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1.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 203-215, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977412

ABSTRACT

Background@#Surgical resection is the standard treatment for early-stage lung cancer. Since postoperative lung function is related to mortality, predicted postoperative lung function is used to determine the treatment modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of linear regression and machine learning models. @*Methods@#We extracted data from the Clinical Data Warehouse and developed three sets: set I, the linear regression model; set II, machine learning models omitting the missing data: and set III, machine learning models imputing the missing data. Six machine learning models, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Ridge regression, ElasticNet, Random Forest, eXtreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and the light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) were implemented. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second measured 6 months after surgery was defined as the outcome. Five-fold cross-validation was performed for hyperparameter tuning of the machine learning models. The dataset was split into training and test datasets at a 70:30 ratio. Implementation was done after dataset splitting in set III. Predictive performance was evaluated by R2 and mean squared error (MSE) in the three sets. @*Results@#A total of 1,487 patients were included in sets I and III and 896 patients were included in set II. In set I, the R2 value was 0.27 and in set II, LightGBM was the best model with the highest R2 value of 0.5 and the lowest MSE of 154.95. In set III, LightGBM was the best model with the highest R2 value of 0.56 and the lowest MSE of 174.07. @*Conclusion@#The LightGBM model showed the best performance in predicting postoperative lung function.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 112-122, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966473

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Although osimertinib is the standard-of-care treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation–positive non–small cell lung cancer, real-world evidence on the efficacy of osimertinib is not enough to reflect the complexity of the entire course of treatment. Herein, we report on the use of osimertinib in patients with EGFR T790M mutation–positive non–small cell lung cancer who had previously received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with confirmed EGFR T790M after disease progression of prior EGFR-TKI were enrolled and administered osimertinib 80 mg daily. The primary effectiveness outcome was progression-free survival, with time-to-treatment discontinuation, treatment and adverse effects leading to treatment discontinuation, and overall survival being the secondary endpoints. @*Results@#A total of 558 individuals were enrolled, and 55.2% had investigator-assessed responses. The median progression-free survival was 14.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.0 to 16.4), and the median time-to-treatment discontinuation was 15.0 months (95% CI, 14.1 to 15.9). The median overall survival was 36.7 months (95% CI, 30.9 to not reached). The benefit with osimertinib was consistent regardless of the age, sex, smoking history, and primary EGFR mutation subtype. However, hepatic metastases at the time of diagnosis, the presence of plasma EGFR T790M, and the shorter duration of prior EGFR-TKI treatment were poor predictors of osimertinib treatment. Ten patients (1.8%), including three with pneumonitis, had to discontinue osimertinib due to severe adverse effects. @*Conclusion@#Osimertinib demonstrated its clinical effectiveness and survival benefit for EGFR T790M mutation–positive in Korean patients with no new safety signals.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 735-741, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894765

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate circularity as a quantitative shape factor of small renal tumor on computed tomography (CT) in differentiating fat-poor angiomyolipoma (AML) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). @*Materials and Methods@#In 257 consecutive patients, 257 pathologically confirmed renal tumors (either AML or RCC less than 4 cm), which did not include visible fat on unenhanced CT, were retrospectively evaluated. A radiologist drew the tumor margin to measure the perimeter and area in all the contrast-enhanced axial CT images. In each image, a quantitative shape factor, circularity, was calculated using the following equation: 4 x π x (area ÷ perimeter 2 ). The median circularity (circularity index) was adopted as a representative value in each tumor. The circularity index was compared between fat-poor AML and RCC, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent predictor of fat-poor AML. @*Results@#Of the 257 tumors, 26 were AMLs and 231 were RCCs (184 clear cell RCCs, 25 papillary RCCs, and 22 chromophobe RCCs). The mean circularity index of AML was significantly lower than that of RCC (0.86 ± 0.04 vs. 0.93 ± 0.02, p < 0.001).The mean circularity index was not different between the subtypes of RCCs (0.93 ± 0.02, 0.92 ± 0.02, and 0.92 ± 0.02 for clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCCs, respectively, p = 0.210). The area under the ROC curve of circularity index was 0.924 for differentiating fat-poor AML from RCC. The sensitivity and specificity were 88.5% and 90.9%, respectively (cut-off, 0.90). Lower circularity index (≤ 0.9) was an independent predictor (odds ratio, 41.0; p < 0.001) for predicting fat-poor AML on multivariable logistic regression analysis. @*Conclusion@#Circularity is a useful quantitative shape factor of small renal tumor for differentiating fat-poor AML from RCC.

4.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 159-166, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875542

ABSTRACT

Background@#E-cigarettes are steadily gaining popularity in Korea. However, the characteristics of e-cigarette smokers, especially nicotine dependence and stress susceptibility, have not been evaluated in comparison to those of nonsmokers or combustible cigarette smokers in Korea. @*Methods@#In this study, 28,059 participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2017) were classified into the following three groups: non-smokers, smokers (current smokers and ex-smokers of combustible cigarettes only), and e-smokers (current smokers and ex-smokers of e-cigarettes regardless of combustible cigarette use). @*Results@#Among the participants, 16,980 (60.5%), 9,247 (33.0%), and 1,832 (6.4%) subjects were non-smokers, smokers, and e-smokers, respectively. E-smokers were younger, more educated, and had a higher household income than nonsmokers or smokers. The number of e-smokers who smoked within 5 minutes of waking up (31.5% vs. 19.8%, p<0.001) and who planned to quit smoking within 6 months (39.1% vs. 35.7%, p<0.05) was greater than that of smokers. E-smokers perceived stress as “very much” (7.0% vs. 4.4%, p<0.001) and “a lot” (29.1% vs. 20.5%, p<0.001) compared to non-smokers. Suicidal ideation (6.5% vs. 4.7%, p<0.001), plans (2.4% vs. 1.3%, p<0.001), and attempts (1.1% vs. 0.5%, p<0.001) were higher in e-smokers than in non-smokers. Depressive episodes in 1 year (14.2% vs. 11.4%, p<0.05) and suicidal plans (2.4% vs. 1.8%, p<0.05) were more frequent among e-smokers than among smokers. @*Conclusion@#E-smokers were younger, more educated, and had a higher income, but they were more dependent on nicotine and susceptible to stress than non-smokers and smokers. Smoking cessation counseling should be tailored according to the characteristics of e-smokers.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e331-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915426

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the association between e-cigarette (EC) use and development of acute severe pneumonia in the Korean population using a national database. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective analysis using linkage of data between the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) administrative claims database. The primary endpoint of this study was development of severe pneumonia requiring hospital admission according to EC use during the study period. The secondary endpoints were in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ventilator care, and days of hospital stay. @*Results@#The final analysis included 28,950 individuals, of which 578 (2.0%) were EC users.EC users were younger and more often male than non-EC users. The EC users showed higher level of education and household income and had fewer comorbidities. Severe pneumonia was noted in 37 of 28,372 non-EC users (0.13%), but there were no occurrences of severe pneumonia in EC users. The incidence of pneumonia occurrence was not different between the two groups (P = 1.000). @*Conclusions@#Since e-cigarette or vaping use-associated lung injury (EVALI) is most likely included in acute severe pneumonia occurring within 3 months of EC use, it is considered that there might be no EVALI patients in Korea during the investigation period. A large-scale, prospective study is necessary to evaluate the association between EC use and acute lung injury.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 735-741, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902469

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate circularity as a quantitative shape factor of small renal tumor on computed tomography (CT) in differentiating fat-poor angiomyolipoma (AML) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). @*Materials and Methods@#In 257 consecutive patients, 257 pathologically confirmed renal tumors (either AML or RCC less than 4 cm), which did not include visible fat on unenhanced CT, were retrospectively evaluated. A radiologist drew the tumor margin to measure the perimeter and area in all the contrast-enhanced axial CT images. In each image, a quantitative shape factor, circularity, was calculated using the following equation: 4 x π x (area ÷ perimeter 2 ). The median circularity (circularity index) was adopted as a representative value in each tumor. The circularity index was compared between fat-poor AML and RCC, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent predictor of fat-poor AML. @*Results@#Of the 257 tumors, 26 were AMLs and 231 were RCCs (184 clear cell RCCs, 25 papillary RCCs, and 22 chromophobe RCCs). The mean circularity index of AML was significantly lower than that of RCC (0.86 ± 0.04 vs. 0.93 ± 0.02, p < 0.001).The mean circularity index was not different between the subtypes of RCCs (0.93 ± 0.02, 0.92 ± 0.02, and 0.92 ± 0.02 for clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCCs, respectively, p = 0.210). The area under the ROC curve of circularity index was 0.924 for differentiating fat-poor AML from RCC. The sensitivity and specificity were 88.5% and 90.9%, respectively (cut-off, 0.90). Lower circularity index (≤ 0.9) was an independent predictor (odds ratio, 41.0; p < 0.001) for predicting fat-poor AML on multivariable logistic regression analysis. @*Conclusion@#Circularity is a useful quantitative shape factor of small renal tumor for differentiating fat-poor AML from RCC.

8.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 619-629, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831853

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that plays a key role in Th2-mediated inflammation, both directly by promoting the proliferation of naïve CD4 Th2 cells, and indirectly by activating dendritic cells (DCs). TSLP-activated DCs induce the expansion of chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on Th2 (CRTH2)+ CD4+ Th2 memory cells, which undergo a Th2 response and express prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) synthase. CRTH2, a PGD2 receptor, is a selective Th2-cell surface marker. We investigated the effects of an anti-TSLP antibody (Ab) and a CRTH2 antagonist, as well as their mechanisms of action, in a mouse model of acute asthma. @*Methods@#BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. We then evaluated the effects of the administration of an anti-TSLP Ab either alone or together with a CRTH2 antagonist on cell counts, Th2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, and the levels of epithelium-derived cytokines such as TSLP, interleukin (IL) 33, and IL-25 in lung homogenates, as well as airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). @*Results@#Anti-TSLP Ab and the CRTH2 antagonist significantly attenuated eosinophilic airway inflammation, AHR, and the expression of Th2 cytokines. The expression of GATA-3 and the levels of IL-33 and IL-25 in lung tissues were affected by the combined anti-TSLP and CRTH2 antagonist treatment. @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that the dual blockade of TSLP and CRTH2 may serve as an effective treatment target for eosinophilic asthma.

9.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 31-41, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic cough is defined as a cough lasting more than 8 weeks and socio-economic burden of chronic cough is enormous. The characteristics of chronic cough in Korea are not well understood. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) published guidelines on cough management in 2014. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics of chronic cough in Korea and the efficacy of the KATRD guidelines.@*METHODS@#This was a multi-center, retrospective observational study conducted in Korea. The participants were over 18 years of age. They had coughs lasting more than 8 weeks. Subjects with current pulmonary diseases, smokers, ex-smokers with more than 10 pack-years or who quit within the past 1 year, pregnant women, and users of cough-inducing medications were excluded. Evaluation and management of cough followed the KATRD cough-management guidelines.@*RESULTS@#Participants with chronic cough in Korea showed age in the late forties and cough duration of more than 1 year. Upper airway cough syndrome was the most common cause of cough, followed by cough-variant asthma (CVA). Gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and eosinophilic bronchitis were less frequently observed. Following the KATRD cough-management guidelines, 91.2% of the subjects improved after 4 weeks of treatment. Responders were younger, had a longer duration of cough, and an initial impression of CVA. In univariate and multivariate analyses, an initial impression of CVA was the only factor related to better treatment response.@*CONCLUSION@#The causes of chronic cough in Korea differed from those reported in other countries. The current Korean guidelines proved efficient for treating Korean patients with chronic cough.

10.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 31-41, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic cough is defined as a cough lasting more than 8 weeks and socio-economic burden of chronic cough is enormous. The characteristics of chronic cough in Korea are not well understood. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) published guidelines on cough management in 2014. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics of chronic cough in Korea and the efficacy of the KATRD guidelines.@*METHODS@#This was a multi-center, retrospective observational study conducted in Korea. The participants were over 18 years of age. They had coughs lasting more than 8 weeks. Subjects with current pulmonary diseases, smokers, ex-smokers with more than 10 pack-years or who quit within the past 1 year, pregnant women, and users of cough-inducing medications were excluded. Evaluation and management of cough followed the KATRD cough-management guidelines.@*RESULTS@#Participants with chronic cough in Korea showed age in the late forties and cough duration of more than 1 year. Upper airway cough syndrome was the most common cause of cough, followed by cough-variant asthma (CVA). Gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and eosinophilic bronchitis were less frequently observed. Following the KATRD cough-management guidelines, 91.2% of the subjects improved after 4 weeks of treatment. Responders were younger, had a longer duration of cough, and an initial impression of CVA. In univariate and multivariate analyses, an initial impression of CVA was the only factor related to better treatment response.@*CONCLUSION@#The causes of chronic cough in Korea differed from those reported in other countries. The current Korean guidelines proved efficient for treating Korean patients with chronic cough.

11.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 541-551, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We explored the effects of intermittent normobaric hyperoxia alone or combined with chemotherapy on the growth, general morphology, oxidative stress, and apoptosis of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced lung tumors in mice. METHODS: Female A/J mice were given a single dose of B[a]P and randomized into four groups: control, carboplatin (50 mg/kg intraperitoneally), hyperoxia (95% fraction of inspired oxygen), and carboplatin and hyperoxia. Normobaric hyperoxia (95%) was applied for 3 hours each day from weeks 21 to 28. Tumor load was determined as the average total tumor numbers and volumes. Several markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated. RESULTS: Intermittent normobaric hyperoxia combined with chemotherapy reduced the tumor number by 59% and the load by 72% compared with the control B[a]P group. Intermittent normobaric hyperoxia, either alone or combined with chemotherapy, decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione and increased the levels of catalase and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. The Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio, caspase 3 level, and number of transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling positive cells increased following treatment with hyperoxia with or without chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent normobaric hyperoxia was found to be tumoricidal and thus may serve as an adjuvant therapy for lung cancer. Oxidative stress and its effects on DNA are increased following exposure to hyperoxia and even more with chemotherapy, and this may lead to apoptosis of lung tumors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Apoptosis , Carboplatin , Caspase 3 , Catalase , DNA , Drug Therapy , Glutathione , Hyperoxia , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Oxidative Stress , RNA, Messenger , Superoxide Dismutase , Tumor Burden
12.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 284-290, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to analyze the factors predicting the diagnostic performance of flexible bronchoscopy without guidance in peripheral lung lesions that are endoscopically invisible. METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted in St. Paul's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, between January 2007 and March 2013. We included all patients who received bronchoscopy during this period. The analyzed variables were age, sex, the etiology of the lesion, lesion size, distance from the pleura, and presence of the bronchus sign. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to identify the significant independent factors associated with diagnostic yield. RESULTS: We included 151 patients in this study. The overall diagnostic yield was 58.3%. The sensitivity was 43.2% for malignant disease and 78.1% for benign disease. The benign lung lesions (p<0.001), lesion size (p=0.015), presence of the exposed type of bronchus sign (p<0.001), and presence of cavitary lung lesions (p=0.005) were factors influencing the yield of flexible bronchoscopy by univariate analysis. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the exposed type of bronchus sign and benign lung lesions were independent predicting factors (odds ratio [OR]: 27.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.56–103.32; p<0.001 and OR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.76–13.72; p=0.002). CONCLUSION: The presence of the exposed type of bronchus sign and benign lung lesions are determining factors of the diagnostic yield in flexible bronchoscopy in evaluating peripheral lesions that are not endoscopically visible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchi , Bronchoscopy , Korea , Logistic Models , Lung , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Pleura , Retrospective Studies
13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 478-485, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pneumocystis jirovecii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be helpful in diagnosing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP); however it has limitations. We evaluated the prevalence of positive P. jirovecii PCR from non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunocompromised patients and tried to determine the risk of PCP development. METHODS: Between May 2009 and September 2012, P. jirovecii PCR was performed in bronchoscopic specimens from 1,231 adult non-HIV immunocompromised patients suspected of respiratory infection. Only 169 patients (13.7%) who were tested positive for P. jirovecii PCR were enrolled. Retrospective chart review was performed. PCP was defined in patients with positive P. jirovecii PCR who were treated for PCP based on the clinical decision. RESULTS: From 169 P. jirovecii PCR-positive patients, 90 patients were in the PCP group (53.3%) and 79 patients were in the non-PCP group (46.7%). In the PCP group, 38% of patients expired or aggravated after therapy, whereas the majority of patients (84%) in the non-PCP group recovered without treatment for PCP. Independent risk factors for PCP by binary logistic regression analysis were underlying conditions- hematological malignancies, solid tumors or solid organ transplantation, dyspnea, age < 60 years, and albumin < 2.9 g/dL. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that not all P. jirovecii PCR-positive patients need to be treated for PCP. Among P. jirovecii PCR-positive patients, those who are less than 60 years old, with hematological malignancies, solid tumors or solid organ transplantation, low albumin, and with symptoms of dyspnea, the possibility of PCP might be higher. Treatment should also be selected to these patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Dyspnea , Hematologic Neoplasms , Immunocompromised Host , Logistic Models , Organ Transplantation , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumocystis , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Transplants
14.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 478-485, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pneumocystis jirovecii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be helpful in diagnosing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP); however it has limitations. We evaluated the prevalence of positive P. jirovecii PCR from non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunocompromised patients and tried to determine the risk of PCP development. METHODS: Between May 2009 and September 2012, P. jirovecii PCR was performed in bronchoscopic specimens from 1,231 adult non-HIV immunocompromised patients suspected of respiratory infection. Only 169 patients (13.7%) who were tested positive for P. jirovecii PCR were enrolled. Retrospective chart review was performed. PCP was defined in patients with positive P. jirovecii PCR who were treated for PCP based on the clinical decision. RESULTS: From 169 P. jirovecii PCR-positive patients, 90 patients were in the PCP group (53.3%) and 79 patients were in the non-PCP group (46.7%). In the PCP group, 38% of patients expired or aggravated after therapy, whereas the majority of patients (84%) in the non-PCP group recovered without treatment for PCP. Independent risk factors for PCP by binary logistic regression analysis were underlying conditions- hematological malignancies, solid tumors or solid organ transplantation, dyspnea, age < 60 years, and albumin < 2.9 g/dL. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that not all P. jirovecii PCR-positive patients need to be treated for PCP. Among P. jirovecii PCR-positive patients, those who are less than 60 years old, with hematological malignancies, solid tumors or solid organ transplantation, low albumin, and with symptoms of dyspnea, the possibility of PCP might be higher. Treatment should also be selected to these patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Dyspnea , Hematologic Neoplasms , Immunocompromised Host , Logistic Models , Organ Transplantation , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumocystis , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Transplants
15.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 99-104, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149277

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 65-year-old man with Behcet's disease who presented with massive hemoptysis caused by bronchial varices. A computed tomography (CT) scan and bronchoscopy were performed to identify the bleeding site. The CT scan revealed pneumonia and a combined hemorrhage in the right-middle and lower lobes. Massive bleeding was detected during the bronchoscopy and emergency embolization was attempted but angiographic findings were normal. An anteriojugulo-right femoral bypass operation was performed to relieve the tortuous and hypertrophied jugular venous obstruction. However, thrombectomy and thrombolysis followed because of graft thrombosis six days post-surgery. The patient was treated with steroid and high-dose cyclophosphamide therapy for his Behçet's disease, which caused the venous obstructions; the saccular bronchial varices in the right-middle and right lower lobes on bronchoscopy regressed slightly after four cycles of cyclophosphamide therapy


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Bronchoscopy , Cyclophosphamide , Emergencies , Hemoptysis , Hemorrhage , Pneumonia , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transplants , Varicose Veins
16.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1150-1158, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inhaled corticosteroids are the most effective treatment currently available for asthma, but their beneficial effect against airway remodeling is limited. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib has inhibitory activity against c-kit and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. We compared the effects of fluticasone and nilotinib on airway remodeling in a chronic asthma model. We also examined whether co-treatment with nilotinib and fluticasone had any synergistic effect in preventing airway remodeling. METHODS: We developed a mouse model of airway remodeling, including smooth muscle thickening, in which ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized female BALB/c-mice were repeatedly exposed to intranasal OVA administration twice per week for 3 months. Mice were treated with fluticasone and/or nilotinib intranasally during the OVA challenge. RESULTS: Mice chronically exposed to OVA developed eosinophilic airway inflammation and showed features of airway remodeling, including thickening of the peribronchial smooth muscle layer. Both fluticasone and nilotinib attenuated airway smooth muscle thickening. However, only nilotinib suppressed fibrotic changes, demonstrating inhibition of collagen deposition. Fluticasone reduced pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, and several cytokines, such as interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, induced by repeated OVA challenges. On the other hand, nilotinib reduced transforming growth factor β1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and inhibited fibroblast proliferation significantly. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that fluticasone and nilotinib suppressed airway remodeling in this chronic asthma model through anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic pathways, respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Airway Remodeling , Asthma , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Collagen , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Fibroblasts , Fluticasone , Hand , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Muscle, Smooth , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Transforming Growth Factors
17.
The Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 303-307, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770902

ABSTRACT

Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but potentially fatal complication that occurs acutely during pregnancy or within 12 h of delivery. The management of AFE focuses initially on supportive measures for cardiopulmonary stabilization. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation should be considered in patients who are unresponsive to medical treatment in order to prevent additional hypoxia and subsequent organ failure. We present a 41-year-old woman with clinical AFE who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and was treated successfully with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Amniotic Fluid , Hypoxia , Embolism , Embolism, Amniotic Fluid , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome
18.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 478-488, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The clinical outcomes of patients with hematologic malignancies who were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after the failu re of optimal conventional therapy were determined. METHODS: The medical records of all patients administered ECMO during their stay in a medical intensive care unit of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital between February 2010 and July 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: In total, 15 patients with hematologic malignancies were compared to 33 immunocompetent patients with documented cardiorespiratory failure. Underlying hematologic malignancies were significantly associated with lower overall survival (0.0% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.044). Mortality was significantly associated with a higher 24 hours ECMO inspired fraction of oxygen (0.71 +/- 0.24 vs. 0.47 +/- 0.13, p = 0.015), the development of infection after ECMO (87.5% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.001), and the presence of hyperbilirubinemia (70.0% vs. 0.0%, p < 0.001). Matching of the patients based on their Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores confirmed the greater risk of mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies (survival: 0.0% vs. 40.0%, p = 0.017). The mean difference in inotropic-equivalent scores after ECMO was significantly lower in the immunocompetent patients than in those with hematologic malignancies (-59.22 +/- 97.83 vs. 53.87 +/- 164.46, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hematologic malignancies who require ECMO for respiratory support have poor outcomes. The incidence of complications in these patients did not significantly differ from that in immunocompetent patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , APACHE , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Medical Records , Predictive Value of Tests , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 303-307, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25378

ABSTRACT

Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but potentially fatal complication that occurs acutely during pregnancy or within 12 h of delivery. The management of AFE focuses initially on supportive measures for cardiopulmonary stabilization. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation should be considered in patients who are unresponsive to medical treatment in order to prevent additional hypoxia and subsequent organ failure. We present a 41-year-old woman with clinical AFE who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and was treated successfully with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Amniotic Fluid , Hypoxia , Embolism , Embolism, Amniotic Fluid , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome
20.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 436-439, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149065

ABSTRACT

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which originated from neuroendocrine tissue, can develop into paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes, such as Cushing syndrome, because of an inappropriate secretion of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This paraneoplastic syndrome is known to be a poor prognostic factor in SCLC. The reason for poor survival may be because of a higher risk of infection associated with hypercortisolemia. Therefore, early detection and appropriate treatment for this syndrome is necessary. But the diagnosis is challenging and the source of ACTH production can be difficult to identify. We report a 69-year-old male patient who had severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypertension as manifestations of an ACTH-secreting small cell carcinoma of the lung. He was treated with ketoconazole and spironolactone to control the ACTH dependent Cushing syndrome. He survived for 15 months after chemotherapy, which is unusual considering the poor outcome of the ectopic ATH syndrome associated with SCLC.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Alkalosis , Carcinoma, Small Cell , Cushing Syndrome , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Hypertension , Hypokalemia , Ketoconazole , Lung , Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes , Paraneoplastic Syndromes , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , Spironolactone
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