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1.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1579-1586, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902504

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the modified Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS), and compare it with the 2016 version of K-TIRADS using the Thyroid Imaging Network of Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Between June and September 2015, 5708 thyroid nodules (≥ 1.0 cm) from 5081 consecutive patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography at 26 institutions were retrospectively evaluated. We used a biopsy size threshold of 2 cm for K-TIRADS 3 and 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 1) or 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 3). The modified K-TIRADS 2 subcategorized the K-TIRADS 4 into 4A and 4B, and the cutoff sizes for the biopsies were defined as 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4B and 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4A. The diagnostic performance and the rate of unnecessary biopsies of the modified K-TIRADS for detecting malignancy were compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRAD, which were stratified by nodule size (with a threshold of 2 cm). @*Results@#A total of 1111 malignant nodules and 4597 benign nodules were included. The sensitivity, specificity, and unnecessary biopsy rate of the benign nodules were 94.9%, 24.4%, and 60.9% for the 2016 K-TIRADS; 91.0%, 39.7%, and 48.6% for the modified K-TIRADS 1; 84.9%, 45.9%, and 43.5% for the modified K-TIRADS 2; and 76.1%, 50.2%, and 40.1% for the modified K-TIRADS 3. For small nodules (1–2 cm), the diagnostic sensitivity of the modified K-TIRADS decreased by 5.2–25.6% and the rate of unnecessary biopsies reduced by 19.2–32.8% compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRADS (p 2 cm), the modified K-TIRADSs maintained a very high sensitivity for detecting malignancy (98%). @*Conclusion@#The modified K-TIRADSs significantly reduced the rate of unnecessary biopsies for small (1–2 cm) nodules while maintaining a very high sensitivity for malignancy for large (> 2 cm) nodules.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902467

ABSTRACT

Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and characterization of thyroid diseases, and the information provided by imaging studies is essential for management planning. A referral guideline for imaging studies may help physicians make reasonable decisions and minimize the number of unnecessary examinations. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) developed imaging guidelines for thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer using an adaptation process through a collaboration between the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and the working group of KSThR, which is composed of radiologists specializing in thyroid imaging. When evidence is either insufficient or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence for recommending imaging. Therefore, we suggest rating the appropriateness of imaging for specific clinical situations in this guideline.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1579-1586, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894800

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the modified Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS), and compare it with the 2016 version of K-TIRADS using the Thyroid Imaging Network of Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Between June and September 2015, 5708 thyroid nodules (≥ 1.0 cm) from 5081 consecutive patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography at 26 institutions were retrospectively evaluated. We used a biopsy size threshold of 2 cm for K-TIRADS 3 and 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 1) or 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (modified K-TIRADS 3). The modified K-TIRADS 2 subcategorized the K-TIRADS 4 into 4A and 4B, and the cutoff sizes for the biopsies were defined as 1 cm for K-TIRADS 4B and 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4A. The diagnostic performance and the rate of unnecessary biopsies of the modified K-TIRADS for detecting malignancy were compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRAD, which were stratified by nodule size (with a threshold of 2 cm). @*Results@#A total of 1111 malignant nodules and 4597 benign nodules were included. The sensitivity, specificity, and unnecessary biopsy rate of the benign nodules were 94.9%, 24.4%, and 60.9% for the 2016 K-TIRADS; 91.0%, 39.7%, and 48.6% for the modified K-TIRADS 1; 84.9%, 45.9%, and 43.5% for the modified K-TIRADS 2; and 76.1%, 50.2%, and 40.1% for the modified K-TIRADS 3. For small nodules (1–2 cm), the diagnostic sensitivity of the modified K-TIRADS decreased by 5.2–25.6% and the rate of unnecessary biopsies reduced by 19.2–32.8% compared with those of the 2016 K-TIRADS (p 2 cm), the modified K-TIRADSs maintained a very high sensitivity for detecting malignancy (98%). @*Conclusion@#The modified K-TIRADSs significantly reduced the rate of unnecessary biopsies for small (1–2 cm) nodules while maintaining a very high sensitivity for malignancy for large (> 2 cm) nodules.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894763

ABSTRACT

Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and characterization of thyroid diseases, and the information provided by imaging studies is essential for management planning. A referral guideline for imaging studies may help physicians make reasonable decisions and minimize the number of unnecessary examinations. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) developed imaging guidelines for thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer using an adaptation process through a collaboration between the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and the working group of KSThR, which is composed of radiologists specializing in thyroid imaging. When evidence is either insufficient or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence for recommending imaging. Therefore, we suggest rating the appropriateness of imaging for specific clinical situations in this guideline.

5.
Ultrasonography ; : 520-529, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919545

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to predict a heavy nodal burden (≥3 metastatic axillary lymph nodes [LNs]) using axillary ultrasonography (US) and US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in patients with early-stage breast cancer. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 403 women (404 cancers) who underwent US-guided FNAB for axillary LN staging from January 2006 to December 2015. US findings and US-guided FNAB results were reviewed and compared using pathology results as the reference. Diagnostic performance was analyzed, and clinicopathological and radiological findings were compared between patients with <3 metastatic LNs and ≥3 metastatic LNs. @*Results@#The final pathology results revealed that 20.5% of cancers had heavy nodal metastases. US-guided FNAB showed significantly higher sensitivity (79.0% vs. 63.0%, P=0.009) and specificity (84.8% vs. 79.3%, P=0.036) in predicting heavy nodal metastases than did US. The presence of a larger number of suspicious LNs (two or more) on axillary US and positive FNAB results were significantly correlated with a heavy nodal burden in the multivariate analysis. The odds ratios were 4.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 to 9.39) for two suspicious LNs, 9.40 (95% CI, 2.99 to 29.54) for three or more suspicious LNs, and 14.22 (95% CI, 6.78 to 29.82) for positive FNAB results. @*Conclusion@#The number of suspicious LNs detected on axillary US and FNAB results can help predict a heavy axillary nodal burden in patients with early-stage breast cancer.

6.
Ultrasonography ; : 83-92, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919514

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to measure the cancer detection rate of computer-aided detection (CAD) software in preoperative automated breast ultrasonography (ABUS) of breast cancer patients and to determine the characteristics associated with false-negative outcomes. @*Methods@#A total of 129 index lesions (median size, 1.7 cm; interquartile range, 1.2 to 2.4 cm) from 129 consecutive patients (mean age±standard deviation, 53.4±11.8 years) who underwent preoperative ABUS from December 2017 to February 2018 were assessed. An index lesion was defined as a breast cancer confirmed by ultrasonography (US)-guided core needle biopsy. The detection rate of the index lesions, positive predictive value (PPV), and false-positive rate (FPR) of the CAD software were measured. Subgroup analysis was performed to identify clinical and US findings associated with false-negative outcomes. @*Results@#The detection rate of the CAD software was 0.84 (109 of 129; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 0.90). The PPV and FPR were 0.41 (221 of 544; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.45) and 0.45 (174 of 387; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.50), respectively. False-negative outcomes were more frequent in asymptomatic patients (P<0.001) and were associated with the following US findings: smaller size (P=0.001), depth in the posterior third (P=0.002), angular or indistinct margin (P<0.001), and absence of architectural distortion (P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#The CAD software showed a promising detection rate of breast cancer. However, radiologists should judge whether CAD software-marked lesions are true- or false-positive lesions, considering its low PPV and high FPR. Moreover, it would be helpful for radiologists to consider the characteristics associated with false-negative outcomes when reading ABUS with CAD.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 2094-2123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918179

ABSTRACT

Incidental thyroid nodules are commonly detected on ultrasonography (US). This has contributed to the rapidly rising incidence of low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma over the last 20 years. The appropriate diagnosis and management of these patients is based on the risk factors related to the patients as well as the thyroid nodules. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) published consensus recommendations for US-based management of thyroid nodules in 2011 and revised them in 2016. These guidelines have been used as the standard guidelines in Korea. However, recent advances in the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules have necessitated the revision of the original recommendations. The task force of the KSThR has revised the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and recommendations for US lexicon, biopsy criteria, US criteria of extrathyroidal extension, optimal thyroid computed tomography protocol, and US follow-up of thyroid nodules before and after biopsy. The biopsy criteria were revised to reduce unnecessary biopsies for benign nodules while maintaining an appropriate sensitivity for the detection of malignant tumors in small (1–2 cm) thyroid nodules. The goal of these recommendations is to provide the optimal scientific evidence and expert opinion consensus regarding US-based diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1204-1212, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913802

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to examine the rate of expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and β1 (ERβ1), progesterone receptor (PR), and rate of overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a relatively large cohort of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We also aimed to examine whether each receptor influenced clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of PTC. @*Materials and Methods@#We made a microarray of paraffin-embedded PTC surgical tissues from 436 patients. We compared the results of the immunohistochemical staining for each hormone receptor with clinicopathological characteristics. @*Results@#The positive expression rate of hormonal receptors was 40.4% for ERα, 83.7% for ERβ1, and 71.3% for PR in patients with PTC. Overexpression of EGFR was shown in 19.3% of patients with PTC. The age was lower (44.6±12.1 years vs. 47.1±12.5 years, p=0.040) and tumor smaller (0.96±0.69 cm vs. 1.13±0.82 cm, p=0.020) in the ERα positive group, which also showed higher PR positivity (80.7% vs. 65.0%, p < 0.001) and overexpression of EGFR (27.3% vs. 13.8%, p < 0.001). However, neither the positivity of hormone receptors nor overexpression of EGFR affected the recurrence of PTC. @*Conclusion@#In conclusion, most (94.6%) patients with PTC were found to exhibit positive expression for ERs or PR. We also found that neither the positive expression of hormone receptors nor overexpression of EGFR were associated with the recurrence of PTC.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832901

ABSTRACT

In this case report, we present the radiologic and pathologic findings of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) in the male breast. It is well known that a high-risk lesion such as ADH is a precursor of breast cancer in females. However, the clinical significance of these lesions in the male breast is still uncertain because male breasts mainly consist of ducts without lobule formation, unlike the female breast. To our knowledge, imaging findings of ADH in the male breast have not been reported previously, except for a few studies on the pathologic findings of these lesions. Through this paper, we would like to present the possible imaging features of this high-risk lesion in the male breast and review the related literature.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic performance and interobserver variability of strain ratio obtained from one or two regions of interest (ROI) on breast elastography.MATERIALS AND METHODS: From April to May 2016, 140 breast masses in 140 patients who underwent conventional ultrasonography (US) with strain elastography followed by US-guided biopsy were evaluated. Three experienced breast radiologists reviewed recorded US and elastography images, measured strain ratios, and categorized them according to the American College of Radiology breast imaging reporting and data system lexicon. Strain ratio was obtained using the 1-ROI method (one ROI drawn on the target mass), and the 2-ROI method (one ROI in the target mass and another in reference fat tissue). The diagnostic performance of the three radiologists among datasets and optimal cut-off values for strain ratios were evaluated. Interobserver variability of strain ratio for each ROI method was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient values, Bland–Altman plots, and coefficients of variation.RESULTS: Compared to US alone, US combined with the strain ratio measured using either ROI method significantly improved specificity, positive predictive value, accuracy, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) (all p values < 0.05). Strain ratio obtained using the 1-ROI method showed higher interobserver agreement between the three radiologists without a significant difference in AUC for differentiating breast cancer when the optimal strain ratio cut-off value was used, compared with the 2-ROI method (AUC: 0.788 vs. 0.783, 0.693 vs. 0.715, and 0.691 vs. 0.686, respectively, all p values > 0.05).CONCLUSION: Strain ratios obtained using the 1-ROI method showed higher interobserver agreement without a significant difference in AUC, compared to those obtained using the 2-ROI method. Considering that the 1-ROI method can reduce performers' efforts, it could have an important role in improving the diagnostic performance of breast US by enabling consistent management of breast lesions.

11.
Ultrasonography ; : 264-271, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761979

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) examinations of suspicious breast masses in comparison to handheld breast ultrasound (HHUS) with regard to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category assessment, and to investigate the factors affecting discrepancies in categorization. METHODS: A total of 135 masses that were assessed as BI-RADS categories 4 and 5 on ABUS that underwent ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy from May 2017 to December 2017 were included in this study. The BI-RADS categories were re-assessed using HHUS. Agreement of the BI-RADS categories was evaluated using kappa statistics, and the positive predictive value of each examination was calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the mammography and US findings associated with discrepancies in the BI-RADS categorization. RESULTS: The overall agreement between ABUS and HHUS in all cases was good (79.3%, kappa=0.61, P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that accompanying suspicious microcalcifications on mammography (odds ratio [OR], 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83 to 11.71; P=0.001) and an irregular shape on US (OR, 5.59; 95% CI, 1.43 to 21.83; P=0.013) were associated with discrepancies in the BI-RADS categorization. CONCLUSION: The agreement between ABUS and HHUS examinations in the BI-RADS categorization of suspicious breast masses was good. The presence of suspicious microcalcifications on mammography and an irregular shape on US were factors associated with ABUS yielding a lower level of suspicion than HHUS in terms of the BI-RADS category assessment.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Information Systems , Logistic Models , Mammography , Ultrasonography
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741439

ABSTRACT

Minimally invasive treatment of symptomatic thyroid nodules is now commonplace. Ethanol ablation (EA) of thyroid cystic nodules has been performed since the 1990s, but there is no global consensus or guideline. Although various limitations of EA have been described, recommendations for practical application are necessary. Therefore, the Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology initiated the present consensus statement and here we provide recommendations for the role of EA in the management of symptomatic thyroid nodules. These recommendations are based on evidence to date from the literature and expert opinion.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Consensus , Ethanol , Expert Testimony , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916701

ABSTRACT

Occult breast cancer (OBC) is an asymptomatic condition. We report a case of OBC in a 72-year-old male patient who presented with severe dyspnea and upper extremity swelling. Computed tomography scan showed multiple lymph node enlargements in the supraclavicular and infraclavicular areas, and ultrasound scan showed multiple axillary lymph node enlargements. Based on the radiological findings, clinicians suspected lymphoma or disseminated metastasis from unknown primary malignancies. However, the axillary biopsy specimen revealed invasive breast cancer with hormonal receptor positivity.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716271

ABSTRACT

Thermal ablation using radiofrequency is a new, minimally invasive modality employed as an alternative to surgery in patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) developed recommendations for the optimal use of radiofrequency ablation for thyroid tumors in 2012. As new meaningful evidences have accumulated, KSThR decided to revise the guidelines. The revised guideline is based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and expert consensus.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Catheter Ablation , Consensus , Humans , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208823

ABSTRACT

Core needle biopsy (CNB) has been suggested as a complementary diagnostic method to fine-needle aspiration in patients with thyroid nodules. Many recent CNB studies have suggested a more advanced role for CNB, but there are still no guidelines on its use. Therefore, the Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed the present consensus statement and recommendations for the role of CNB in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. These recommendations are based on evidence from the current literature and expert consensus.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Consensus , Diagnosis , Humans , Methods , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule
16.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 146-150, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88716

ABSTRACT

Alnus sibirica (AS) geographically distributes in Korea, Japan, Northeast China and Russia. The bark of this plant had been used for antipyretic, expectorant, anti-phlogistic, antitussive, anti-asthmatic and as a health tea for alcoholism. Recently, we studied various biological activities of AS and the isolated diarylheptanoid. In present study, we conducted fermentation of AS (FAS) and isolated two diarylheptanoid (hirsutenone and muricarpone B). Moreover, we established the validation and contents determinations of the two compounds by HPLC on FAS.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Alnus , China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fermentation , Japan , Korea , Plants , Russia , Tea
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158105

ABSTRACT

Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) is a low grade malignant tumor in the pancreas, and extrapancreatic SPT is extremely rare. We report a case of a 61-year-old woman who complained abdominal pain with diffuse tenderness. She was diagnosed with extrapancreatic SPT with extensive peritoneal dissemination and hepatic metastases. Although a few cases have reported imaging findings of extrapancreatic SPT, there have been no reports of extrapancreatic SPT with aggressive tumor behavior and dismal prognosis. Although imaging features closely resembled those of classical pancreatic SPTs, malignant transformation of extrapancreatic SPT should be considered when focal discontinuity of the tumor capsule with ill-defined margin and invasion of adjacent structures were identified.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreas , Prognosis , Ultrasonography
18.
Ultrasonography ; : 244-252, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731068

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for benign thyroid nodules and assess the usefulness of internal factors (ultrasonographic findings) and external factors (treatment-related findings) in prediction of treatment efficacy. METHODS: We evaluated 22 benign thyroid nodules from 19 patients treated with RF ablation between March 2010 and January 2013. The internal and external factors of these nodules were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with the therapeutic success and the volume reduction ratio (VRR). The volume and size of the nodules were determined before treatment, and the VRR was calculated at 6-month and 1-year follow-up examinations after RF ablation. Therapeutic success was defined as a >50% volume reduction. RESULTS: The mean VRRs were 66.1±18.7% at 6 months and 74.3±16.7% at 1 year. The therapeutic success rate after 6 months and 1 year was 81.8% and 90.9%, respectively. At the 1-year follow-up, the margin of the nodule correlated with therapeutic success. Most of the successfully ablated nodules showed well-defined margins on initial ultrasonography (18/20, 90%) (P=0.026). In addition, nodules with ill-defined margins showed a tendency toward having a low VRR at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up examinations. CONCLUSION: RF ablation was effective in decreasing the volume of benign thyroid nodules. Thyroid nodules with well-defined margins tended to show successful outcomes at the 1-year follow-up examination after RF ablation.


Subject(s)
Ablation Techniques , Catheter Ablation , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223602

ABSTRACT

Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia without bone metastasis occurs rarely in esophageal cancer. A 75-year-old man was admitted for general weakness and lethargy. Laboratory data showed high serum calcium level (corrected calcium 14.6 mg/dL), low parathyroid hormone level (3.3 pg/mL) and high parathyroid hormone-related peptide level (3.5 pmol/L). Esophagogastroscopy showed a malignant tumor in the esophagus. Histology showed moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Bone scan showed no evidence of bone metastasis. Since the patient's calcium levels remained high and mental state did not show improvement despite intravenous fluid therapy, diuretics and intravenous bisphosphonate, hemodialysis was started. After hemodialysis treatment, the serum calcium level subsequently normalized and his mental status improved. Herein, we report a rare case of paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a patient with esophageal cancer.


Subject(s)
Aged , Calcium/blood , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnosis , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Male , Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein/blood , Renal Dialysis , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198118

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in malignant breast masses, and to determine the influence of mammographic parenchymal density on this reproducibility. Sixty-six patients with magnetic resonance findings of the mass were included. Two breast radiologists measured the ADC of the malignant breast mass and the same area on the contralateral normal breast in each patient twice. The effects of mammographic parenchymal density, histology, and lesion size on reproducibility were also assessed. There was no significant difference in the mean ADC between repeated measurements in malignant breast masses and normal breast tissue. The overall reproducibility of ADC measurements was good in both. The 95% limits of agreement for repeated ADCs were approximately 30.2%-33.4% of the mean. ADC measurements in malignant breast masses were highly reproducible irrespective of mass size, histologic subtype, or coexistence of microcalcifications; however, the measurements tended to be less reproducible in malignant breast masses with extremely dense parenchymal backgrounds. ADC measurements in malignant breast masses are highly reproducible; however, mammographic parenchymal density can potentially influence this reproducibility.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Female , Humans , Image Enhancement/methods , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
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