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1.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 295-300, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902679

ABSTRACT

Background@#Detection of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies is important during the selection of an appropriate donor prior to organ transplantation and also for monitoring the patients after transplantation. In this study, we compared antibodies detected via C3d assays, which monitors C3d complement-binding activities of HLA antibodies with those detected via single antigen bead (SAB) assays. @*Methods@#A total of 66 serum samples were tested in parallel by SAB assays (Immucor Transplant Diagnostics, USA) and C3d assays (Immucor) for the detection of HLA class II antibodies. The relationship between these two methods was analyzed based on the types, numbers, median fluorescent intensity (MFI) values, and positivity of the antibodies using MATCH IT! Antibody (Immucor) program. @*Results@#The number of antibodies obtained based on SAB and C3d assays was the highest with 24 samples (36.4%) in the 11–20 range and 23 (34.8%) in the 2–5 range detected via each assay. Among the SAB-positive antibodies, only 28 (6.4%) of the 440 antibodies with MFI ≤3,000 were C3d-positive, and 341 (61.3%) of the 556 antibodies with MFI ≥3,001 were C3d-positive. Whereas, among the 442 C3d-positive antibodies, SAB assays were positive except for 32 (7.2%) and 41 (9.3%) antibodies in the sections of MFI ≤500 and 1,001 ≤MFI ≤10,000, respectively. C3d-positive samples had higher maximum MFI values based on SAB assays, compared with C3d-negative samples. @*Conclusions@#MFI values of HLA class II antibodies detected through SAB assays in C3d-positive samples were higher than those in C3d-negative samples.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836482

ABSTRACT

Plasma exchange performed with the aid of acid-citrate-dextrose formula A (ACD-A) is generally regarded as safe. However, unfractionated heparin (UFH) can serve as an anticoagulant for patients experiencing serious side effects such as anaphylaxis. No guidelines have currently been defined for the stand-alone UFH dosing during plasma exchange. We describe here two patients who developed anaphylaxis to ACD-A during plasma exchange, and we successfully used UFH as a standalone anticoagulant. The first patient was a 55-year-old man who required plasma exchange before ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. During plasma exchange, he developed an allergic reaction. Thereafter, UFH was used as a standalone anticoagulant during four sessions of plasma exchange; the UFH (5,000 units) was added to a 500 mL normal saline bag and the UFH:whole blood ratio was maintained at 1:28. The second patient was an 80-year-old woman with steroid pulse-resistant neuromyelitis optica. She developed an allergic reaction during the first session of plasma exchange. The patient subsequently underwent five successful sessions of plasma exchange using UFH as a standalone anticoagulant. These findings may be useful when establishing a protocol for UFH as a standalone anticoagulant during plasma exchange in patients who develop an allergic reaction to citrate.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898131

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) are known as tumors with the highest level of heritability, approximately 30% of all cases. Clinical practice guidelines of PPGL recommend genetic testing for germline variants in all patients. In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify novel causative variants associated with PPGL to improve the detection of rare genetic variants in our cohort. @*Methods@#Thirty-six tested negative for pathogenic variants in previous Sanger sequencing or targeted gene panel testing for PPGL underwent whole exome sequencing. Whole exome sequencing was performed using DNA samples enriched using TruSeq Custom Enrichment Kit and sequenced with MiSeq (Illumina Inc.). Sequencing alignment and variant calling were performed using SAMtools. @*Results@#Among previously mutation undetected 36 patients, two likely pathogenic variants and 13 variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were detected in 32 pheochromocytoma-related genes. SDHA c.778G>A (p.Gly260Arg) was detected in a patient with head and neck paraganglioma, and KIF1B c.2787-2A>C in a patient with a bladder paraganglioma. Additionally, a likely pathogenic variant in BRCA2, VUS in TP53, and VUS in NFU1 were detected. @*Conclusion@#Exome sequencing further identified genetic alterations by 5.6% in previously mutation undetected patients in PPGL. Implementation of targeted gene sequencing consisted of extended genes of PPGL in routine clinical screening can support the level of comprehensive patient assessment.

4.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 295-300, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894975

ABSTRACT

Background@#Detection of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies is important during the selection of an appropriate donor prior to organ transplantation and also for monitoring the patients after transplantation. In this study, we compared antibodies detected via C3d assays, which monitors C3d complement-binding activities of HLA antibodies with those detected via single antigen bead (SAB) assays. @*Methods@#A total of 66 serum samples were tested in parallel by SAB assays (Immucor Transplant Diagnostics, USA) and C3d assays (Immucor) for the detection of HLA class II antibodies. The relationship between these two methods was analyzed based on the types, numbers, median fluorescent intensity (MFI) values, and positivity of the antibodies using MATCH IT! Antibody (Immucor) program. @*Results@#The number of antibodies obtained based on SAB and C3d assays was the highest with 24 samples (36.4%) in the 11–20 range and 23 (34.8%) in the 2–5 range detected via each assay. Among the SAB-positive antibodies, only 28 (6.4%) of the 440 antibodies with MFI ≤3,000 were C3d-positive, and 341 (61.3%) of the 556 antibodies with MFI ≥3,001 were C3d-positive. Whereas, among the 442 C3d-positive antibodies, SAB assays were positive except for 32 (7.2%) and 41 (9.3%) antibodies in the sections of MFI ≤500 and 1,001 ≤MFI ≤10,000, respectively. C3d-positive samples had higher maximum MFI values based on SAB assays, compared with C3d-negative samples. @*Conclusions@#MFI values of HLA class II antibodies detected through SAB assays in C3d-positive samples were higher than those in C3d-negative samples.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890427

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) are known as tumors with the highest level of heritability, approximately 30% of all cases. Clinical practice guidelines of PPGL recommend genetic testing for germline variants in all patients. In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify novel causative variants associated with PPGL to improve the detection of rare genetic variants in our cohort. @*Methods@#Thirty-six tested negative for pathogenic variants in previous Sanger sequencing or targeted gene panel testing for PPGL underwent whole exome sequencing. Whole exome sequencing was performed using DNA samples enriched using TruSeq Custom Enrichment Kit and sequenced with MiSeq (Illumina Inc.). Sequencing alignment and variant calling were performed using SAMtools. @*Results@#Among previously mutation undetected 36 patients, two likely pathogenic variants and 13 variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were detected in 32 pheochromocytoma-related genes. SDHA c.778G>A (p.Gly260Arg) was detected in a patient with head and neck paraganglioma, and KIF1B c.2787-2A>C in a patient with a bladder paraganglioma. Additionally, a likely pathogenic variant in BRCA2, VUS in TP53, and VUS in NFU1 were detected. @*Conclusion@#Exome sequencing further identified genetic alterations by 5.6% in previously mutation undetected patients in PPGL. Implementation of targeted gene sequencing consisted of extended genes of PPGL in routine clinical screening can support the level of comprehensive patient assessment.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832826

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic image quality of low dose abdominal digital radiography processed with a new post-processing technique. @*Materials and Methods@#Abdominal radiographs from phantom pilot studies were post-processed by the novel and conventional post-processing methods of our institution; the proper dose for the subsequent patient study of 49 subjects was determined by comparing image quality of the two preceding studies. Two radiographs of each patient were taken using the conventional and derived dose protocols with the proposed post-processing method. The image details and quality were evaluated by two radiologists. @*Results@#The radiation dose for the patient study was derived to be half of the conventional method. Overall half-dose image quality with the proposed method was significantly higher than that of the conventional method (p < 0.05) with moderate inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.60, 0.47). @*Conclusion@#By applying the new post-processing technique, half-dose abdominal digital radiography can demonstrate feasible image quality compared to the full-dose images.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762286

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus pettenkoferi is a coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) of growing concern. As CoNS could be an important cause of infections in hospitalized patients, especially in immunocompromised patients, accurate identification is critical to timely and effective treatment. In the past, S. pettenkoferi was not identifed by conventional methods or was misidentified as another Staphylococcus species or another genus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of S. pettenkoferi identified using Vitek MS (bioMérieux, France). Two patients admitted to our hospital were confirmed to have bacteremia caused by S. pettenkoferi, which was identified in blood cultures using Vitek MS (bioMérieux). Therefore, we recommend using the Vitek MS (bioMérieux) for rapid and accurate identification of the pathogen causing bloodstream infection when CoNS is suspected.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Staphylococcus
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916836

ABSTRACT

An osteoma of the tongue is a rare benign tumor, typically located in the posterior one-third of the tongue. Several etiological hypotheses have been proposed in previous literature reviews. Herein, we report the case of a lingual osteoma in a 39-year-old woman, who complained of a lump in the throat. The lesion presented as a homogeneously hyperdense submucosal mass without any enhancement in the base of the tongue on CT, consistent with previous image findings of lingual osteoma. After surgical resection, the mass was pathologically proven to be a lingual osteoma. The patient no longer complained of the sensation of a lump. Typical CT findings of a lingual osteoma—a well-circumscribed hyperdense submucosal mass seen around the foramen cecum—could be helpful in the diagnosis of lingual osteoma and the prevention of further unnecessary work-up.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916701

ABSTRACT

Occult breast cancer (OBC) is an asymptomatic condition. We report a case of OBC in a 72-year-old male patient who presented with severe dyspnea and upper extremity swelling. Computed tomography scan showed multiple lymph node enlargements in the supraclavicular and infraclavicular areas, and ultrasound scan showed multiple axillary lymph node enlargements. Based on the radiological findings, clinicians suspected lymphoma or disseminated metastasis from unknown primary malignancies. However, the axillary biopsy specimen revealed invasive breast cancer with hormonal receptor positivity.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916597

ABSTRACT

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a lesion involving a high-flow vascular malformation, which is one of the causes of massive gastrointestinal bleeding. In the pediatric population, AVM is quite rare in the gastrointestinal tract, and the most common primary site is the colon. A small bowel is a rare primary site of AVM, and only 1 case has been reported in Korea. Here, we report on a case of AVM found in the distal ileum of a 14-year-old girl who complained about recurrent lower abdominal pain only without a gastrointestinal hemorrhage. In the previous research literature, a small bowel AVM can be diagnosed through detecting the existence of an enhancing nidus of the intestinal wall at the arterial phase, accompanied by an early draining vein as it appeared on a dynamic contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography. In our case, the pathologically confirmed AVM of the distal ileum showed a dot-like enhancement within the thick low-attenuating submucosal layer of the terminal ileum.

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