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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919191

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Treatment decisions for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC) are complicated, and multi-modal treatments are usually indicated. However, it is challenging for older patients to complete treatments. Thus, we investigated disease characteristics, real-world treatment, and outcomes in older LA-HNSCC patients. @*Methods@#Older patients (aged ≥ 70 years) were selected from a large nationwide cohort that included 445 patients with stage III–IVB LA-HNSCC from January 2005 to December 2015. Their data were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those of younger patients. @*Results@#Older patients accounted for 18.7% (83/445) of all patients with median age was 73 years (range, 70 to 89). Proportions of primary tumors in the hypopharynx and larynx were higher in older patients and older patients had a more advanced T stage and worse performance status. Regarding treatment strategies of older patients, 44.5% of patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), 41.0% underwent surgery, and 14.5% did not complete the planned treatment. Induction chemotherapy (IC) was administered to 27.7% (23/83) of older patients; the preferred regimen for IC was fluorouracil and cisplatin (47.9%). For CCRT, weekly cisplatin was prescribed 3.3 times more often than 3-weekly cisplatin (62.2% vs. 18.9%). Older patients had a 60% higher risk of death than younger patients (hazard ratio, 1.6; p = 0.035). Oral cavity cancer patients had the worst survival probability. @*Conclusions@#Older LA-HNSCC patients had aggressive tumor characteristics and received less intensive treatment, resulting in poor survival. Further research focusing on the older population is necessary.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913830

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Certain patient subgroups who do not respond to induction chemotherapy (IC) show inherent chemoresistance in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC). This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of IC, and role of IC in guiding the selection of a definitive locoregional therapy. @*Materials and Methods@#Out of the 445 patients in multi-institutional LA-HNSCC cohort, 158 (36%) receiving IC were enrolled. The study outcome was to assess overall survival (OS) through IC responsiveness and its role to select subsequent treatments. @*Results@#Among 135 patients who completed subsequent treatment following IC, 74% responded to IC (complete response in 17% and partial response in 58%). IC-non-responders showed 4.5 times higher risk of mortality than IC-responders (hazard ratio, 4.52; 95% confidence interval, 2.32 to 8.81; p < 0.001). Among IC-responders, 84% subsequently received definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and OS was not differed by surgery or CCRT (p=0.960). Regarding IC-non-responders, 54% received CCRT and 46% underwent surgery, and OS was poor in CCRT (24-month survival rate of 38%) or surgery (24-month survival rate of 63%). @*Conclusion@#Response to IC is a favorable prognostic factor. For IC-responders, either surgery or CCRT achieved similar survival probabilities. For IC-non-responder, multidisciplinary approach was warranted reflecting patients’ preference, morbidity, and prognosis.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889767

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) after platinum-containing chemotherapy. We also identified clinical biomarkers which may be predictive of patient prognosis. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed 125 patients with R/M HNSCC who received ICIs, retrospectively. Overall response rate (ORR) was the primary study outcome. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were the secondary study outcomes. @*Results@#The patients received anti–programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) (n=73, 58%), anti–programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) (n=24, 19%), or a combination of anti–PD-1/PD-L1 and anti–cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (n=28, 22%). The median age was 57 years (range, 37 to 87). The location of the primary tumor was in the oral cavity in 28% of the cases, followed by oropharynx (27%), hypopharynx (20%), and larynx (12%). The ORR was 15% (19/125). With 12.3 months of median follow-up, median PFS was 2.7 months. Median OS was 10.8 months. A neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) > 4 was significantly associated with poor response to ICIs (odds ratio, 0.30; p=0.022). A sum of the target lesions > 40 mm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.53; p=0.046] and a NLR > 4 (HR, 1.75; p=0.009) were considered to be predictive markers of short PFS. A poor performance status (HR, 4.79; p 40 mm (HR, 1.93; p=0.025), and an NLR > 4 (HR, 3.36; p < 0.001) were the significant predictors for poor survival. @*Conclusion@#ICIs exhibited favorable antitumor activity in R/M HNSCC. Clinically, our findings can be used to recognize patients benefit from receiving ICI.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897471

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) after platinum-containing chemotherapy. We also identified clinical biomarkers which may be predictive of patient prognosis. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed 125 patients with R/M HNSCC who received ICIs, retrospectively. Overall response rate (ORR) was the primary study outcome. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were the secondary study outcomes. @*Results@#The patients received anti–programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) (n=73, 58%), anti–programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) (n=24, 19%), or a combination of anti–PD-1/PD-L1 and anti–cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (n=28, 22%). The median age was 57 years (range, 37 to 87). The location of the primary tumor was in the oral cavity in 28% of the cases, followed by oropharynx (27%), hypopharynx (20%), and larynx (12%). The ORR was 15% (19/125). With 12.3 months of median follow-up, median PFS was 2.7 months. Median OS was 10.8 months. A neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) > 4 was significantly associated with poor response to ICIs (odds ratio, 0.30; p=0.022). A sum of the target lesions > 40 mm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.53; p=0.046] and a NLR > 4 (HR, 1.75; p=0.009) were considered to be predictive markers of short PFS. A poor performance status (HR, 4.79; p 40 mm (HR, 1.93; p=0.025), and an NLR > 4 (HR, 3.36; p < 0.001) were the significant predictors for poor survival. @*Conclusion@#ICIs exhibited favorable antitumor activity in R/M HNSCC. Clinically, our findings can be used to recognize patients benefit from receiving ICI.

5.
Immune Network ; : e10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890852

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have emerged as an effective treatment option even in the first-line setting. ICIs can block inhibitory pathways that restrain the immune response against cancer, restoring and sustaining antitumor immunity. Currently, there are 4 PD-1/PD-L1 blocking agents available in clinics, and immunotherapy-based regimen alone or in combination with chemotherapy is now preferred option. Combination trials assessing combination of ICIs with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and other immunotherapy are ongoing. Controversies remain regarding the use of ICIs in targetable oncogene-addicted subpopulations, but their initial treatment recommendations remained unchanged, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as the choice. For the majority of patients without targetable driver oncogenes, deciding between therapeutic options can be difficult due to lack of direct cross-comparison studies. There are continuous efforts to find predictive biomarkers to find those who respond better to ICIs. PD-L1 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry and tumor mutational burden have emerged as most well-validated biomarkers in multiple clinical trials. However, there still is a need to improve patient selection, and to establish the most effective concurrent or sequential combination therapies in different NSCLC clinical settings. In this review, we will introduce currently used ICIs in NSCLC and analyze most recent trials, and finally discuss how, when and for whom ICIs can be used to provide promising avenues for lung cancer treatment.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904025

ABSTRACT

METHODS@#The efficiency of electroporation-based delivery of AsCpf1/mRNA and AsCpf1/RNP to target exon 3 of leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif) into mouse zygotes was evaluated. Embryos that developed to the two-cell stage after zygote electroporation were transferred into the oviducts of surrogate mothers to produce AsCpf1-mediated LIF KO mice. The genome editing efficiency of blastocysts and pups was tested using the T7E1 assay and/or DNA sequencing. Congenital abnormalities and reproductive phenotypes in LIF KO mice produced by electroporation with AsCpf1/RNP were examined. @*RESULTS@#Survival and two-cell development of electroporated zygotes were comparable between the AsCpf1/mRNA and AsCpf1/RNP groups, whereas genome editing efficiency was relatively higher in the AsCpf1/RNP group (13.3% vs 18.1% at blastocyst and 33.3% vs 45.5% at offspring), respectively. Two mouse lines with a frameshift mutation in exon 3 of the Lif gene were established from the AsCpf1/RNP group. All congenital abnormalities of LIF KO mice produced by AsCpf1/RNP electroporation were observed. AsCpf1-mediated LIF KO mice showed postnatal growth retardation and implantation failure, both of which are major phenotypes of LIF KO mice generated by conventional gene targeting. @*CONCLUSION@#Electroporation of AsCpf1/RNP at the zygote stage is an efficient genome editing method to produce KO mice.

7.
Immune Network ; : e10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898556

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have emerged as an effective treatment option even in the first-line setting. ICIs can block inhibitory pathways that restrain the immune response against cancer, restoring and sustaining antitumor immunity. Currently, there are 4 PD-1/PD-L1 blocking agents available in clinics, and immunotherapy-based regimen alone or in combination with chemotherapy is now preferred option. Combination trials assessing combination of ICIs with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and other immunotherapy are ongoing. Controversies remain regarding the use of ICIs in targetable oncogene-addicted subpopulations, but their initial treatment recommendations remained unchanged, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as the choice. For the majority of patients without targetable driver oncogenes, deciding between therapeutic options can be difficult due to lack of direct cross-comparison studies. There are continuous efforts to find predictive biomarkers to find those who respond better to ICIs. PD-L1 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry and tumor mutational burden have emerged as most well-validated biomarkers in multiple clinical trials. However, there still is a need to improve patient selection, and to establish the most effective concurrent or sequential combination therapies in different NSCLC clinical settings. In this review, we will introduce currently used ICIs in NSCLC and analyze most recent trials, and finally discuss how, when and for whom ICIs can be used to provide promising avenues for lung cancer treatment.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896321

ABSTRACT

METHODS@#The efficiency of electroporation-based delivery of AsCpf1/mRNA and AsCpf1/RNP to target exon 3 of leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif) into mouse zygotes was evaluated. Embryos that developed to the two-cell stage after zygote electroporation were transferred into the oviducts of surrogate mothers to produce AsCpf1-mediated LIF KO mice. The genome editing efficiency of blastocysts and pups was tested using the T7E1 assay and/or DNA sequencing. Congenital abnormalities and reproductive phenotypes in LIF KO mice produced by electroporation with AsCpf1/RNP were examined. @*RESULTS@#Survival and two-cell development of electroporated zygotes were comparable between the AsCpf1/mRNA and AsCpf1/RNP groups, whereas genome editing efficiency was relatively higher in the AsCpf1/RNP group (13.3% vs 18.1% at blastocyst and 33.3% vs 45.5% at offspring), respectively. Two mouse lines with a frameshift mutation in exon 3 of the Lif gene were established from the AsCpf1/RNP group. All congenital abnormalities of LIF KO mice produced by AsCpf1/RNP electroporation were observed. AsCpf1-mediated LIF KO mice showed postnatal growth retardation and implantation failure, both of which are major phenotypes of LIF KO mice generated by conventional gene targeting. @*CONCLUSION@#Electroporation of AsCpf1/RNP at the zygote stage is an efficient genome editing method to produce KO mice.

9.
Immune Network ; : 10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811172

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have emerged as an effective treatment option even in the first-line setting. ICIs can block inhibitory pathways that restrain the immune response against cancer, restoring and sustaining antitumor immunity. Currently, there are 4 PD-1/PD-L1 blocking agents available in clinics, and immunotherapy-based regimen alone or in combination with chemotherapy is now preferred option. Combination trials assessing combination of ICIs with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and other immunotherapy are ongoing. Controversies remain regarding the use of ICIs in targetable oncogene-addicted subpopulations, but their initial treatment recommendations remained unchanged, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as the choice. For the majority of patients without targetable driver oncogenes, deciding between therapeutic options can be difficult due to lack of direct cross-comparison studies. There are continuous efforts to find predictive biomarkers to find those who respond better to ICIs. PD-L1 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry and tumor mutational burden have emerged as most well-validated biomarkers in multiple clinical trials. However, there still is a need to improve patient selection, and to establish the most effective concurrent or sequential combination therapies in different NSCLC clinical settings. In this review, we will introduce currently used ICIs in NSCLC and analyze most recent trials, and finally discuss how, when and for whom ICIs can be used to provide promising avenues for lung cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms , Oncogenes , Patient Selection , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 525-534, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762083

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Standard treatment for cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibiting acquired drug resistance includes tumor rebiopsy, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing (e.g., for T790M mutations), and the subsequent administration of third-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). However, rebiopsies are typically invasive, costly, and occasionally not feasible. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess rebiopsy procedures by analyzing real-world data collected by the ASTRIS study of patients with resistant NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study used statistical models to evaluate data collected by the ASTRIS trial (NCT02474355) conducted at Yonsei Cancer Center, including the rebiopsy success rate, incidence of T790M mutations in collected tissue and plasma samples, and association of administered osimertinib treatment efficacy. RESULTS: In a total of 188 screened patients, 112 underwent rebiopsy. An adequate tumor specimen was obtained in 95 of these patients, the greatest majority of whom (43.8%) were subjected to bronchoscopy. T790M mutations were detected in 53.3% of successfully EGFR-tested rebiopsy samples. A total of 88 patients received osimertinib treatment, and the objective response rate and median progression-free survival time was 44.3% and 32.7 weeks, respectively, among the treated patients overall, but 57.8% and 45.0 weeks, and 35.2% and 20.4 weeks among patients who exhibited T790M-positive tissue (n=45) and plasma (n=54) samples, respectively. CONCLUSION: Approximately 60% of patients in the analyzed real-world cohort were eligible for tissue rebiopsy upon NSCLC progression. Osimertinib activity was higher in patients in whom T790M mutations were detected in tissues rather than in plasma samples.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Resistance , Humans , Incidence , Models, Statistical , Phosphotransferases , Plasma , ErbB Receptors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite multiple approaches of treatments for salivary duct carcinoma, there has been a need for more successful treatment methods because of its poor prognosis. Treatment options like immunotherapy using new technologies have been attempted. Based on recent study results indicating that targeting programmed death receptors are effective in treating various cancers, this study aimed to identify the frequency of PD-L1 expression and its impact on survival rate in salivary duct carcinoma.MATERIALS #SPCHAR_X0026; METHODS: We studied 33 patients with salivary gland cancer who were available for histologic specimens. We examined the expression of PD-L1 in the tissues and analyzed the association with the survival rate and the association with various clinical parameters.RESULTS: According to this study and review of similar studies, we discovered that the expression of PD-L1 in salivary duct carcinoma was lower than other types of cancers. The impact of PD-L1 on survival rate also showed inconsistency in salivary duct carcinoma.CONCLUSION: Immunotherapy by PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade in salivary duct carcinoma needs further evaluation for clinical application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy , Prognosis , Receptors, Death Domain , Salivary Ducts , Salivary Gland Neoplasms , Survival Rate
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719422

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a deadly disease in which precision medicine needs to be incorporated. We aimed to implement next-generation sequencing (NGS) in determining actionable targets to guide appropriate molecular targeted therapy in HNSCC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three tumors and matched blood samples underwent targeted sequencing of 244 genes using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform with an average depth of coverage of greater than 1,000×. Clinicopathological data from patients were obtained from 17 centers in Korea, and were analyzed in correlation with NGS data. RESULTS: Ninety-two of the 93 tumors were amenable to data analysis. TP53 was the most common mutation, occurring in 47 (51%) patients, followed by CDKN2A (n=23, 25%), CCND1 (n=22, 24%), and PIK3CA (n=19, 21%). The total mutational burden was similar between human papillomavirus (HPV)–negative vs. positive tumors, although TP53, CDKN2A and CCND1 gene alterations occurred more frequently in HPV-negative tumors. HPV-positive tumors were significantly associated with immune signature-related genes compared to HPV-negative tumors. Mutations of NOTCH1 (p=0.027), CDKN2A (p < 0.001), and TP53 (p=0.038) were significantly associated with poorer overall survival. FAT1 mutations were highly enriched in cisplatin responders, and potentially targetable alterations such as PIK3CA E545K and CDKN2A R58X were noted in 14 patients (15%). CONCLUSION: We found several targetable genetic alterations, and our findings suggest that implementation of precision medicine in HNSCC is feasible. The predictive value of each targetable alteration should be assessed in a future umbrella trial using matched molecular targeted agents.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cisplatin , Epithelial Cells , Head , Humans , Korea , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neck , Precision Medicine , Statistics as Topic
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763124

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The optimal cytotoxic regimens have not been established for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who develop disease progression on first-line epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multi-center randomized phase II trial to compare the clinical outcomes between pemetrexed plus cisplatin combination therapy followed by maintenance pemetrexed (PC) and pemetrexed monotherapy (P) after failure of first-line EGFR-TKI. The primary objective was progression-free survival (PFS), and secondary objectives included overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and safety and toxicity profiles. RESULTS: A total of 96 patientswere randomized, and 91 patientswere treated at 14 centers in Korea. The ORR was 34.8% (16/46) for the PC arm and 17.8% (8/45) for the P arm (p=0.066). With 23.4 months of follow-up, the median PFS was 5.4 months in the PC arm and 6.4 months in the P arm (p=0.114). The median OS was 17.9 months and 15.7 months in PC and P arms, respectively (p=0.787). Adverse events ≥ grade 3 were reported in 12 patients (26.1%) in the PC arm and nine patients (20.0%) in the P arm (p=0.491). The overall time trends of HRQOL were not significantly different between the two arms. CONCLUSION: The outcomes of pemetrexed therapy in NSCLC patients with disease progression after firstline EGFR-TKI might not be improved by adding cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Arm , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cisplatin , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Epidermal Growth Factor , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Pemetrexed , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Quality of Life , ErbB Receptors , Tyrosine
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762601

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for central precocious puberty (CPP). Recently, elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was reported in obese youth. However, few data regarding the relationship between CPP and TSH are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function in girls with CPP and the relationship between CPP and serum TSH concentration. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 1,247 girls aged between 6.0 and 8.9 years who had undergone a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test to determine the presence of puberty were studied. Subjects were classified into CPP (n=554) and non-CPP (n=693) groups according to the results of the GnRH stimulation test. Characteristics and laboratory data of the CPP and non-CPP groups were compared and correlations between those characteristics and laboratory data and TSH concentration were evaluated. Serum TSH concentration in the CPP group was higher than that of the non-CPP group (3.19±1.55 mIU/L vs. 2.58±1.34 mIU/L, P<0.001). RESULTS: Serum free thyroxine (fT4) concentration in the CPP group was notably lower than that of the non-CPP group (1.38±0.14 ng/dL vs. 1.44±0.18 ng/dL, P<0.001). Across all subjects, 149 girls (11.9%) had hyperthyrotropinemia. The prevalence of hyperthyrotropinemia was higher in the CPP group compared to the non-CPP group (15.7% vs. 8.9%, P<0.001). TSH concentrations were positively correlated with age, height, weight, BMI, bone age, bone age advance, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 standard deviation score, basal luteinizing hormone (LH), peak LH and basal follicle-stimulation hormone. TSH concentrations were negatively correlated with fT4. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (β=0.548, P<0.001) and peak LH (β=0.019, P=0.008) were independently associated with serum TSH concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperthyrotropinemia in girls with CPP tends to be associated with pubertal LH elevation. In conclusion, pubertal onset may be associated with thyroid function.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Linear Models , Luteinizing Hormone , Obesity , Prevalence , Puberty , Puberty, Precocious , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713558

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Small for gestational age (SGA) is confusingly defined as birth weight (BW) either below 3rd percentile or 10th percentile for infants. This study aimed to compare postnatal catch-up growth between SGA groups according to different definitions. METHODS: Data of 129 infants born with BW below the 10th percentile and admitted to Korea University Anam Hospital and Ansan Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Height and weight were measured at 6, 12, and 24 months. Results were compared between group A (BW: <3rd percentile) and group B (BW: 3rd–10th percentile). RESULTS: Group A included 66 infants and group B included 63. At age 6 months (n=122), 62.9% of group A and 71.7% (P=0.303) of group B showed catch-up growth in weight. At 6 months (n=69), 55.9% of group A and 80.0% of group B (P<0.05) showed catch-up growth in height. At 12 months (n=106), 58.5% of group A, and 75.5% (P=0.062) of group B showed catch-up growth in weight. At 12 months (n=75), 52.8% of group A and 64.1% of group B (P=0.320) showed catch-up growth in height. Up to age 24 months, 66.7%/80.0% in group A and 63.6%/80.0% in group B showed catch-up growth in weight/height. CONCLUSION: Despite different definitions, there were no significant differences between the two SGA groups in postnatal catch-up growth up to age 24 months, except for height at 6 months. Compared to infants with appropriate catch-up growth, low gestational age and BW were risk factors for failed catch-up growth at 6 months.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A recent animal study showed that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is associated with cancer cachexia by promoting adipose tissue browning, and we previously demonstrated that PTHrP predicts weight loss (WL) in patients with cancer. In this study, we investigated whether prediction of WL by PTHrP is influenced by clinical factors such as serum albumin, corrected calcium levels, cancer stage, and performance status (PS). METHODS: A cohort of 219 patients with cancer whose PTHrP level was measured was enrolled and followed for body weight (BW) changes. Subjects were divided into two groups by serum albumin (cutoff value, 3.7 g/dL), corrected calcium (cutoff value, 10.5 mg/dL), cancer stage (stage 1 to 3 or 4), or PS (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0 to 1 or 2 to 4), respectively. Clinically significant WL was defined as either percent of BW change (% BW) <−5% or % BW <−2% plus body mass index (BMI) < 20 kg/m². RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 327 days, 74 patients (33.8%) experienced clinically significant WL. A positive PTHrP level was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of WL after adjusting for age, baseline BMI, serum albumin, corrected calcium level, cancer stage, and PS. The effect of PTHrP on WL remained significant in patients with low serum albumin, stage 4 cancer, and good PS. Regardless of calcium level, the effect of PTHrP on WL was maintained, although there was an additive effect of higher calcium and PTHrP levels. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of patients with advanced cancer who are PTHrP positive with hypercalcemia or hypoalbuminemia is needed for their clinical management.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Animals , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Cachexia , Calcium , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypercalcemia , Hypoalbuminemia , Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein , Serum Albumin , Weight Loss
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1214-1225, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717746

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and functional outcomes in patients with primary base of tongue (BOT) cancer who received definitive radiotherapy (RT) or surgery followed by radiotherapy (SRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2002 and December 2016, 102 patients with stage I-IVB primary BOT cancer underwent either definitive RT (n=46) or SRT (n=56), and treatment outcomes were compared between two groups. The expression of p16 was also analyzed. RESULTS: The RT group had more patients with advanced T stage (T3-4) disease (58.7% vs. 35.7%, p=0.021) and who received chemotherapy (91.3% vs. 37.5%, p < 0.001) than the SRT group. At a median follow up of 36.9 months (range, 3.3 to 181.5 months), the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 75.5% and 68.7%, respectively. With respect to treatment group, the 5-year OS and DFS in the RT and SRT groups did not differ significantly (OS, 68.7% vs. 80.5%, p=0.601; DFS, 63.1% vs. 73.1%, p=0.653). In multivariate analysis, OS differed significantly according to p16 expression (p16-negative vs. p16-positive; hazard ratio [HR], 0.145; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.025 to 0.853; p=0.033). Regarding DFS, p16 expression (p16-negative vs. p16-positive; HR, 0.164; 95% CI, 0.045 to 0.598; p=0.006) showed a significant effect in multivariate analysis. Functional defects (late grade ≥ 3 dysphagia or voice alteration) were more frequently reported in the SRT than in the RT group (16.1% vs. 2.2%, p=0.021). CONCLUSION: Despite advanced disease, patients in the RT group showed comparable survival outcomes and better functional preservation than those in the SRT group.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Deglutition Disorders , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Organ Preservation , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Tongue Neoplasms , Tongue , Treatment Outcome , Voice
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740110

ABSTRACT

The original version of the article contained error in the funding statement in Acknowledgements section.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740088

ABSTRACT

The original version of this article contained error in the name of the fourth author which was given incorrectly as Hye Run Kim. The author’s name should have been written as Hye Ryun Kim.

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