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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although the clinical importance of the immunological benefits of breastfeeding has been emphasized for decades, their direct relationship with acute pyelonephritis (APN) is still not clear. Our goal was to determine whether breastfeeding truly provides protection against APNs, while investigating the effects of other factors such as sex, age, mode of delivery, and birth weight on APN.@*METHODS@#A total of 62 infants under 6 months of age who had both microbiologically and radiologically-confirmed APN were enrolled in the case group. Healthy infants (n = 178) who visited the hospital for scheduled vaccinations were enrolled in the control group. The following participant characteristics were compared between the case and control groups: age, sex, birth order among siblings, feeding methods, weight percentile by month, birth weight percentile by gestational age, gestational age at birth, and mode of delivery.@*RESULTS@#Babies exclusively fed with manufactured infant formulae before 6 months of age had significantly higher risk for APN than breastfed or mixed-fed infants (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.687–7.031; P = 0.001). Firstborn babies had lower risk for APN than 2nd- or 3rd-born babies (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.210–0.919). Other factors that increased the risk for APN were low birth weight percentiles (OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.300–30.166) and birth via caesarean section (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.097–4.887). There were more preterm births in the case group (10.9% vs. 1.7%; P = 0.002), but this did not increase the risk for APN (OR, 4.47; P = 0.063).@*CONCLUSION@#Feeding exclusively with formula before 6 months of age was related to higher risk for APN, which demonstrates that breastfeeding has a protective effect against APN. The other risk factors for APN were birth order (≥ 2nd-born), low birth weight, and birth via caesarean section.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although the clinical importance of the immunological benefits of breastfeeding has been emphasized for decades, their direct relationship with acute pyelonephritis (APN) is still not clear. Our goal was to determine whether breastfeeding truly provides protection against APNs, while investigating the effects of other factors such as sex, age, mode of delivery, and birth weight on APN.@*METHODS@#A total of 62 infants under 6 months of age who had both microbiologically and radiologically-confirmed APN were enrolled in the case group. Healthy infants (n = 178) who visited the hospital for scheduled vaccinations were enrolled in the control group. The following participant characteristics were compared between the case and control groups: age, sex, birth order among siblings, feeding methods, weight percentile by month, birth weight percentile by gestational age, gestational age at birth, and mode of delivery.@*RESULTS@#Babies exclusively fed with manufactured infant formulae before 6 months of age had significantly higher risk for APN than breastfed or mixed-fed infants (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.687–7.031; P = 0.001). Firstborn babies had lower risk for APN than 2nd- or 3rd-born babies (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.210–0.919). Other factors that increased the risk for APN were low birth weight percentiles (OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.300–30.166) and birth via caesarean section (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.097–4.887). There were more preterm births in the case group (10.9% vs. 1.7%; P = 0.002), but this did not increase the risk for APN (OR, 4.47; P = 0.063).@*CONCLUSION@#Feeding exclusively with formula before 6 months of age was related to higher risk for APN, which demonstrates that breastfeeding has a protective effect against APN. The other risk factors for APN were birth order (≥ 2nd-born), low birth weight, and birth via caesarean section.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the clinical importance of the immunological benefits of breastfeeding has been emphasized for decades, their direct relationship with acute pyelonephritis (APN) is still not clear. Our goal was to determine whether breastfeeding truly provides protection against APNs, while investigating the effects of other factors such as sex, age, mode of delivery, and birth weight on APN.METHODS: A total of 62 infants under 6 months of age who had both microbiologically and radiologically-confirmed APN were enrolled in the case group. Healthy infants (n = 178) who visited the hospital for scheduled vaccinations were enrolled in the control group. The following participant characteristics were compared between the case and control groups: age, sex, birth order among siblings, feeding methods, weight percentile by month, birth weight percentile by gestational age, gestational age at birth, and mode of delivery.RESULTS: Babies exclusively fed with manufactured infant formulae before 6 months of age had significantly higher risk for APN than breastfed or mixed-fed infants (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.687–7.031; P = 0.001). Firstborn babies had lower risk for APN than 2nd- or 3rd-born babies (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.210–0.919). Other factors that increased the risk for APN were low birth weight percentiles (OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.300–30.166) and birth via caesarean section (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.097–4.887). There were more preterm births in the case group (10.9% vs. 1.7%; P = 0.002), but this did not increase the risk for APN (OR, 4.47; P = 0.063).CONCLUSION: Feeding exclusively with formula before 6 months of age was related to higher risk for APN, which demonstrates that breastfeeding has a protective effect against APN. The other risk factors for APN were birth order (≥ 2nd-born), low birth weight, and birth via caesarean section.


Subject(s)
Birth Order , Birth Weight , Breast Feeding , Cesarean Section , Feeding Methods , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant Formula , Infant , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Parturition , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , Pyelonephritis , Reproductive History , Risk Factors , Siblings , Urinary Tract Infections , Vaccination
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831671

ABSTRACT

Since mid-April 2020, cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 that mimics Kawasaki disease (KD) have been reported in Europe and North America. However, no cases have been reported in Korea.We describe an 11-year old boy with fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea who developed hypotension requiring inotropes in intensive care unit. His blood test revealed elevated inflammatory markers, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and coagulopathy. Afterward, he developed signs of KD such as conjunctival injection, strawberry tongue, cracked lip, and coronary artery dilatation, and parenchymal consolidation without respiratory symptoms. Microbiological tests were all negative including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.However, serum immunoglobulin G against SARS-CoV-2 was positive in repeated tests using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescent immunoassay. He was recovered well after intravenous immunoglobulin administration and discharged without complication on hospital day 13. We report the first Korean child who met all the criteria of MIS-C with features of incomplete KD or KD shock syndrome.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831549

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) is a rare disease characterized by premature red blood cell (RBC) destruction due to intrinsic RBC defects. The RBC Disorder Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology established and updated the standard operating procedure for making an accurate diagnosis of HHA since 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate a nationwide epidemiology of Korean HHA. @*Methods@#We collected the data of a newly diagnosed pediatric HHA cohort (2007–2016) and compared this cohort's characteristics with those of a previously surveyed pediatric HHA cohort (1997–2006) in Korea. Each participant's information was retrospectively collected by a questionnaire survey. @*Results@#A total of 369 children with HHA from 38 hospitals distributed in 16 of 17 districts of Korea were investigated. RBC membranopathies, hemoglobinopathies, RBC enzymopathies, and unknown etiologies accounted for 263 (71.3%), 59 (16.0%), 23 (6.2%), and 24 (6.5%) of the cases, respectively. Compared to the cohort from the previous decade, the proportions of hemoglobinopathies and RBC enzymopathies significantly increased (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). Twenty-three of the 59 hemoglobinopathy patients had immigrant mothers, mostly from South-East Asia. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, thalassemia traits have increased over the past 10 years, reflecting both increased awareness of this disease and increased international marriages. The enhanced recognition of RBC enzymopathies is due to advances in diagnostic technique; however, 6.5% of HHA patients still do not have a clear diagnosis. It is necessary to improve accessibility of diagnosing HHA.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 797-804, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833405

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Climate and lifestyle changes increase an individual’s susceptibility to various allergens and also the incidence of allergic diseases. We aimed to examine the changes in sensitization rate for aeroallergens over a 10-year period in Korean children. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 4493 children who visited the allergy clinic at a tertiary hospital in Korea for allergic rhinitis or asthma from January 2009 to December 2018. The serum specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were measured to confirm the sensitization against Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae), Alternaria, weed and tree pollen mixtures, as well as cat and dog dander through ImmunoCAP test. @*Results@#D. farinae was the most common sensitizing aeroallergen (45.9%) during the 10-year span. The sensitization rate for tree pollen mixture (p for trend <0.001), weed pollen mixtures (p for trend <0.001), dog dander (p for trend=0.025), and cat dander (p for trend=0.003) showed ascending trends during the 10-year study period. Furthermore, the sensitization rate for multiple allergens (≥2) in 2018 increased significantly compared to that in 2009 (p for trend=0.013).Compared with children without sensitization to D. farinae, those with sensitization to D. farinae showed higher sensitization rates to other aeroallergens (p for interaction <0.001). @*Conclusion@#Children’s sensitization rate to cat and dog dander and weed and tree pollen mixtures significantly increased during the 10-year period in Korea. Children with sensitization to D. farinae are likely to be sensitized to other aeroallergens as well.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832093

ABSTRACT

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare inherited cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by benign and malignant tumors in multiple organs, especially cerebellar hemangioblastomas, retinal angiomas, renal-cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytomas. Clinically, VHL disease also presents an increased risk for developing multiple visceral cysts in the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. Regular surveillance for VHL disease-associated tumors after early diagnosis is necessary for better outcomes in VHL disease. An 11-year-old girl was admitted with prolonged fever lasting for more than 10 days and cervical lymphadenopathy. She did not have a family history of cysts or malignancy. Initial blood tests showed mild leukopenia and moderate elevation in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, but with normal amylase and lipase. Hepatobiliary ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography were done and revealed multiple cysts involving the whole pancreas with cyst sizes up to 1.6 cm, indicating VHL disease. Direct sequencing of the VHL gene showed a heterozygous duplication at codon 384 (c.384dup), which is predicted to cause a frameshift of the reading frame (p.Leu129Serfs*3). This was a novel pathogenic variant VHL gene. We carried out the surveillance protocol for VHL disease-associated tumors, and found a hemangioblastoma in the medulla of the brainstem. We are reporting an 11-year-old female patient of VHL disease with brainstem hemangioblastoma who could be suspected and diagnosed of VHL disease in asymptomatic state due to incidentally found multiple pancreatic cysts.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no practical guidelines for the management of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, started to prepare guidelines for CNS tumors from February 2018. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. RESULTS: First, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended. After the diagnosis of a glioblastoma with neurosurgical intervention, patients aged ≤70 years with good performance should be treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Stupp's protocol) or standard brain radiotherapy alone. However, those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy (preferred)±concurrent or adjuvant temozolomide, temozolomide alone (Level III), or supportive treatment. Alternatively, patients aged >70 years with good performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy+concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide or Stupp's protocol or hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone, while those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone or temozolomide chemotherapy if the patient has methylated MGMT gene promoter (Level III), or supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that glioblastomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to the individual comprehensive condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Radiotherapy
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739505

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25[OH] D) and interleukin-31 (IL-31) are related to atopic dermatitis, but their relationship with allergic rhinitis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of serum IL-31 and 25 (OH) D between the allergic rhinitis (AR), nonallergic rhinitis (NAR), and control groups and to investigate the relationship between IL-31 and 25 (OH) D. METHODS: We recruited 59 children with only rhinitis and 33 controls without any allergic diseases. Serum IL-31 and 25(OH) D levels were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The patients were considered to have atopic sensitization if the levels of serum specific IgE to inhalant allergens as assessed using immunoCAP were ≥0.35 IU/mL or if they tested positive for one or more allergens by the skin prick test. RESULTS: Of children with rhinitis, 25 had nonatopy (NAR), and 34 children had atopy (AR). Serum 25(OH) D levels were significantly lower in the rhinitis group than in the control group, while there was no significant difference serum 25(OH) D levels between the AR and NAR groups. Children with rhinitis demonstrated higher serum IL-31 levels than controls; however, there was no difference in serum IL-31 levels between the AR and NAR groups. Serum 25(OH) D levels were inversely correlated with serum IL-31 levels and blood eosinophil counts. On the other hand, serum 25(OH) D levels were not correlated with total serum IgE levels. CONCLUSION: Serum 25(OH) D and IL-31 may play a role in the pathogenesis of rhinitis via mechanisms other than IgE-related pathway.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Child , Chromatography, Liquid , Dermatitis, Atopic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Hand , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , Skin , Vitamin D , Vitamins
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714238

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection can be presented with various clinical manifestations and different levels of severity when infected. Infectious mononucleosis, which is most commonly caused by EBV infection in children and adolescents, is a clinical syndrome characterized by fatigue, malaise, fever, sore throat, and generalized lymphadenopathy. But rarely, patients with infectious mononucleosis may present with gastrointestinal symptoms and complicated by gastritis, splenic infarction, and splenic rupture. We encountered a 16-year-old girl who presented with fever, fatigue, and epigastric pain. Splenic infarction and EBV-associated gastritis were diagnosed by using esophagogastroduodenoscopy and abdominal computed tomography. Endoscopy revealed a generalized hyperemic nodular lesion in the stomach, and the biopsy findings were chronic gastritis with erosion and positive in situ hybridization for EBV. As splenic infarction and acute gastritis are rare in infectious mononucleosis and are prone to be overlooked, we must consider these complications when an infectious mononucleosis patient presents with gastrointestinal symptom.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Biopsy , Child , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Fatigue , Female , Fever , Gastritis , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Infectious Mononucleosis , Lymphatic Diseases , Pharyngitis , Splenic Infarction , Splenic Rupture , Stomach
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716322

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is characterized by prolonged fever and radiological progression despite macrolide treatment. Few studies have examined serum procalcitonin (PCT) level in children with MPP. We aimed to investigate the association of acute inflammation markers including PCT with clinical parameters in children with MPP. METHODS: A total of 147 children were recruited. The diagnosis of MPP relied on serial measurement of IgM antibody against mycoplasma and/or polymerase chain reaction. We evaluated the relationships between C-reactive protein (CRP), PCT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and white blood cell (WBC) counts, and clinical severity of the disease. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio for prolonged fever (>3 days after admission) and hospital stay (> 6 days), comparing quintiles 2–5 of the PCT levels with the lowest quintile. RESULTS: The serum PCT and CRP levels were higher in children with fever and hospital stay than in those with fever lasting ≤ 3 days after admission and hospital stay ≤ 6 days. CRP level was higher in segmental/lobar pneumonia than in bronchopneumonia. The LDH level and WBC counts were higher in children with fever lasting for >3 days before compared to those with fever lasting for ≤ 3 days. The highest quintile of PCT levels was associated with a significantly higher risk of prolonged fever and/or hospital stay than the lowest quintile. CONCLUSION: Serum PCT and CRP levels on admission day were associated with persistent fever and longer hospitalization in children with MPP.


Subject(s)
Bronchopneumonia , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Diagnosis , Drug Resistance , Fever , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Inflammation , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Length of Stay , Leukocytes , Logistic Models , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Odds Ratio , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161598

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a common and possibly fatal infectious disease, and its incidence and prevalence is quite high in Korea compared to other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Patients who have active TB can cause latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in children, which may progress to reactivated tuberculosis. This study was performed to analyze the risk of adult TB that affects children's LTBI. METHODS: From June 2013 to May 2014, 60 children (32 boys, 28 girls) who came into close contact with adult patients diagnosed with pulmonary TB underwent LTBI tests. The children were divided into the 2 groups: the first group was finally diagnosed to LTBI, and the second group was proven not to have LTBI. We compared the risk of adult patients with pulmonary TB between children with LTBI and those without through a medical record review. RESULTS: The number of adult patients with TB was 36 (father 68%, mother 23%, grandparents 8%). The patients who came into close contact with the LTBI group were older (47.0±12.8 years vs. 41.3±6.6 years) and had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels than those of the second group. The rate of negative acid-fast-bacilli smear with positive culture results in patients who came into contact with the LBTI group was higher than in the second group. The cutoff value of ESR for the diagnosis of LTBI was 31 mm/hr with a sensitivity of 0.75 and a specificity of 0.85 (area under curve=0.748). CONCLUSION: Adult pulmonary TB patients who are older and have higher ESR levels may be risk factors for LTBI in children coming into close contact with them.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Sedimentation , Child , Communicable Diseases , Diagnosis , Family Characteristics , Grandparents , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Latent Tuberculosis , Medical Records , Mothers , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21252

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Since 2000, emerging macrolide-resistant MP has been reported. Three epidemics of MP pneumonia have occurred in Korea during the past 10 years: 2006–2007, 2011, and 2015. We investigated the differences in MP pneumonia of each epidemic in terms of clinical, laboratory, and radiologic perspectives. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 529 medical records of children (1–18 years of age) who were admitted and diagnosed with MP pneumonia at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital during the past 3 epidemic periods. We compared the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics of MP pneumonia among individual epidemics and between children younger and older than 6 years of age. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 5.7 years old, which had increased by each epidemic and showed the highest (6.3 years old) in 2015 compared to previous epidemics. Among 3 epidemics, there were no sex differences. The duration of fever after admission and hospitalization, and the percentage of lobar pneumonia and use of systemic steroids increased significantly in 2015 epidemic. Since 2006, the mean levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and lactate dehydrogenase had increased and in 2015 it marked the highest. Children older than 6 years showed a higher proportion of lobar pneumonia and pleural effusion as well as longer duration of fever (before and after admission) and hospitalization days than those younger than 6 years. CONCLUSION: This study suggests an increasing incidence of refractory MP pneumonia which required a more frequent use of systemic steroids over the past 10 years, and children older than 6 years were found to have more severe pneumonia than those younger than 6 years.


Subject(s)
Blood Sedimentation , Child , Fever , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Korea , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Medical Records , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pleural Effusion , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Retrospective Studies , Sex Characteristics , Steroids
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30883

ABSTRACT

May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA) is a myosin-heavy-chain-9 (MYH9)-related disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia with giant platelets and inclusion bodies in leukocytes. MHA does not require treatment, but it may be misdiagnosed as immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and inappropriately managed. Reported herein is a case of a 12 year old female patient diagnosed as MHA with laboratory findings of severe thrombocytopenia and giant platelets in peripheral blood morphology, and followed up until 23 years of age. The patient had been diagnosed with ITP and treated with intravenous gamma-globulin therapy at another hospital, and showed no improvements in platelet count. She was then referred to our hospital for further diagnostic workup and followed up for 11 years, showing platelet count of 6,000-20,000/µL and prolonged platelet function test. She was occasionally treated with iron therapy due to iron-deficiency anemia. In 2014, we conducted a DNA analysis that revealed c.4339G>T(p.Asp1447Tyr), a known mutation of MYH9 gene.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , DNA , Female , Follow-Up Studies , gamma-Globulins , Humans , Inclusion Bodies , Iron , Leukocytes , Platelet Count , Platelet Function Tests , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Propranolol, a beta-blocker and well known anti-hypertensive medication, has been used as the first-line therapy for pediatric hemangioma since 2010. The objective of this study is to analyze the efficacy and safety of propranolol when used to treat pediatric hemangioma patients for one year or longer in a single institution. METHODS: A retrospective chart review analysis was done of 65 pediatric hemangioma patients treated with oral propranolol as the first-line therapy from 2010 to 2016. The patients were examined regularly at an interval of 1 to 2 months for changes in hemangioma size, growth and development, and occurrence of acute side effects of propranolol such as hypotension, hypoglycemia and bronchial constriction. RESULTS: Twenty patients were treated with propranolol for a year or longer and their median age was 202 days (range, 36 to 4,284 days) and mean duration of treatment was 22.5 months (range, 12 to 49 months). At 12 months of treatment, the average percentage of size decrement was 40.5%. When the weight and height percentile were compared between at diagnosis and 12 months post-treatment, all 20 patients showed normal growth curve and development. Patients did not show any acute side effects of propranolol during 12 months of treatment. One patient experienced hypoglycemia induced seizure, but this event was subsequently diagnosed as ketotic hypoglycemia induced from prolonged fasting. CONCLUSION: Propranolol was effective and well tolerated in children with hemangioma when used for one year or longer.


Subject(s)
Bronchoconstriction , Child , Diagnosis , Fasting , Growth and Development , Hemangioma , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypotension , Propranolol , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Propranolol, a beta-blocker and well known anti-hypertensive medication, has been used as the first-line therapy for pediatric hemangioma since 2010. The objective of this study is to analyze the efficacy and safety of propranolol when used to treat pediatric hemangioma patients for one year or longer in a single institution.METHODS: A retrospective chart review analysis was done of 65 pediatric hemangioma patients treated with oral propranolol as the first-line therapy from 2010 to 2016. The patients were examined regularly at an interval of 1 to 2 months for changes in hemangioma size, growth and development, and occurrence of acute side effects of propranolol such as hypotension, hypoglycemia and bronchial constriction.RESULTS: Twenty patients were treated with propranolol for a year or longer and their median age was 202 days (range, 36 to 4,284 days) and mean duration of treatment was 22.5 months (range, 12 to 49 months). At 12 months of treatment, the average percentage of size decrement was 40.5%. When the weight and height percentile were compared between at diagnosis and 12 months post-treatment, all 20 patients showed normal growth curve and development. Patients did not show any acute side effects of propranolol during 12 months of treatment. One patient experienced hypoglycemia induced seizure, but this event was subsequently diagnosed as ketotic hypoglycemia induced from prolonged fasting.CONCLUSION: Propranolol was effective and well tolerated in children with hemangioma when used for one year or longer.


Subject(s)
Bronchoconstriction , Child , Diagnosis , Fasting , Growth and Development , Hemangioma , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypotension , Propranolol , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788579

ABSTRACT

May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA) is a myosin-heavy-chain-9 (MYH9)-related disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia with giant platelets and inclusion bodies in leukocytes. MHA does not require treatment, but it may be misdiagnosed as immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and inappropriately managed. Reported herein is a case of a 12 year old female patient diagnosed as MHA with laboratory findings of severe thrombocytopenia and giant platelets in peripheral blood morphology, and followed up until 23 years of age. The patient had been diagnosed with ITP and treated with intravenous gamma-globulin therapy at another hospital, and showed no improvements in platelet count. She was then referred to our hospital for further diagnostic workup and followed up for 11 years, showing platelet count of 6,000-20,000/µL and prolonged platelet function test. She was occasionally treated with iron therapy due to iron-deficiency anemia. In 2014, we conducted a DNA analysis that revealed c.4339G>T(p.Asp1447Tyr), a known mutation of MYH9 gene.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , DNA , Female , Follow-Up Studies , gamma-Globulins , Humans , Inclusion Bodies , Iron , Leukocytes , Platelet Count , Platelet Function Tests , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia
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