with asthma or COPD registered in the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment database for the period 2007 to 2013. The patterns were divided into hospitalization and emergency department (ED) use. @*Results@#The medical care use of patients with asthma or COPD increased when the mean temperature and relative humidity were lower, and the temperature difference and atmospheric pressure were greater. Medical care use increased with the concentrations of particulate matter and ozone. Among age groups, sensitivity to pollutants was greatest in patients aged ≥ 65 years. The effect of being elderly was greater for asthma than for COPD, with a higher hospitalization rate. ED utilization affected by environmental factors was significantly greater for females and hospitalization was significantly more common for males. @*Conclusions@#Meteorological factors and air pollutants were shown to contribute to increased medical care utilization by patients with asthma and COPD, particularly elderly patients. The overall effect was greater for COPD, but the effect in elderly patients was greater for asthma. In addition, the patterns of change in medical care use due to environmental factors differed according to sex.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913310

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In 2014, Pusan National University Hospital developed an electronic system for the monitoring and management of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to iodinated contrast media (ICM) and premedication. We analyzed the prevalence of hypersensitivity reactions (HRs) and the effect of premedication after system development. @*Methods@#We analyzed immediate HRs to ICM recorded from January 2015 to September 2018 and the annual incidences were compared. @*Results@#Patients with immediate HRs to ICM were at a mean age of 54.6 ± 14.3 years and 53.8% were female. The overall frequency of HRs was 0.328%. In the classification according to the degree of severity, 87.2% of the cases were mild, 11.0% were moderate, and 1.8% were severe. The ICM most commonly inducing an HR was iomeprol (0.529%), followed by iohexol (0.371%), ioversol (0.359%), iobitridol (0.310%), iopamidol (0.152%), iopromide (0.128%), and iodixanol (0.036%). ICM was readministered to 49.2% of the patients, and immediate HRs recurred in 16.2%. There was no correlation between premedication with an antihistamine and HR recurrence, but premedication with corticosteroids reduced the rate significantly. After development of the electronic monitoring and management system, the HR incidence increased 1.25-fold per year, but most cases were mild and the rate of severe reactions tended to decrease. @*Conclusion@#Because ADRs to ICM are difficult to predict, appropriate strategies to prevent their development are needed. A system that documents ADRs to ICM can improve patient management.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903130

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To describe pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases after the reopening of schools in the Republic of Korea and their transmission routes. @*Methods@#All case report forms and epidemiologic investigation forms for children aged 3–18 years reported as COVID-19 cases to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System from May 1 to July 12, 2020, were reviewed. @*Results@#After the schools were reopened in May 2020, a total of 127 pediatric COVID-19 cases were confirmed until July 12. Of these, 59 children (46%) were exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 through family and relatives, followed by 18 children (14%) through cram schools or private lessons, 8 children (6%) through multi-use facilities, and 3 children (2%) through school. @*Conclusions@#The present data do not suggest an increased risk of COVID-19 transmission in the context of stringent school-based infection prevention measures introduced across the country.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There could be a gap between asthma management guidelines and current practice. We evaluated the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the internal and external barriers to compliance, for the first time in Korea.@*METHODS@#From March to September of 2012, 364 physicians treating asthma patients at primary, secondary, and tertiary teaching hospitals were enrolled. They completed a questionnaire on the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the barriers and alternatives to their implementation.@*RESULTS@#Of the 364 physicians, 79.1% were men and 56.9% were primary care physicians. The mean age was 40.5 ± 11.2 years. Most of them were aware of asthma management guidelines (89.3%). However, only a portion (11.0%) of them complied with the guidelines for asthma. Pulmonary function tests for diagnosis of asthma were performed by 20.1% of all physicians and 9.2% of primary care physicians, and by 9.9% of all physicians and 5.8% of primary care physicians for monitoring. Physicians stated that ‘asthma monitoring’ was the most difficult part of the guidelines, followed by ‘environmental control and risk factors.’ Only 39.6% (31.9% of the primary care physicians) prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as the first-line treatment for persistent asthma. The internal barriers were physician's preference for oral medications, difficulty in use even with inhaler training, and concern over ICS side effects. The external barriers were possible rejection of medical reimbursement by health insurance, refusal by the patient, cost, and a poor environment for teaching the patient how to use the inhaler. Alternatives proposed by physicians to implement asthma management guidelines were to improve medical reimbursement policies and the level of awareness of such guidelines.@*CONCLUSION@#Compliance with the asthma management guidelines, including ICS prescription, is low despite the awareness of the guidelines. It is necessary to develop a strategy to overcome the internal and external barriers.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895426

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To describe pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases after the reopening of schools in the Republic of Korea and their transmission routes. @*Methods@#All case report forms and epidemiologic investigation forms for children aged 3–18 years reported as COVID-19 cases to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System from May 1 to July 12, 2020, were reviewed. @*Results@#After the schools were reopened in May 2020, a total of 127 pediatric COVID-19 cases were confirmed until July 12. Of these, 59 children (46%) were exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 through family and relatives, followed by 18 children (14%) through cram schools or private lessons, 8 children (6%) through multi-use facilities, and 3 children (2%) through school. @*Conclusions@#The present data do not suggest an increased risk of COVID-19 transmission in the context of stringent school-based infection prevention measures introduced across the country.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835999

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Little is known about factors influencing of hippocampal metabolism (HM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Our objective was to determine whether HM in patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) is decreased than non-amnestic MCI (naMCI). @*Methods@#Overall, 32 MCI patients underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. They were characterized as aMCI (n=18) or naMCI (n=14) according to comprehensive neuropsychological criteria. Analysis of variances were used to assess differences on HM between aMCI and naMCI after controlling age, sex, education and Korean version of Mini Mental Status Examination. @*Results@#We found that HM was more decreased in aMCI than naMCI. This result was not changed after controlling hippocampal volume. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that aMCI is associated with decreased HM in MCI.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835142

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published “A Guideline for Unknown Disease Outbreaks (UDO).” The aim of this report was to introduce tabletop exercises (TTX) to prepare for UDO in the future. @*Methods@#The UDO Laboratory Analyses Task Force in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in April 2018, assigned unknown diseases into 5 syndromes, designed an algorithm for diagnosis, and made a panel list for diagnosis by exclusion. Using the guidelines and laboratory analyses for UDO, TTX were introduced. @*Results@#Since September 9th , 2018, the UDO Laboratory Analyses Task Force has been preparing TTX based on a scenario of an outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus. In December 2019, through TTX, individual missions, epidemiological investigations, sample treatments, diagnosis by exclusions, and next generation sequencing analysis were discussed, and a novel coronavirus was identified as the causal pathogen. @*Conclusion@#Guideline and laboratory analyses for UDO successfully applied in TTX. Conclusions drawn from TTX could be applied effectively in the analyses for the initial response to COVID-19, an ongoing epidemic of 2019 - 2020. Therefore, TTX should continuously be conducted for the response and preparation against UDO.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835128

ABSTRACT

The general elections for the 21st National Assembly in the Republic of Korea were scheduled for April 15th, 2020, which was during the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. To ensure a safe election, the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) recommended several public health measures. The KCDC developed key interventions after reviewing the general election strategy that targeted COVID-19 patients and individuals isolating at home. Four voters who participated in the election tested positive, but did not contract COVID-19 during voting. The results demonstrated that the KCDC minimized the spread of infection in the community during the election. The measures implemented by KCDC during the election held under a COVID-19 outbreak cannot be generalized to elections as a whole because cultural and national consciousness vary between countries. Nevertheless, it demonstrates that the systemic strategies and applications against the pandemic can minimize the possibility of viral spread.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831884

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Emotional distress is thought to cause or maintain chronic urticaria (CU). We aimed to investigate the presence of anxiety, depression, and stress in Korean adult CU patients and to explore their potential impact on treatment. @*Methods@#We enrolled 79 CU patients and a disease control group comprising 39 persistent asthma patients. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to evaluate depression and anxiety. Stress and quality of life (QoL) were assessed by Stress Response Inventory and CU-QoL questionnaires. The sociodemographic and clinical data such as urticaria activity score (UAS-15, UAS-6) were obtained. @*Results@#The prevalence of depression and anxiety based on the HADS were 48.1% and 38.0%. Although the prevalence of anxiety didn’t differ between the CU and asthma patients, depression was significantly more prevalent in the CU patients (48.1% vs. 28.2%). Stress tended to be lower in CU patients. Anxiety, depression, and stress exhibited negative correlations with QoL. Anxiety showed significant correlation with UAS-6 and pruritus-visual analog scale (VAS; r = 0.256, r = 0.272, p < 0.05, respectively); depression correlated with sleep difficulty-VAS (r = 0.261, p < 0.05). Stress was associated with UAS-15, UAS-6, pruritus-VAS, and sleep difficulty-VAS (r = 0.251, r = 0.317, r = 0.302, r = 0.258, p < 0.05, respectively). @*Conclusions@#The current study first presented that Korean CU patients frequently have anxiety and depression, which affect their QoL and demonstrated that anxiety, depression, and stress had different effects on sleep difficulty, pruritus, and urticaria severity in Korean CU patients.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There could be a gap between asthma management guidelines and current practice. We evaluated the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the internal and external barriers to compliance, for the first time in Korea.METHODS: From March to September of 2012, 364 physicians treating asthma patients at primary, secondary, and tertiary teaching hospitals were enrolled. They completed a questionnaire on the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the barriers and alternatives to their implementation.RESULTS: Of the 364 physicians, 79.1% were men and 56.9% were primary care physicians. The mean age was 40.5 ± 11.2 years. Most of them were aware of asthma management guidelines (89.3%). However, only a portion (11.0%) of them complied with the guidelines for asthma. Pulmonary function tests for diagnosis of asthma were performed by 20.1% of all physicians and 9.2% of primary care physicians, and by 9.9% of all physicians and 5.8% of primary care physicians for monitoring. Physicians stated that ‘asthma monitoring’ was the most difficult part of the guidelines, followed by ‘environmental control and risk factors.’ Only 39.6% (31.9% of the primary care physicians) prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as the first-line treatment for persistent asthma. The internal barriers were physician's preference for oral medications, difficulty in use even with inhaler training, and concern over ICS side effects. The external barriers were possible rejection of medical reimbursement by health insurance, refusal by the patient, cost, and a poor environment for teaching the patient how to use the inhaler. Alternatives proposed by physicians to implement asthma management guidelines were to improve medical reimbursement policies and the level of awareness of such guidelines.CONCLUSION: Compliance with the asthma management guidelines, including ICS prescription, is low despite the awareness of the guidelines. It is necessary to develop a strategy to overcome the internal and external barriers.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There could be a gap between asthma management guidelines and current practice. We evaluated the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the internal and external barriers to compliance, for the first time in Korea.@*METHODS@#From March to September of 2012, 364 physicians treating asthma patients at primary, secondary, and tertiary teaching hospitals were enrolled. They completed a questionnaire on the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the barriers and alternatives to their implementation.@*RESULTS@#Of the 364 physicians, 79.1% were men and 56.9% were primary care physicians. The mean age was 40.5 ± 11.2 years. Most of them were aware of asthma management guidelines (89.3%). However, only a portion (11.0%) of them complied with the guidelines for asthma. Pulmonary function tests for diagnosis of asthma were performed by 20.1% of all physicians and 9.2% of primary care physicians, and by 9.9% of all physicians and 5.8% of primary care physicians for monitoring. Physicians stated that ‘asthma monitoring’ was the most difficult part of the guidelines, followed by ‘environmental control and risk factors.’ Only 39.6% (31.9% of the primary care physicians) prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as the first-line treatment for persistent asthma. The internal barriers were physician's preference for oral medications, difficulty in use even with inhaler training, and concern over ICS side effects. The external barriers were possible rejection of medical reimbursement by health insurance, refusal by the patient, cost, and a poor environment for teaching the patient how to use the inhaler. Alternatives proposed by physicians to implement asthma management guidelines were to improve medical reimbursement policies and the level of awareness of such guidelines.@*CONCLUSION@#Compliance with the asthma management guidelines, including ICS prescription, is low despite the awareness of the guidelines. It is necessary to develop a strategy to overcome the internal and external barriers.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811063

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Anaphylaxis is an immediate allergic reaction characterized by potentially life-threatening, severe, systemic manifestations. While studies have evaluated links between serious illness and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few have investigated PTSD after anaphylaxis in adults. We sought to investigate the psychosocial burden of recent anaphylaxis in Korean adults.METHODS: A total of 203 (mean age of 44 years, 120 females) patients with anaphylaxis were recruited from 15 university hospitals in Korea. Questionnaires, including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised-Korean version (IES-R-K), the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI), and the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI), were administered. Demographic characteristics, causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis, and serum inflammatory markers, including tryptase, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein, were evaluated.RESULTS: PTSD (IES-R-K ≥ 25) was noted in 84 (41.4%) patients with anaphylaxis. Of them, 56.0% had severe PTSD (IES-R-K ≥ 40). Additionally, 23.2% and 28.1% of the patients had anxiety (K-BAI ≥ 22) and depression (K-BDI ≥ 17), respectively. IES-R-K was significantly correlated with both K-BAI (r = 0.609, P < 0.0001) and K-BDI (r = 0.550, P < 0.0001). Among the inflammatory mediators, tryptase levels were lower in patients exhibiting PTSD; meanwhile, platelet-activating factor levels were lower in patients exhibiting anxiety and depression while recovering from anaphylaxis. In multivariate analysis, K-BAI and K-BDI were identified as major predictive variables of PTSD in patients with anaphylaxis.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with anaphylaxis, we found a remarkably high prevalence of PTSD and associated psychological distresses, including anxiety and depression. Physicians ought to be aware of the potential for psychological distress in anaphylactic patients and to consider psychological evaluation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anaphylaxis , Anxiety , C-Reactive Protein , Depression , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Necrosis , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Tryptases
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-f light mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a new diagnostic tool for microorganism identification. The clinical usefulness of this approach has not been widely examined in Korea. This retrospective pre–post-intervention quasi-experimental study examined the effect of MALDI-TOF MS on patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteremia in the intensive care unit (ICU).@*METHODS@#All consecutive patients with MDR bacteremia in the ICU of a tertiary care hospital between March 2011 and February 2013 and between March 2014 and February 2016 were enrolled. MALDI-TOF MS was introduced between these periods. In the pre-intervention and intervention groups, microorganisms were identified by conventional means and by MALDI-TOF MS, respectively. The groups were compared in terms of time from venipuncture to microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test results.@*RESULTS@#In total, 187 patients (mean age, 61.0 years; 56.7% male) were enrolled. Of these, 97 and 90 were in the pre-intervention and intervention groups, respectively. The intervention group had a significantly shorter time from venipuncture to microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test results (82.5 ± 21.6 hours vs. 92.3 ± 40.4 hours, p = 0.038). The antibiotics were adjusted in 52 patients (26 each in the pre-intervention and intervention groups) based on these results. These groups did not differ in terms of time from venipuncture to antibiotic adjustment, and multivariate regression analysis showed that MALDI-TOF MS–based microorganism identification was not associated with 28-day mortality.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our study showed that MALDI-TOF MS accelerated microorganism identification in patients with MDR bacteremia, but did not inf luence 28-day mortality.

19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914434

ABSTRACT

Education on the physician continues with undergraduate medical education, graduate medical education, and continuous medical education. The countries such as the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, German, and others are required to undergo training in the clinical field for 2 years after completing the national medical examination, and to become doctors after passing the clinical practice license test. Korea can obtain a medical license and become a clinical doctor at the same time if it passes written and practical tests after completing 6 years of undergraduate medical education or 4 years of graduate school. About 90% of medical school graduates replace clinical practice with 4–5 years of training to acquire professional qualifications, but this is an option for individual doctors rather than an extension of the licensing system under law. The medical professional qualification system is implemented by the Ministry of Health and Welfare on the regulation. In fact, under the supervision of the government, the Korean Hospital Association, the Korean Medical Association, and the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences progress most procedures. After training and becoming a specialist, the only thing that is given to a specialist is the right to mark him or her as a specialist in marking a medical institution and advertising. The government's guidelines for professional training are too restrictive, such as the recruitment method of residents, annual training courses of residents, dispatch rule of the residents, and the quota of residents of training hospitals. Although professional training systems are operated in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany, most of them are organized and operated by public professional organizations and widely recognize the autonomy of academic institutions and hospitals. Korea should also introduce a compulsory education system after graduating from medical education and organize and initiate by autonomic public professional organization that meets global standards.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739400

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are common cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of SCARs induced by NSAIDs in the Korean SCAR registry. METHODS: A retrospective survey of NSAID-induced SCARs recorded between 2010 and 2015 at 27 university hospitals in Korea was conducted. Clinical phenotypes of SCARs were classified into Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Causative NSAIDs were classified into 7 groups according to their chemical properties: acetaminophen, and propionic, acetic, salicylic, fenamic and enolic acids. RESULTS: A total of 170 SCARs, consisting of 85 SJS, 32 TEN, 17 SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and 36 DRESS reactions, were induced by NSAIDs: propionic acids (n=68), acetaminophen (n=38), acetic acids (n=23), salicylic acids (n=16), coxibs (n=8), fenamic acids (n=7), enolic acids (n=5) and unclassified (n=5). Acetic acids (22%) and coxibs (14%) accounted for higher portions of DRESS than other SCARs. The phenotypes of SCARs induced by both propionic and salicylic acids were similar (SJS, TEN and DRESS, in order). Acetaminophen was primarily associated with SJS (27%) and was less involved in TEN (10%). DRESS occurred more readily among subjects experiencing coxib-induced SCARs than other NSAID-induced SCARs (62.5% vs. 19.7%, P = 0.013). The mean time to symptom onset was longer in DRESS than in SJS or TEN (19.1 ± 4.1 vs. 6.8 ±1.5 vs. 12.1 ± 3.8 days). SCARs caused by propionic salicylic acids showed longer latency, whereas acetaminophen- and acetic acid-induced SCARs appeared within shorter intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that the phenotypes of SCARs may differ according to the chemical classifications of NSAIDs. To establish the mechanisms and incidences of NSAID-induced SCARs, further prospective studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Acetates , Acetic Acid , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cicatrix , Classification , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Diethylpropion , Drug Hypersensitivity , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Hospitals, University , Incidence , Korea , Phenotype , Propionates , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Salicylates , Salicylic Acid , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
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