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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e106-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976922

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recent reports have suggested that pneumonitis is a rare complication following vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).However, its clinical features and outcomes are not well known. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with vaccine-associated pneumonitis following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. @*Methods@#In this nationwide multicenter survey study, questionnaires were distributed to pulmonary physicians in referral hospitals. They were asked to report cases of development or exacerbation of interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine. Vaccine-associated pneumonitis was defined as new pulmonary infiltrates documented on chest computed tomography within 4 weeks of vaccination and exclusion of other possible etiologies. @*Results@#From the survey, 49 cases of vaccine-associated pneumonitis were identified between February 27 and October 30, 2021. After multidisciplinary discussion, 46 cases were analyzed. The median age was 66 years and 28 (61%) were male. The median interval between vaccination and respiratory symptoms was 5 days. There were 20 (43%), 17 (37%), and nine (19%) patients with newly identified pneumonitis, exacerbation of pre-diagnosed ILD, and undetermined pre-existing ILD, respectively. The administered vaccines were BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCov-19/AZD1222 each in 21 patients followed by mRNA-1273 in three, and Ad26.COV2.S in one patient. Except for five patients with mild disease, 41 (89%) patients were treated with corticosteroid. Significant improvement was observed in 26 (57%) patients including four patients who did not receive treatment. However, ILD aggravated in 9 (20%) patients despite treatment. Mortality was observed in eight (17%) patients. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest pneumonitis as a potentially significant safety concern for vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Clinical awareness and patient education are necessary for early recognition and prompt management. Additional research is warranted to identify the epidemiology and characterize the pathophysiology of vaccine-associated pneumonitis.

2.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 248-255, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893137

ABSTRACT

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a group of diseases, involving the inflammation and fibrosis of the interstitium of the lung. ILD is classified according to whether or not the cause is known. Known causes of ILDs include inhalation of environmental substances, drugs, infection, and related connective tissue disease. ILD of unknown cause is called idiopathic ILD. The most common form of idiopathic ILD is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF is a chronic progressive fibrosing ILD that results in the decline of lung function with exertional dyspnea, cough, bibasilar inspiratory crackles, and digital clubbing. The incidence of IPF increases with age, and is predominant in men. The most characteristic feature of IPF is a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern detected on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The typical HRCT pattern in case of UIP is honeycombing, with or without traction bronchiectasis or bronchiolectasis; this may be superimposed with fine reticulation. The typical distribution of UIP is subpleural, and there is basal predominance with heterogeneity. A definitive diagnosis of IPF in patients with clinically suspected IPF is made when there is presence of a UIP pattern on HRCT. Bronchoalveolar lavage or surgical lung biopsy is not recommended if a UIP pattern is detected on HRCT. However, bronchoalveolar lavage and surgical lung biopsy are required if probable UIP pattern, indeterminate UIP pattern, or an alternative diagnosis pattern are found on HRCT in order to diagnose IPF. A specific combination of HRCT patterns and histopathological patterns requiring multidisciplinary discussion is necessary to rule in IPF or rule it out.

3.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 159-166, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875542

ABSTRACT

Background@#E-cigarettes are steadily gaining popularity in Korea. However, the characteristics of e-cigarette smokers, especially nicotine dependence and stress susceptibility, have not been evaluated in comparison to those of nonsmokers or combustible cigarette smokers in Korea. @*Methods@#In this study, 28,059 participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2017) were classified into the following three groups: non-smokers, smokers (current smokers and ex-smokers of combustible cigarettes only), and e-smokers (current smokers and ex-smokers of e-cigarettes regardless of combustible cigarette use). @*Results@#Among the participants, 16,980 (60.5%), 9,247 (33.0%), and 1,832 (6.4%) subjects were non-smokers, smokers, and e-smokers, respectively. E-smokers were younger, more educated, and had a higher household income than nonsmokers or smokers. The number of e-smokers who smoked within 5 minutes of waking up (31.5% vs. 19.8%, p<0.001) and who planned to quit smoking within 6 months (39.1% vs. 35.7%, p<0.05) was greater than that of smokers. E-smokers perceived stress as “very much” (7.0% vs. 4.4%, p<0.001) and “a lot” (29.1% vs. 20.5%, p<0.001) compared to non-smokers. Suicidal ideation (6.5% vs. 4.7%, p<0.001), plans (2.4% vs. 1.3%, p<0.001), and attempts (1.1% vs. 0.5%, p<0.001) were higher in e-smokers than in non-smokers. Depressive episodes in 1 year (14.2% vs. 11.4%, p<0.05) and suicidal plans (2.4% vs. 1.8%, p<0.05) were more frequent among e-smokers than among smokers. @*Conclusion@#E-smokers were younger, more educated, and had a higher income, but they were more dependent on nicotine and susceptible to stress than non-smokers and smokers. Smoking cessation counseling should be tailored according to the characteristics of e-smokers.

4.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 216-224, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875023

ABSTRACT

Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, and smoking cessation is the only way to reduce the risk of developing and dying from smoking-related diseases. The binding of nicotine to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventral tegmental area causes transmission of signals to nuclear accumbens, where neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, are released. Euphoric feelings and satisfaction acquired due to the released neurotransmitters make smokers reach for a cigarette once again after a short while, thereby completing a repeating cycle of addiction. Medications for smoking cessation, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, and varenicline, are designed to cope with nicotine addiction. NRT provides nicotine to ameliorate withdrawal symptoms, and all forms of NRT are equally effective in smoking cessation than placebo. Bupropion, originally developed as an antidepressant, decreases craving, leading to smoking cessation, which makes it one of the first-line drugs for smoking cessation. Many studies have shown that varenicline is the most effective agent for smoking cessation. No significant long-term adverse events have been reported for NRT, bupropion, or varenicline. However, bupropion should not be used in patients with an increased risk for seizure.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e331-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915426

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the association between e-cigarette (EC) use and development of acute severe pneumonia in the Korean population using a national database. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective analysis using linkage of data between the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) administrative claims database. The primary endpoint of this study was development of severe pneumonia requiring hospital admission according to EC use during the study period. The secondary endpoints were in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ventilator care, and days of hospital stay. @*Results@#The final analysis included 28,950 individuals, of which 578 (2.0%) were EC users.EC users were younger and more often male than non-EC users. The EC users showed higher level of education and household income and had fewer comorbidities. Severe pneumonia was noted in 37 of 28,372 non-EC users (0.13%), but there were no occurrences of severe pneumonia in EC users. The incidence of pneumonia occurrence was not different between the two groups (P = 1.000). @*Conclusions@#Since e-cigarette or vaping use-associated lung injury (EVALI) is most likely included in acute severe pneumonia occurring within 3 months of EC use, it is considered that there might be no EVALI patients in Korea during the investigation period. A large-scale, prospective study is necessary to evaluate the association between EC use and acute lung injury.

6.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 248-255, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900841

ABSTRACT

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a group of diseases, involving the inflammation and fibrosis of the interstitium of the lung. ILD is classified according to whether or not the cause is known. Known causes of ILDs include inhalation of environmental substances, drugs, infection, and related connective tissue disease. ILD of unknown cause is called idiopathic ILD. The most common form of idiopathic ILD is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF is a chronic progressive fibrosing ILD that results in the decline of lung function with exertional dyspnea, cough, bibasilar inspiratory crackles, and digital clubbing. The incidence of IPF increases with age, and is predominant in men. The most characteristic feature of IPF is a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern detected on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The typical HRCT pattern in case of UIP is honeycombing, with or without traction bronchiectasis or bronchiolectasis; this may be superimposed with fine reticulation. The typical distribution of UIP is subpleural, and there is basal predominance with heterogeneity. A definitive diagnosis of IPF in patients with clinically suspected IPF is made when there is presence of a UIP pattern on HRCT. Bronchoalveolar lavage or surgical lung biopsy is not recommended if a UIP pattern is detected on HRCT. However, bronchoalveolar lavage and surgical lung biopsy are required if probable UIP pattern, indeterminate UIP pattern, or an alternative diagnosis pattern are found on HRCT in order to diagnose IPF. A specific combination of HRCT patterns and histopathological patterns requiring multidisciplinary discussion is necessary to rule in IPF or rule it out.

7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1136-1144, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831919

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Many chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patientshave physical limitations. We investigated EuroQol five-dimensions five-level (EQ-5D-5L) of COPD patients to assess quality of life, and assessed indirect burden including time expenditure to visit doctor, home care rate, and caregiver related burden. @*Methods@#We recruited 355 COPD patients according to severity of airflow limitationthat severity was set at 10% mild, 40% moderate, 30% severe, and 20% very severe in two primary and 11 secondary/tertiary hospitals. Eligible patients were aged ≥ 40 years, who have been diagnosed with COPD for more than 1 year. Patients were recruited between June 2015 and October 2016. @*Results@#The quality of life tended to decline with age, from mild to very severe impairment, as revealed by the EQ-5D-5L scores and the EQ visual analog scale.Family caregivers accompanied 22.6% of patients who visited outpatient clinics,and 25% of stage IV COPD patients. During emergency visits and hospitalization,this figure increased to > 60%. The home care rates were 28.5% for stage I patients, and 34.4, 31.8, and 52% for stage II to IV patients, respectively. The percentage of caregivers who stopped working was 13.6%. The EQ-5D index was strongly associated with the dyspnea scale (r = –0.64, p < 0.001). The average required time to see a doctor and visit the pharmacy was 154 minutes. @*Conclusions@#In patients with COPD, the EQ-5D index decreased and disease-relatedhome caregiving increased with airflow limitation. We considered the caregiver-related burden when making a strategy for COPD managemen

8.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1154-1163, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831917

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite increasing awareness of the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women, knowledge regarding gender differences in COPD outcomes is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether COPD outcomes, including exacerbations, lung , and symptoms differ by gender. @*Methods@#We recruited patients with COPD from two Korean multicenter prospective cohorts. After propensity score matching, the main outcome, the incidence of moderate or severe exacerbations was analyzed using a negative binomial regression model. We also assessed changes in lung function and symptom scores including the St. George’s respiratory questionnaire for COPD (SGRQ-C), COPD assessment test (CAT), and the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea score. @*Results@#After propensity score matching, 74 women and 74 men with COPD were included. The incidence rates of exacerbations in women and men were not significantly different (incidence rate ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88 to 2.54). There was no significant difference in the incidence rates adjusted for medication possession ratios of long-acting muscarinic antagonists, long-acting β-agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids during the follow-up period (incidence rate ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.86 to 2.52). Rates of decline in post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity did not differ between women and men during 48 months of follow-up. The changes in scores on the SGRQ-C, CAT, and mMRC Questionnaire in women were also similar to those in men. @*Conclusions@#We observed no gender differences in the rate of exacerbations of COPD in a prospective longitudinal study. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in the general COPD population.

10.
The Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 217-221, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651812

ABSTRACT

Chylous ascites is a rare form of ascites characterized by milky peritoneal fluid rich in triglycerides due to the accumulation of chyle in the peritoneal cavity. This affliction occurs as a result of a disruption of lymph flow associated with traumatic injury or obstruction of the lymphatic system. There are various causes of chylous ascites, such as lymphatic anomalies, malignancy, cirrhosis, infection, trauma, surgery, and nephrotic syndrome. We report a rare case of an 81-year-old male with sepsis caused by bilateral pneumonia who presented with chylous ascites.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Ascites , Ascitic Fluid , Chyle , Chylous Ascites , Fibrosis , Hypoalbuminemia , Lymphatic System , Nephrotic Syndrome , Peritoneal Cavity , Pneumonia , Sepsis , Triglycerides
11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 864-870, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163314

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of clinical demographics and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients is important but there are few prospectively collected data in Korea. The objective of the present study was to describe the current status of mechanically ventilated patients in Korea as of 2010. We analyzed the data of Korean patients (275 patients in 12 Korean intensive care units [ICU]) participating in a multinational prospective cohort study on mechanical ventilation. The most common indication for mechanical ventilation was pneumonia (23%). Pressure-limited ventilation modes were preferred over volume-cycled ventilation modes. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation was used in only seven (2%) patients as the initial ventilatory support. Median duration of mechanical ventilation was 7 days and ICU mortality was 36%. The multiple logistic regression model revealed that the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) score at ICU admission (odds ratio [OR], 1.034; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001-1.036; P=0.033), peak pressure (OR, 1.054; 95% CI, 1.016-1.095; P=0.006), and the number of failed organs (OR, 2.132; 95% CI, 1.634-2.781; P<0.001) were independently associated with ICU mortality. This study provides a snapshot of current practice of mechanical ventilation in Korea.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Disease , Cohort Studies , Demography , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Sepsis/etiology , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 1-8, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121774

ABSTRACT

Several papers on respiratory and critical care published from March 2012 to February 2013 were reviewed. From these, this study selected and summarized ten articles, in which the findings were notable, new, and interesting: effects of high-frequency oscillation ventilation on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); safety and efficacy of hydroxyethyl starch as a resuscitation fluid; long-term psychological impairments after ARDS; safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine for sedation; B-type natriuretic peptide-guided fluid management during weaning from mechanical ventilation; adding of daily sedation interruptions to protocolized sedations for mechanical ventilation; unassisted tracheostomy collar of weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilations; and effects of nighttime intensivist staffing on the hospital mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Dexmedetomidine , Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives , High-Frequency Ventilation , Hospital Mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Resuscitation , Sepsis , Tracheostomy , Weaning
13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 426-435, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience more problematic respiratory symptoms and have more trouble performing daily activities in the morning. The aim of this study was to assess the perception of COPD symptoms related to morning activities in patients with severe airflow limitation. METHODS: Data of 133 patients with severe airflow limitation were analyzed in a prospective, non-interventional study. A clinical symptom questionnaire was completed by patients at baseline. In patients having morning symptoms, defined by at least one or more prominent or aggravating symptom during morning activities, a morning activity questionnaire was also completed at baseline and following 2 months of COPD treatment. RESULTS: The most frequently reported COPD symptom was breathlessness (90.8%). Morning symptoms were reported in 76 (57%) patients; these had more frequent and severe clinical COPD symptoms. The most frequently reported morning activity was getting out of bed (82.9%). The long acting muscarinic antagonist (odds ratio [OR], 6.971; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.317 to 11.905) and chest tightness (OR, 0.075; 95% CI, 0.011 to 0.518) were identified as significantly related to absence of morning symptoms. There was no significant correlation between the degree of forced expiratory volume in 1 second improvement and severity score differences of all items of morning activity after 2-month treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Fifty-seven percent of COPD patients with severe airflow limitation have morning symptoms that limit their morning activities. These patients also have more prevalent and severe COPD symptoms. The results of this study therefore provide valuable information for the development of patient-reported outcomes in COPD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Activities of Daily Living , Circadian Rhythm , Forced Expiratory Volume , Perception , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 88-94, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From November 2006, The national health insurance system in the Republic of Korea began to cover prescribed long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) in patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. This study examined the current status of LTOT after national health insurance coverage. METHODS: Between November 1, 2006 and June 30, 2008, the medical records of patients who were prescribed LTOT by chest physicians were reviewed. The data was collected from 13 university hospitals. RESULTS: 197 patients (131 male and 66 female) were prescribed LTOT. The mean age was 64.3+/-13.0 years. The most common underlying disease was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=103, 52.3%). Chest physicians prescribed LTOT using arterial blood gas analysis or a pulse oxymeter (74.6%), symptoms (14%), or a pulmonary function test (11.2%). The mean oxygen flow rate was 1.56+/-0.68 L/min at rest, 2.08+/-0.91 L/min during exercise or 1.51+/-0.75 L/min during sleep. Most patients (98.3%) used oxygen concentrators. Only 19% of patients used ambulatory oxygen supplies. The oxygen saturation before and after LTOT was 83.18+/-10.48% and 91.64+/-7.1%, respectively. After LTOT, dyspnea improved in 81.2% of patients. The mean duration of LTOT was 16.85+/-6.71 hours/day. The rental cost for the oxygen concentrator and related electricity charges were 48,414+/-15,618 won/month and 40,352+/-36,815 won/month, respectively. Approximately 75% of patients had a regular visit by the company. 5.8% of patients had personal pulse oxymetry. 54.9% of patients had their oxygen saturation checked on each visit hospital. 8% of patients were current smokers. The most common complaint with LTOT was the limitation of daily activity (53%). The most common complaint with oxygen concentrators was noise (41%). CONCLUSION: The patients showed good compliance with LTOT. However, only a few patients used an ambulatory oxygen device or had their oxygen saturation measured.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Blood Gas Analysis , Compliance , Dyspnea , Electricity , Equipment and Supplies , Fees and Charges , Hospitals, University , Insurance, Health , Korea , Medical Records , National Health Programs , Noise , Oxygen , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Republic of Korea , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Insufficiency , Thorax
15.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 8-14, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter infections are difficult to treat as they often exhibit multiple resistance to the antibiotics that are currently available for the treatment of pneumonia. Colistin is active against gram-negative bacteria, including the multiple drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter species. However, intravenous administration of colistin was abandoned because of its nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. The aims of this study were to examine the efficacy and safety of colistin administered by aerosol in the treatment of pneumonia caused by MDR Acinetobacter baumannii. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from Dec. 2006 to Aug. 2007 who had been diagnosed as suffering from pneumonia due to MDR Acinetobacter baumannii and had been treated with nebulized colistin. RESULTS: 31 patients received aerosolized colistin. The average duration of the treatment was 14+/-7 days and the daily dose of ranged from 225 mg to 300 mg. All patients received concomitant intravenous antimicrobial agents. The average length of the stay in the ICU was 34+/-21 days and in the hospital 58+/-52 days. The overall microbiological eradication was observed in 25 patients (80.6%). 14 of these (56%) were cured, and 11 (44%) were infected with other microorganisms. The overall crude mortality of the ICU was 48%. Nephrotoxicity and significant bronchial constriction did not occur in any patient during neublized colistin treatment. CONCLUSION: Nebulized colistin may be a safe and effective option in the treatment of pneumonia due to MDR Acinetobacter baumannii. Its role in therapy warrants further investigation in comparative studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter Infections , Administration, Intravenous , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents , Bronchoconstriction , Colistin , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Intensive Care Units , Medical Records , Pneumonia , Retrospective Studies , Stress, Psychological
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 125-132, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205808

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Performance of a skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction provides psychological satisfaction and good cosmetic outcome for patients with breast cancer. However, this is a lengthy procedure to perform, and there is increased risk of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of low molecular weight heparins (enoxaparin) for prophylaxis against a pulmomary thromboembolism followed by mastectomy with an immediate transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (TRAM) in breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 123 patients underwent a skin-sparing mastectomy with an immediate TRAM. The "non-enoxaparin group" wore compression stockings for PTE prophylaxis and the "enoxaparin group" received enoxaparin (40 mg SC injection, once daily starting 2 hr before surgery and continuing for 6 days postoperatively) in conjunction with the use of compression stockings. Lung perfusion, inhalation scans, and serum D-dimer assays were performed on postoperative day 3. If findings were clinically suspicious or intermediate to high probability of a PTE in a lungs scan, embolism computed tomography was performed. Patients were prospectively investigated according to the clinicopathological data. We compared the incidence of PTE and hemorrhagic complications between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant clinicopathological differences between the two groups. Eleven patients developed a PTE (nine patients in the non-enoxaparin group and two patients in the enoxaparin group). The prevalence rate of a PTE was 17.3% and 3.2% for each group, respectively (p=0.01). One patient in the non-enoxaparin group required a second operation for bleeding control and three patients in the enoxaparin group needed transfusions. There were minor hemorrhagic complications in the enoxaparin group that improved after supportive management. CONCLUSION: Although there were minor hemorrhagic complications, enoxaparin is safe and effective in a preventing PTE in patients that undergo immediate reconstruction after a skin-sparing mastectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Cosmetics , Embolism , Enoxaparin , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hemorrhage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Incidence , Inhalation , Lung , Mastectomy , Perfusion , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism , Rectus Abdominis , Stockings, Compression , Thromboembolism
17.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 356-361, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We wanted to examine the clinical characteristics of adult patients with tracheobronchial foreign bodies (FBs) according to the risk of aspiration and the outcomes of intervention with using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. METHODS: From December 1994 through December 2004 at Kyung Hee Medical Center, we retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 29 adult patients with FBs that were identified by using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. RESULTS: 14 patients were not at risk of aspiration, whereas 15 had cerebrovascular diseases and they were at a high risk of aspiration. No history suggestive of FB aspiration was noted in 7 (24.1%) patients. Respiratory symptom(s) were noted in 22 patients, and these symptoms were cough (62.0%), dyspnea (44.8%), fever (20.7%), wheezing (13.8%), chest pain (10.3%) and hemoptysis (0.4%). Only 60% of those patients at a high risk of aspiration had symptom(s) (92.8% of those patients without a risk of aspiration had symptoms, p=0.005). Those patients at risk for aspiration had a longer duration of symptoms (median: 4 days vs. 2 days for those patients not at risk for aspiration, p=0.007) before diagnosis. Acute respiratory symptom(s) within 3 days after aspiration were more frequent in the patients without a risk of aspiration (9 vs. 4, respectively p=0.048). Chest x-ray revealed radiological abnormalities in 23 patients, and these were opacities suspicious of FB (n=11), pneumonia (n=8), air trapping (n=5) and atelectasis (n=3). There were no differences in radiological findings according to the risk of aspiration. FB aspiration developed most commonly during medical procedures (57.1% for the patients at risk) and during eating (35.7% for the patients without risk). The most common FB materials were teeth (n = 11). Alligator jaw biopsy forceps (n = 23) was the most commonly used equipment. All of the FBs were removed without significant complications. CONCLUSION: This study underlines that a tracheobronchial FB in the patients who are at a high risk of aspiration are more likely to overlooked because of the more gradual onset of symptoms and the symptoms develop iatrogenically in many cases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Alligators and Crocodiles , Biopsy , Bronchoscopes , Chest Pain , Cough , Dyspnea , Eating , Fever , Foreign Bodies , Hemoptysis , Jaw , Medical Records , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Respiratory Sounds , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Instruments , Thorax , Tooth
18.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 309-313, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-75869

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is a serious opportunistic infection in an immunocompromised host such as an AIDS patient or transplant recipient undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a relatively uncommon condition and it occurs most often in patients with systemic autoimmune disease. However, various types of infectious pneumonia with Mycoplsma hominis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pneumocystis jirovecii have been reported to be associated with the development of DAH. The association of CMV infection with the development of DAH has rarely been reported. We experienced a case of DAH associated CMV pneumonia and the patient was successfully treated with the use of antiviral agents and steroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , Autoimmune Diseases , Cytomegalovirus , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Hemorrhage , Immunocompromised Host , Opportunistic Infections , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Steroids
19.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 276-283, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A national health care initiative recommends routine spirometry screening of all smokers over age 45 or patients with respiratory symptoms. In response to the recommendation, new, simple, and inexpensive desktop spirometers for the purpose of promoting widespread spirometric screening were marketed. The performance of these spirometers was evaluated in vivo testing with healthy subjects. However, the clinical setting allows spirometric assessment of various pathologic combinations of flow and volume. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of a desktop spirometer to a standard laboratory spirometer, in a clinical setting with?pathologic pulmonary function. METHOD: In a health check-up center, where screening pulmonary funct test was performed using the HI-801 spirometer. Subjects who revealed the ventilation defect in screening spirometry, performed the spirometry again using the?standard Vmax spectra 22d spirometer in a tertiary care hospital pulmonary function laboratory. Pulmonary function test with both spirometer was performed according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. RESULTS: 109 patients were enrolled. Pulmonary function measurements (FVC, FEV1, PEFR, FEF25%-75%) from the HI-801 correlated closely (r=0.94, 0.93, 0.81, 0.84, respectively) with those performed with the Vmax spectra 22d?and showed the good limits of agreement and differences between the 2 devices; FVC +0.35 L, FEV1 +0.16 L, PEFR +1.85 L/s, FEF25%-75% -0.13 L/s. With the exception of FEV1, FEF25%-75%, these differences were significant(p<0.05) but small. Conclusion: The HI-801 spirometer is comparable to the standard laboratory spirometer, Vmax spectra 22d, with high accurary for FEV1 and FVC and?acceptable differences for clinical use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Mass Screening , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , Tertiary Healthcare , Ventilation
20.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 159-168, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tiotropium is a long acting anticholinergic bronchodilator and it reduces exacerbations and improves the quality of life of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tiotropium on dyspnea, the quality of life and the pulmonary function in patients with COPD. METHODS: Between April 2005 and April 2006, the patients with moderate to severe COPD, as based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria, and who needed to use long-acting bronchodilator were enrolled in this study. They inhaled tiotropium as a dry powder capsule, 18 microgram once daily for six months, with using the Handihaler(R) device. The lung function tests, including lung volume, the St. George's respiratory questionnaire and the MRC dyspnea scale, was measured at baseline and after 6 months treatment with tiotropium. RESULTS: 21 patients with COPD were enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 69 years and the mean baseline FEV1 was 1.0 L (40% predicted). Compared with the baseline, tiotropium produced significant improvement of the FEV1 (1.0+/-0.2 L vs. 1.1+/-0.3 L, respectively, p=0.013), IC (1.65+/-0.3 L vs. 1.7+/-0.3 L, respectively, p=0.037), the RV (4.0+/-0.7 L vs. 3.8+/-0.4, respectively, p=0.003), the SGRQ score (48.7+/-10 vs. 41.3+/-10.4, respectively, p<0.001), and the MRC dyspnea scale (3.4+/-0.6 vs. 3.0+/-0.8, respectively, p=0.009) after 6 months treatment. The dyspnea scale was associated with physical activity, the impact on life, the inspiratory capacity and the residual volume rather than the symptom score or FEV1. The treatment was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with tiotropium once daily for 6 months improved lung functions, the health related quality of life and dyspnea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dyspnea , Inspiratory Capacity , Lung , Motor Activity , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Quality of Life , Residual Volume , Respiratory Function Tests , Tiotropium Bromide , Surveys and Questionnaires
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