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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 320-326, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977444

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the feasibility of preoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) radiomics with machine learning to predict microsatellite instability (MSI) status in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Altogether, 233 patients with CRC who underwent preoperative FDG PET/CT were enrolled and divided into training (n=139) and test (n=94) sets. A PET-based radiomics signature (rad_score) was established to predict the MSI status in patients with CRC. The predictive ability of the rad_score was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) in the test set. A logistic regression model was used to determine whether the rad_score was an independent predictor of MSI status in CRC. The predictive performance of rad_score was compared with conventional PET parameters. @*Results@#The incidence of MSI-high was 15 (10.8%) and 10 (10.6%) in the training and test sets, respectively. The rad_score was constructed based on the two radiomic features and showed similar AUROC values for predicting MSI status in the training and test sets (0.815 and 0.867, respectively; p=0.490). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the rad_score was an independent predictor of MSI status in the training set. The rad_score performed better than metabolic tumor volume when assessed using the AUROC (0.867 vs. 0.794, p=0.015). @*Conclusion@#Our predictive model incorporating PET radiomic features successfully identified the MSI status of CRC, and it also showed better performance than the conventional PET image parameters.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 269-277, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977428

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to investigate the prevalences of obesity, abdominal obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among children and adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. @*Materials and Methods@#This population-based study investigated the prevalences of obesity, abdominal obesity, and NAFLD among 1428 children and adolescents between 2018–2019 and 2020. We assessed the prevalences of obesity, abdominal obesity, and NAFLD according to body mass index, age, sex, and residential district. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the relationships among obesity, abdominal obesity, and NAFLD. @*Results@#In the obese group, the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased from 75.55% to 92.68%, and that of NAFLD increased from 40.68% to 57.82%. In age-specific analysis, the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased from 8.25% to 14.11% among participants aged 10–12 years and from 11.70% to 19.88% among children aged 13–15 years. In residential district-specific analysis, the prevalence of both abdominal obesity and NAFLD increased from 6.96% to 15.74% in rural areas. In logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio of abdominal obesity for NAFLD was 11.82. @*Conclusion@#Our results demonstrated that the prevalences of abdominal obesity and NAFLD increased among obese Korean children and adolescents and in rural areas during the COVID-19 outbreak. Additionally, the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased among young children. These findings suggest the importance of closely monitoring abdominal obesity and NAFLD among children during COVID-19, focusing particularly on obese young children and individuals in rural areas.

3.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 24-31, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977108

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to estimate the medical expenditures for poisoning patients in Korea using data from National Health Insurance and the Korea Health Panel Survey. @*Methods@#The operational definition of poisoning was the presence of Korean Standard Classification of Diseases codes from T36 to T65. The number of poisoning patients, the amount of legal copayments, and benefit and non-benefit costs were extracted from both databases. The frequency of emergency, inpatient, and outpatient treatment utilization by poisoning patients was determined, and medical expenses were calculated. Linear regression analyses were performed to investigate factors affecting the medical expenses of poisoning patients. @*Results@#The number of poisoning patients increased from 97,965 in 2011 to 147,984 persons in 2020. Medical expenses also increased by 74% from Korean won (KRW) 30.1 billion to KRW 52.3 billion, and benefit costs also increased by 79%. The average outpatient cost per person was KRW 67,660, and the inpatient cost was KRW 1,485,103. The average non-benefit medical expenses were KRW 80,298, accounting for about 16.2% of the total expenses. Multivariable analysis showed that the total expenditure was associated with economic status and disabilities. @*Conclusion@#The average medical expenditure per poisoning patient was KRW 534,302 in 2020, and poisoning-related costs gradually increased during the study period. Further research on the economic burden of poisoning should include indirect costs and reflect disease-adjusted life years.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e125-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976928

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and the provision of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in South Korea. We used data from the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment service. In total, 44,361 patients with CO poisoning were identified across 10 years (2010–2019). The prevalence of CO poisoning was found to be 8.64/10,000 people, with a gradual annual increment. The highest prevalence was 11.01/10,000 individuals, among those aged 30–39 years. In 2010, HBOT was claimed from 15 hospitals, and increased to 30 hospitals in 2019. A total of 4,473 patients received HBOT in 10 years and 2,684 (60%) were treated for more than 2 hours. This study suggested that the prevalence of both CO poisoning and HBOT in Korea gradually increased over the past 10 years, and disparities in prevalence were observed by region.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 551-561, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976704

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#An inverse relationship between cancer and neurodegenerative disease, which presents the possibility of a reduced risk of dementia in cancer patients, has been suggested previously. However, a nationwide longitudinal population-based study of specific types of cancer with due consideration of treatment effects has not been conducted. @*Materials and Methods@#This nationwide population-based cohort study used data obtained in a 12-year period (January 2007- December 2018) in the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. All female breast cancer patients (age ≥ 50 years) diagnosed between 2009 and 2010 were included after excluding those with physician visits for any cancer during a 2-year period (2007-2008). Patients with senile cataract constituted the control group. The main study outcome was the risk of developing dementia. @*Results@#From a total of 90,396 and 85,906 patients with breast cancer and cataract, respectively, patients without behavior codes were excluded. Data for 15,407 breast cancer patients and 7,020 controls were analyzed before matching. After matching for comorbidities and age, either group comprised 2,252 patients. The median follow-up time was 104.1±24.0 months after matching. After matching, breast cancer was a predictor of a lower risk of for dementia (hazard ratio, 0.091; 95% confidence interval, 0.075 to 0.111; p < 0.001). In breast cancer patients, receiving chemotherapy and endocrine therapy did not significantly affect the incidence of dementia. @*Conclusion@#Breast cancer was associated with a remarkably decreased risk of dementia. The findings strongly suggest an inverse relationship between cancer and neurodegeneration, regardless of the adverse effects of cancer treatment on cognitive function.

6.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 34-42, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966198

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#There is a lack of a report about the trajectories of allergen sensitization, although it is important to understand the change of allergen sensitization to manage allergic disease. This study aimed to analyze the change and trajectories of allergen sensitization in children with respiratory and allergic diseases. @*Methods@#From 2006 to 2020, children with respiratory and allergic diseases or screened for allergic sensitization were evaluated. We visualized the alterations and the trajectories of allergen sensitization using stacked area graphs, box plots, and Sankey diagrams. @*Results@#A total of 2,804 subjects were included, and allergic rhino-conjunctivitis was diagnosed in 1,931 children (68.9%). The mean age for the first test was 4.1 years, and that for the second test was 6.5 years. Children sensitized to class 1 food allergen before age 5 showed sensitizations more for other allergens and at a younger age after age 5 than children who were not. The atopic tendency continued once it had been obtained before the early school age in the persistence or the new development of sensitization. @*Conclusion@#Allergen sensitization has changed over time and has shown different patterns according to age. Its trajectory has taken a wide variety of courses in children with respiratory and allergic diseases until the early school age. These changes reflect the allergic diseases and socio-environmental characteristics of children and adolescents.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 566-572, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003247

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of the present study was to identify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in South Korea using the Korean National Health Insurance database (DB). @*Materials and Methods@#We used the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)’s research DB (NHIS-2021-1-790) from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2019, to make customized DB including sociodemographic information and absence or presence of BPD and other psychiatric disorders. The prevalence and the age of onset of BPD was estimated. To compare medical service utilization between the BPD group and the control group, a 1:1:1 propensity score matching was employed, and the regression analysis was conducted. @*Results@#The prevalence of BPD per 10000 people was 0.96 in 2010 and 1.06 in 2019. The prevalence ratio of males to females was 1:1.38 in 2010 and 1:1.65 in 2019, showing that BPD was more prevalent in females. The patients’ overall average age of onset was 33.19±14.6 years, with the highest prevalence shown in 8503 people in their 20s. By administrative district, the highest prevalence of BPD per 10000 people was shown in Seoul with 8.71 and the lowest in Jeollanam-do with 2.35. The BPD patients showed a pattern of extensive use of general and mental healthcare services. @*Conclusion@#This study identified the prevalence of BPD on a national DB set in South Korea. Although the prevalence of BPD in South Korea was relatively low compared to other countries, there was a steady increase in the number of BPD patients over a decade, which may be possibly due to an increased awareness of mental health and campaigns among healthcare providers and users in the country.

8.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 154-162, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002922

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To investigate the risk of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver diseases in gastric cancer survivors compared to non-cancer subjects. @*Methods@#The data from the health screening registry of the Gangnam Severance Hospital from 2014–2019 was used. Ninety-one gastric cancer survivors and a propensity-score-matching 445 non-cancer subjects were analyzed. Gastric cancer survivors were divided into those with surgical treatment (OpGC, n=66) and non-surgical treatment (non-OpGC, n=25). Metabolic syndrome, fatty liver by ultrasonography, and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) were assessed. @*Results@#Metabolic syndrome was in 15.4% of gastric cancer survivors (OpGC; 13.6%, non-OpGC; 20.0%). Fatty liver by ultrasonography was in 35.2% in gastric cancer survivors (OpGC; 30.3%, non-OpGC: 48.0%). MAFLD was in 27.5% of gastric cancer survivor (OpGC; 21.2%, non-OpGC; 44.0%). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol, the risk of metabolic syndrome was lower in OpGC than in non-cancer subjects (OR, 0.372; 95% CI, 0.176-0.786, p=0.010). After adjusting, OpGC showed lower risks of fatty liver by ultrasonography (OR, 0.545; 95% CI, 0.306-0.970, p=0.039) and MAFLD (OR, 0.375; 95% CI, 0.197-0.711, p=0.003) than did non-cancer subjects. There were no significant differences in the risks of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver diseases between non-OpGC and non-cancer subjects. @*Conclusions@#OpGC showed lower risks of metabolic syndrome, fatty liver by ultrasonography, and MAFLD than non-cancer subjects, but there were no significant differences in the risks between non-OpGC and non-cancer subjects. Further studies on metabolic syndrome and fatty liver diseases in gastric cancer survivors are warranted.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e311-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001199

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nonpharmacological interventions (NPIs) reduce the incidence of respiratory infections. After NPIs imposed during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic ceased, respiratory infections gradually increased worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted on severe respiratory infections requiring hospitalization in pediatric patients.This study compares epidemiological changes in severe respiratory infections during pre-NPI, NPI, and post-NPI periods in order to evaluate the effect of that NPI on severe respiratory infections in children. @*Methods@#We retrospectively studied data collected at 13 Korean sentinel sites from January 2018 to October 2022 that were lodged in the national Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARIs) surveillance database. @*Results@#A total of 9,631 pediatric patients were admitted with SARIs during the pre-NPI period, 579 during the NPI period, and 1,580 during the post-NPI period. During the NPI period, the number of pediatric patients hospitalized with severe respiratory infections decreased dramatically, thus from 72.1 per 1,000 to 6.6 per 1,000. However, after NPIs ceased, the number increased to 22.8 per 1,000. During the post-NPI period, the positive test rate increased to the level noted before the pandemic. @*Conclusion@#Strict NPIs including school and daycare center closures effectively reduced severe respiratory infections requiring hospitalization of children. However, childcare was severely compromised. To prepare for future respiratory infections, there is a need to develop a social consensus on NPIs that are appropriate for children.

10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1261-1269, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999823

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score is a well-known prognostic factor for various diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about the significance of postoperative ALBI score changes in patients with CRC. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 723 patients who underwent surgery were enrolled. Preoperative ALBI (ALBI-pre) and postoperative ALBI (ALBI-post) scores were divided into low and high score groups. ALBI-trend was defined as a combination of four groups comprising the low and high ALBI-pre and ALBI-post score groups. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to compare the overall survival (OS) between the different ALBI groups. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the independent relevant factors of OS. Stratification performance was compared between the different ALBI groupings using Harrell’s concordance index (C-index). @*Results@#ALBI-pre, ALBI-post, and ALBI-trend score groups were significant prognostic factors of OS in the univariable analysis. However, multivariable analysis showed that ALBI-trend was an independent prognostic factor while ALBI-pre and ALBI-post were not. The C-index of ALBI-trend (0.622; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.587 to 0.655) was higher than that of ALBI-pre (0.589; 95% CI, 0.557 to 0.621; bootstrap mean difference, 0.033; 95% CI, 0.013 to 0.057) and ALBI-post (0.575; 95% CI, 0.545 to 0.605; bootstrap mean difference, 0.047; 95% CI, 0.024 to 0.074). @*Conclusion@#Combining ALBI-pre and ALBI-post scores is an independent prognostic factor of OS and shows superior predictive power compared to ALBI-pre or ALBI-post alone in patients with CRC.

11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 640-647, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939390

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aims of the study were to develop and evaluate a machine learning model with which to predict postnatal growth failure (PGF) among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. @*Materials and Methods@#Of 10425 VLBW infants registered in the Korean Neonatal Network between 2013 and 2017, 7954 infants were included. PGF was defined as a decrease in Z score >1.28 at discharge, compared to that at birth. Six metrics [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, and F1 score] were obtained at five time points (at birth, 7 days, 14 days, 28 days after birth, and at discharge). Machine learning models were built using four different techniques [extreme gradient boosting (XGB), random forest, support vector machine, and convolutional neural network] to compare against the conventional multiple logistic regression (MLR) model. @*Results@#The XGB algorithm showed the best performance with all six metrics across the board. When compared with MLR, XGB showed a significantly higher AUROC (p=0.03) for Day 7, which was the primary performance metric. Using optimal cut-off points, for Day 7, XGB still showed better performances in terms of AUROC (0.74), accuracy (0.68), and F1 score (0.67). AUROC values seemed to increase slightly from birth to 7 days after birth with significance, almost reaching a plateau after 7 days after birth. @*Conclusion@#We have shown the possibility of predicting PGF through machine learning algorithms, especially XGB. Such models may help neonatologists in the early diagnosis of high-risk infants for PGF for early intervention.

12.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 279-287, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938357

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Biliary decompression through bile drainage is a key treatment for common bile duct obstruction with cholangitis. However, the effectiveness of early interventions has not been studied sufficiently in Korea. This study investigated the effectiveness of fast-track biliary decompression. @*Methods@#A group of patients diagnosed with common bile duct obstruction with cholangitis between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2019, was reviewed retrospectively. We divided them into two groups: before and after the implementation of fast-track biliary decompression. The following items were analyzed in the two groups: time to intervention, number of hospital days, length of stay in the emergency department, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. @*Results@#Between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2019, 418 patients were admitted for common bile duct obstruction, and a total of 369 patients were included in this study. Of these, 168 patients visited the hospital prior to implementation of the treatment, and 201 patients visited after implementation. The time to intervention was 6.1 (4.2-11.0) hours in the fast-track group, which was about 9 hours shorter than the other group (P<0.001). There was no statistical difference in the number of hospital days, emergency department length of stay, and ICU admissions (P=0.535, P=0.034, P=0.322). @*Conclusion@#The time to intervention was shortened significantly in the fast-track group. However, we did not observe a significant improvement in patient prognosis. It may be possible that the procedure time may need to be shortened for a better prognosis. This should be investigated in future studies.

13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 461-469, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927166

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Given the morphological characteristics of schistocytes, thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) score can be beneficial as it can be automatically and accurately measured. This study aimed to investigate whether serial TMA scores until 48 h post admission are associated with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing targeted temperature management (TTM) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of 185 patients using a prospective registry. We analyzed TMA scores at admission and after 12, 24, and 48 hours. The primary outcome measures were poor neurological outcome at discharge and 30-day mortality. @*Results@#Increased TMA scores at all measured time points were independent predictors of poor neurological outcomes and 30-day mortality, with TMA score at time-12 showing the strongest correlation [odds ratio (OR), 3.008; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.707–5.300; p<0.001 and hazard ratio (HR), 1.517; 95% CI, 1.196–1.925; p<0.001]. Specifically, a TMA score ≥2 at time-12 was closely associated with an increased predictability of poor neurological outcomes (OR, 6.302; 95% CI, 2.841–13.976; p<0.001) and 30-day mortality (HR, 2.656; 95% CI, 1.675–4.211; p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Increased TMA scores predicted neurological outcomes and 30-day mortality in patients undergoing TTM after OHCA. In addition to the benefit of being serially measured using an automated hematology analyzer, TMA score may be a helpful tool for rapid risk stratification and identification of the need for intensive care in patients with return of spontaneous circulation after OHCA.

14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 613-620, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925674

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Event-free survival at 24 months (EFS24) is known to be a surrogate marker for overall survival (OS) for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). We examined the role of EFS24 in PTCL compared to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and then assessed the clinical predictive factors of achieving EFS24. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with newly diagnosed PTCL treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy were included. Subsequent OS was defined as the time elapsed from 24 months after diagnosis until death from any cause in those who achieved EFS24. @*Results@#Overall, 153 patients were evaluated, and 51 patients (33.3%) achieved EFS24. Patients who achieved EFS24 showed superior OS compared to patients who did not (p < 0.001). EFS24 could stratify the subsequent OS although it did not reach to that of the general population. After matching the PTCL group to the DLBCL group based on the international prognostic index, the subsequent OS in patients who achieved EFS24 was similar between the two groups (p=0.094). Advanced stage was a significant factor to predict the failing EFS24 by multivariable analysis (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Patients with PTCL who achieve EFS24 could have a favorable subsequent OS. Since advanced disease stage is a predictor of EFS24 failure, future efforts should focus on developing novel therapeutic strategies for PTCL patients presenting with advanced disease.

15.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 673-686, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917048

ABSTRACT

Background@#The clinical features of pediatric rhabdomyolysis differ from those of the adults with rhabdomyolysis; however, multicenter studies are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of pediatric rhabdomyolysis and reveal the risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in such cases. @*Methods@#This retrospective study analyzed the medical records of children and adolescents diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis at 23 hospitals in South Korea between January 2007 and December 2016. @*Results@#Among 880 patients, those aged 3 to 5 years old composed the largest subgroup (19.4%), and all age subgroups were predominantly male. The incidence of AKI was 11.3%. Neurological disorders (53%) and infection (44%) were the most common underlying disorder and cause of rhabdomyolysis, respectively. The median age at diagnosis in the AKI subgroup was older than that in the non-AKI subgroup (12.2 years vs. 8.0 years). There were no significant differences in body mass index, myalgia, dark-colored urine, or the number of causal factors between the two AKI-status subgroups. The multivariate logistic regression model indicated that the following factors were independently associated with AKI: multiorgan failure, presence of an underlying disorder, strong positive urine occult blood, increased aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid levels, and reduced calcium levels. @*Conclusions@#Our study revealed characteristic clinical and laboratory features of rhabdomyolysis in a Korean pediatric population and highlighted the risk factors for AKI in these cases. Our findings will contribute to a greater understanding of pediatric rhabdomyolysis and may enable early intervention against rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.

16.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 360-367, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913372

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dynamic preload indices may predict fluid responsiveness in end-stage liver disease. However, their usefulness in patients with altered vascular compliance is uncertain. This study is the first to evaluate whether dynamic indices can reliably predict fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing liver transplantation with a high femoral-to-radial arterial pressure gradient (PG). @*Methods@#80 liver transplant recipients were retrospectively categorized as having a normal (n = 56) or high (n = 24, difference in systolic pressure ≥ 10 mmHg and/or mean pressure ≥ 5 mmHg) femoral-to-radial arterial PG, measured immediately after radial and femoral arterial cannulation. The ability of dynamic preload indices (stroke volume variation, pulse pressure variation [PPV], pleth variability index) to predict fluid responsiveness was assessed before the surgery. Fluid replacement of 500 ml of crystalloid solution was performed over 15 min. Fluid responsiveness was defined as ≥ 15% increase in the stroke volume index. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) indicated the prediction of fluid responsiveness. @*Results@#Fourteen patients in the normal, and eight in the high PG group were fluid responders. The AUCs for PPV in the normal, high PG groups and total patients were 0.702 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.553–0.851, P = 0.008), 0.633 (95% CI 0.384–0.881, P = 0.295) and 0.667 (95% CI 0.537–0.798, P = 0.012), respectively. No other index predicted fluid responsiveness. @*Conclusion@#PPV can be used as a dynamic index of fluid responsiveness in patients with end-stage liver disease but not in patients with altered vascular compliance.

17.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 27-38, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903939

ABSTRACT

Excessive salt intake induces hypertension, but several gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplements have been shown to reduce blood pressure. GABAsalt, a fermented salt by L. brevis BJ20 containing GABA was prepared through the post-fermentation with refined salt and the fermented GABA extract. We evaluated the effect of GABA-salt on hypertension in a high salt, high cholesterol diet induced mouse model. We analyzed type 1 macrophage (M1) polarization, the expression of M1 related cytokines, GABA receptor expression, endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, and medial thicknesses in mice model. GABA-salt attenuated diet-induced blood pressure increases, M1 polarization, and TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) levels in mouse aortas, and in salt treated macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, GABA-salt induced higher GABAB receptor and endothelial NOS (eNOS) and eNOS phosphorylation levels than those observed in salt treated ECs. In addition, GABA-salt attenuated EC dysfunction by decreasing the levels of adhesion molecules (E-selectin, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 [ICAM-1], vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1]) and of von Willebrand Factor and reduced EC death. GABA-salt also reduced diet-induced reductions in the levels of eNOS, phosphorylated eNOS, VSMC proliferation and medial thickening in mouse aortic tissues, and attenuated Endothelin-1 levels in salt treated VSMCs. In summary, GABA-salt reduced high salt, high cholesterol diet induced hypertension in our mouse model by reducing M1 polarization, EC dysfunction, and VSMC proliferation.

18.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 315-327, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901197

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common emergency condition, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The delta neutrophil index (DNI), which reflects the fraction of circulating immature granulocytes, is significantly associated with systemic inflammation after infection or sterile injury. Aneurysmal SAH also leads to systemic inflammation after a brain injury. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the DNI and poor neurologic outcomes in patients with aneurysmal SAH. @*Methods@#We retrospectively identified patients (>18 years old) with aneurysmal SAH consecutively admitted to the emergency department (ED) between January 1, 2011, and November 30, 2018. The diagnosis of aneurysmal SAH was confirmed using clinical and radiological findings. DNI was determined at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after ED admission. The primary result was a poor neurologic outcome using the modified Rankin scale. @*Results@#A total of 352 patients with aneurysmal SAH were included in this study. A multivariable logistic regression model revealed that a high value of DNI at 24 hours after ED admission was a strong independent predictor of poor neurologic outcome upon discharge (odds ratio [OR], 1.471; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.081-2.001; P=0.014). Among patients with aneurysmal SAH, DNI >1.0% at 24 hours was significantly associated with poor neurologic outcomes upon discharge (OR, 5.037; 95% CI, 3.153-8.044; P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#DNI can be determined easily and rapidly after ED admission without any additional cost or time burden. A high DNI value at 24 hours after ED admission is significantly associated with a poor neurologic outcome upon discharge among patients with aneurysmal SAH.

19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 244-252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900644

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We aimed to develop a model predicting early recanalization after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment in large-vessel occlusion. @*Methods@#Using data from two different multicenter prospective cohorts, we determined the factors associated with early recanalization immediately after t-PA in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion, and developed and validated a prediction model for early recanalization. Clot volume was semiautomatically measured on thin-section computed tomography using software, and the degree of collaterals was determined using the Tan score. Follow-up angiographic studies were performed immediately after t-PA treatment to assess early recanalization. @*Results@#Early recanalization, assessed 61.0±44.7 minutes after t-PA bolus, was achieved in 15.5% (15/97) in the derivation cohort and in 10.5% (8/76) in the validation cohort. Clot volume (odds ratio [OR], 0.979; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.961 to 0.997; P=0.020) and good collaterals (OR, 6.129; 95% CI, 1.592 to 23.594; P=0.008) were significant factors associated with early recanalization. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model including clot volume was 0.819 (95% CI, 0.720 to 0.917) and 0.842 (95% CI, 0.746 to 0.938) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The AUC improved when good collaterals were added (derivation cohort: AUC, 0.876; 95% CI, 0.802 to 0.950; P=0.164; validation cohort: AUC, 0.949; 95% CI, 0.886 to 1.000; P=0.036). The integrated discrimination improvement also showed significantly improved prediction (0.097; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.185; P=0.032). @*Conclusions@#The model using clot volume and collaterals predicted early recanalization after intravenous t-PA and had a high performance. This model may aid in determining the recanalization treatment strategy in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion.

20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 773-783, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897451

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with T1 colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. Furthermore, clinical utility of a machine learning–based approach has not been widely studied. @*Materials and Methods@#Immunohistochemistry for TILs against CD3, CD8, and forkhead box P3 in both center and invasive margin of the tumor were performed using surgically resected T1 CRC slides. Three hundred and sixteen patients were enrolled and categorized into training (n=221) and validation (n=95) sets via random sampling. Using clinicopathologic variables including TILs, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model was applied for variable selection and predictive signature building in the training set. The predictive accuracy of our model and the Japanese criteria were compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC), net reclassification improvement (NRI)/integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and decision curve analysis (DCA) in the validation set. @*Results@#LNM was detected in 29 (13.1%) and 12 (12.6%) patients in training and validation sets, respectively. Nine variables were selected and used to generate the LASSO model. Its performance was similar in training and validation sets (AUROC, 0.795 vs. 0.765; p=0.747). In the validation set, the LASSO model showed better outcomes in predicting LNM than Japanese criteria, as measured by AUROC (0.765 vs. 0.518, p=0.003) and NRI (0.447, p=0.039)/IDI (0.121, p=0.034). DCA showed positive net benefits in using our model. @*Conclusion@#Our LASSO model incorporating histopathologic parameters and TILs showed superior performance compared to conventional Japanese criteria in predicting LNM in patients with T1 CRC.

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