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1.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 568-577, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000325

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) has become an important tool for evaluating cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study evaluated the significance of CACS for future CVD through more than 10 years of follow-up in asymptomatic Korean populations with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) known to have a relatively low CACS burden. @*Methods@#We enrolled 981 asymptomatic T2DM patients without CVD at baseline who underwent CACS evaluation using multidetector computed tomography between January 2008 and December 2014. They were grouped into five predefined CACS categories based on Agatston scores and followed up by August 2020. The primary endpoint was incident CVD events, including coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial disease. @*Results@#The relative risk of CVD was significantly higher in patients with CACS ≥10, and the significance persisted after adjustment for known confounders. A higher CACS category indicated a higher incidence of future CVD: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 4.09 (1.79 to 9.36), 12.00 (5.61 to 25.69), and 38.79 (16.43 to 91.59) for 10≤ CACS <100, 100≤ CACS <400, and CACS ≥400, respectively. During the 12-year follow-up period, the difference in event-free survival more than doubled as the category increased. Patients with CACS below 10 had very low CVD incidence throughout the follow-up. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed better area under curve when the CACS cutoff was 10 than 100. @*Conclusion@#CACS can be a sensitive marker of CVD risk. Specifically, CACS above 10 is an indicator of CVD high-risk requiring more intensive medical treatment in Koreans with T2DM.

2.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 839-850, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966805

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) including an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 inhibitor, anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, and anti-PD-ligand 1 inhibitors are representative therapeutics for various malignancies. In oncology, the application of ICIs is currently expanding to a wider range of malignancies due to their remarkable clinical outcomes. ICIs target immune checkpoints which suppress the activity of T-cells that are specific for tumor antigens, thereby allowing tumor cells to escape the immune response. However, immune checkpoints also play a crucial role in preventing autoimmune reactions. Therefore, ICIs targeting immune checkpoints can trigger various immune-related adverse events (irAEs), especially in endocrine organs. Considering the endocrine organs that are frequently involved, irAEs associated endocrinopathies are frequently life-threatening and have unfavorable clinical implications for patients. However, there are very limited data from large clinical trials that would inform the development of clinical guidelines for patients with irAEs associated endocrinopathies. Considering the current clinical situation, in which the scope and scale of the application of ICIs are increasing, position statements from clinical specialists play an essential role in providing the appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experience. As endocrinologists, we would like to present precautions and recommendations for the management of immune-related endocrine disorders, especially those involving the adrenal, thyroid, and pituitary glands caused by ICIs.

3.
Journal of Acute Care Surgery ; (2): 70-73, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937731

ABSTRACT

When a patient with severe trauma is admitted to the emergency room (ER), they are evaluated before transfer to either the intensive care unit (ICU) or operating room. To minimize the time until a definitive treatment can be provided, direct operating room resuscitation can be performed. In this hospital the ER was closed during the hospital’s transition to a coronavirus disease 2019-dedicated hospital, and direct ICU resuscitation for patients with trauma was performed for a short period. To perform effective trauma resuscitation, all ICU beds were reorganized to achieve a modified, experienced nurse: patient ratio (1:2-3) and 2 beds were assigned for trauma ICU resuscitation alone. The equipment for initial resuscitation was installed and ICU nurses received training. Consultations with the hospital administration, nursing, and pharmaceutical departments were completed in advance to avoid formal problems. Conversion of the ICU for direct resuscitation procedures was performed in 4 patients.

4.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 74-83, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924968

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dulaglutide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), has been shown to reduce body weight and liver fat content in patients with type 2 diabetes. Family with sequence similarity 3 member A (FAM3A) plays a vital role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which dulaglutide protects against hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells treated with palmitic acid (PA). @*Methods@#HepG2 cells were pretreated with 400 μM PA for 24 hours, followed by treatment with or without 100 nM dulaglutide for 24 hours. Hepatic lipid accumulation was determined using Oil red O staining and triglyceride (TG) assay, and the expression of lipid metabolism-associated factor was analyzed using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. @*Results@#Dulaglutide significantly decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and reduced the expression of genes associated with lipid droplet binding proteins, de novo lipogenesis, and TG synthesis in PA-treated HepG2 cells. Dulaglutide also increased the expression of proteins associated with lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation and FAM3A in PA-treated cells. However, exendin-(9-39), a GLP-1R antagonist, reversed the expression of FAM3A, and fatty acid oxidation-associated factors increased due to dulaglutide. In addition, inhibition of FAM3A by siRNA attenuated the reducing effect of dulaglutide on TG content and its increasing effect on regulation of fatty acid oxidation. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that dulaglutide could be used therapeutically for improving nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and its effect could be mediated in part via upregulation of FAM3A expression through a GLP-1R-dependent pathway.

5.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 327-336, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924911

ABSTRACT

Background@#Exercise is recommended for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients to prevent cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of physical activity (PA) for reducing the risk of heart failure (HF) has yet to be elucidated. We aimed to assess the effect of changes in patterns of PA on incident HF, especially in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. @*Methods@#We examined health examination data and claims records of 294,528 participants from the Korean National Health Insurance Service who underwent health examinations between 2009 and 2012 and were newly diagnosed with T2DM. Participants were classified into the four groups according to changes in PA between before and after the diagnosis of T2DM: continuously inactive, inactive to active, active to inactive, and continuously active. The development of HF was analyzed until 2017. @*Results@#As compared with those who were continuously inactive, those who became physically active after diagnosis showed a reduced risk for HF (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.93). Those who were continuously active had the lowest risk for HF (aHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.96). As compared with those who were inactive, those who exercised regularly, either performing vigorous or moderate PA, had a lower HF risk (aHR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.91). @*Conclusion@#Among individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM, the risk of HF was reduced in those with higher levels of PA after diagnosis was made. Our results suggest either increasing or maintaining the frequency of PA after the diagnosis of T2DM may lower the risk of HF.

6.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 757-765, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890493

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ongoing efforts have been made to discover an efficacious vaccine against COVID-19 to combat the pandemic. In most countries, both mRNA and DNA vaccines have been administered, and their side effects have also been reported. The clinical course of COVID-19 and the effects of vaccination against COVID-19 are both influenced by patients’ health status and involve a systemic physiological response. In view of the systemic function of endocrine hormones, endocrine disorders themselves and the therapeutics used to treat them can influence the outcomes of vaccination for COVID-19. However, there are very limited data to support the development of clinical guidelines for patients with specific medical backgrounds based on large clinical trials. In the current severe circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, position statements made by clinical specialists are essential to provide appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experiences. As endocrinologists, we would like to present the medical background of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as precautions to prevent the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with specific endocrine disorders, including adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, hypogonadism, and pituitary disorders.

7.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 845-854, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890484

ABSTRACT

Background@#Weight loss through lifestyle modification is recommended for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent studies have suggested that repeated loss and gain of weight is associated with worse health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the association between weight variability and the risk of NAFLD in patients without diabetes. @*Methods@#We examined the health-checkup data of 30,708 participants who had undergone serial examinations between 2010 and 2014. Weight variability was assessed using coefficient of variation and the average successive variability of weight (ASVW), which was defined as the sum of absolute weight changes between successive years over the 5-year period divided by 4. The participants were classified according to the baseline body mass index and weight difference over 4 years. @*Results@#On dividing the participants into four groups according to ASVW quartile groups, those in the highest quartile showed a significantly increased risk of NAFLD compared to those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 2.19). Among participants without obesity at baseline, individuals with high ASVW showed increased risk of NAFLD (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.01). Participants with increased weight over 4 years and high ASVW demonstrated higher risk of NAFLD compared to those with stable weight and low ASVW (OR, 4.87; 95% CI, 4.29 to 5.53). @*Conclusion@#Regardless of participant baseline obesity status, high weight variability was associated with an increased risk of developing NAFLD. Our results suggest that further effort is required to minimize weight fluctuations after achieving a desirable body weight.

8.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 379-389, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890388

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previous studies have suggested that depression in patients with diabetes is associated with worse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with diabetes with comorbid depression. @*Methods@#We examined the general health check-up data and claim database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of 2,668,615 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had examinations between 2009 and 2012. As NHIS database has been established since 2002, those who had been diagnosed with depression or CVD since 2002 were excluded. The 2,228,443 participants were classified into three groups according to the claim history of depression; normal group (n=2,166,979), transient depression group (one episode of depression, n=42,124) and persistent depression group (at least two episodes of depression, n=19,340). The development of CVD and mortality were analyzed from 2009 to 2017. @*Results@#Those with depression showed a significantly increased risk for stroke (transient depression group: hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.26) (persistent depression group: HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.46 to 1.63). Those with depression had an increased risk for myocardial infarction (transient depression group: HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.31) (persistent depression group: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.49). The persistent depression group had an increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.60 to 1.72). @*Conclusion@#Coexisting depression in patients with diabetes has a deleterious effect on the development of CVD and mortality. We suggest that more attention should be given to patients with diabetes who present with depressive symptoms.

9.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 539-546, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890351

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of smoking on risk of diabetes among those quitting smoking. @*Methods@#We analyzed clinical data from a total of 5,198,792 individuals age 20 years or older who received health care check-up arranged by the national insurance program of Korea between 2009 and 2016 using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Cumulative smoking was estimated by pack-years. Smokers were classified into four categories according to the amount of smoking: light smokers (0.025 to 5 smoking pack-years), medium smokers (5 to 14 smoking pack-years), heavy smokers (14 to 26 smoking pack-years), and extreme smokers (more than 26 smoking pack-years). @*Results@#During the study period, 164,335 individuals (3.2% of the total population) developed diabetes. Compared to sustained smokers, the risk of diabetes was significantly reduced in both quitters (hazard ratio [HR], 0.858; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.838 to 0.878) and nonsmokers (HR, 0.616; 95% CI, 0.606 to 0.625) after adjustment for multiple risk factors. The risk of diabetes gradually increased with amount of smoking in both quitters and current smokers. The risk of diabetes in heavy (HR, 1.119; 95% CI, 1.057 to 1.185) and extreme smokers (HR, 1.348; 95% CI, 1.275 to 1.425) among quitters was much higher compared to light smokers among current smokers. @*Conclusion@#Smoking cessation was effective in reducing the risk of diabetes regardless of weight change. However, there was a potential dose-dependent association between smoking amount and the development of diabetes. Diabetes risk still remained in heavy and extreme smokers even after smoking cessation.

10.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 977-987, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914272

ABSTRACT

Background@#Patients with diabetes have a higher risk of requiring repeated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) than non-diabetic patients. We aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of anti-diabetic drugs on the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. @*Methods@#We analyzed the general health check-up dataset and claims data of the Korean National Health Insurance Service of 199,714 participants (age ≥30 years) who underwent PCIs between 2010 and 2013. Those who underwent additional PCI within 1 year of their first PCI (n=3,325) and those who died within 1 year (n=1,312) were excluded. Patients were classified according to their prescription records for glucose-lowering agents. The primary endpoint was the incidence rate of coronary revascularization. @*Results@#A total of 35,348 patients were included in the study. Metformin significantly decreased the risk of requiring repeat PCI in all patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.77). In obese patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2, patients treated with thiazolidinedione (TZD) exhibited a decreased risk of requiring repeat revascularization than those who were not treated with TZD (aHR, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 0.95). Patients treated with metformin showed a decreased risk of requiring revascularization regardless of their BMI. Insulin, meglitinide, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor were associated with increased risk of repeated PCI. @*Conclusion@#The risk of requiring repeat revascularization was lower in diabetic patients treated with metformin and in obese patients treated with TZD. These results suggest that physicians should choose appropriate glucose-lowering agents for the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease.

11.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1016-1028, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914263

ABSTRACT

Background@#Fibrosis is the most important prognostic factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Insulin resistance plays a key role of fibrosis progression. We evaluated the association between changes in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and changes in fibrosis status in NAFLD. @*Methods@#We analyzed the data of 15,728 participants with NAFLD (86% men, mean age 40.5 years) who had no diabetes at baseline and visited our centers for health check-ups both in 2012 and 2016. The participants were classified into four groups according to the degree of change in HOMA-IR values from baseline to the end of follow-up: G1 (1.00). NAFLD was assessed by ultrasonography, and fibrosis status was evaluated by the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) and the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI). @*Results@#After the 4-year follow-up, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for progression of fibrosis probability increased with increasing HOMA-IR values (OR, 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87 to 2.71 for NFS; and OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 2.05 to 3.18 for APRI, G4). This tendency remained consistent throughout the subgroup analyses, except in those for female sex and a body mass index <25 kg/m2. The OR for regression of fibrosis probability decreased with increasing HOMA-IR values (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.43 for NFS, G4). @*Conclusion@#Changes in HOMA-IR values were associated with changes in fibrosis status in patients with NAFLD without diabetes, which underscores the role of insulin resistance in liver fibrosis.

12.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 757-765, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898197

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ongoing efforts have been made to discover an efficacious vaccine against COVID-19 to combat the pandemic. In most countries, both mRNA and DNA vaccines have been administered, and their side effects have also been reported. The clinical course of COVID-19 and the effects of vaccination against COVID-19 are both influenced by patients’ health status and involve a systemic physiological response. In view of the systemic function of endocrine hormones, endocrine disorders themselves and the therapeutics used to treat them can influence the outcomes of vaccination for COVID-19. However, there are very limited data to support the development of clinical guidelines for patients with specific medical backgrounds based on large clinical trials. In the current severe circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, position statements made by clinical specialists are essential to provide appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experiences. As endocrinologists, we would like to present the medical background of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as precautions to prevent the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with specific endocrine disorders, including adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, hypogonadism, and pituitary disorders.

13.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 845-854, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898188

ABSTRACT

Background@#Weight loss through lifestyle modification is recommended for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent studies have suggested that repeated loss and gain of weight is associated with worse health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the association between weight variability and the risk of NAFLD in patients without diabetes. @*Methods@#We examined the health-checkup data of 30,708 participants who had undergone serial examinations between 2010 and 2014. Weight variability was assessed using coefficient of variation and the average successive variability of weight (ASVW), which was defined as the sum of absolute weight changes between successive years over the 5-year period divided by 4. The participants were classified according to the baseline body mass index and weight difference over 4 years. @*Results@#On dividing the participants into four groups according to ASVW quartile groups, those in the highest quartile showed a significantly increased risk of NAFLD compared to those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 2.19). Among participants without obesity at baseline, individuals with high ASVW showed increased risk of NAFLD (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.01). Participants with increased weight over 4 years and high ASVW demonstrated higher risk of NAFLD compared to those with stable weight and low ASVW (OR, 4.87; 95% CI, 4.29 to 5.53). @*Conclusion@#Regardless of participant baseline obesity status, high weight variability was associated with an increased risk of developing NAFLD. Our results suggest that further effort is required to minimize weight fluctuations after achieving a desirable body weight.

14.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 379-389, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898092

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previous studies have suggested that depression in patients with diabetes is associated with worse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with diabetes with comorbid depression. @*Methods@#We examined the general health check-up data and claim database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of 2,668,615 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had examinations between 2009 and 2012. As NHIS database has been established since 2002, those who had been diagnosed with depression or CVD since 2002 were excluded. The 2,228,443 participants were classified into three groups according to the claim history of depression; normal group (n=2,166,979), transient depression group (one episode of depression, n=42,124) and persistent depression group (at least two episodes of depression, n=19,340). The development of CVD and mortality were analyzed from 2009 to 2017. @*Results@#Those with depression showed a significantly increased risk for stroke (transient depression group: hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.26) (persistent depression group: HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.46 to 1.63). Those with depression had an increased risk for myocardial infarction (transient depression group: HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.31) (persistent depression group: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.49). The persistent depression group had an increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.60 to 1.72). @*Conclusion@#Coexisting depression in patients with diabetes has a deleterious effect on the development of CVD and mortality. We suggest that more attention should be given to patients with diabetes who present with depressive symptoms.

15.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 539-546, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898055

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of smoking on risk of diabetes among those quitting smoking. @*Methods@#We analyzed clinical data from a total of 5,198,792 individuals age 20 years or older who received health care check-up arranged by the national insurance program of Korea between 2009 and 2016 using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Cumulative smoking was estimated by pack-years. Smokers were classified into four categories according to the amount of smoking: light smokers (0.025 to 5 smoking pack-years), medium smokers (5 to 14 smoking pack-years), heavy smokers (14 to 26 smoking pack-years), and extreme smokers (more than 26 smoking pack-years). @*Results@#During the study period, 164,335 individuals (3.2% of the total population) developed diabetes. Compared to sustained smokers, the risk of diabetes was significantly reduced in both quitters (hazard ratio [HR], 0.858; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.838 to 0.878) and nonsmokers (HR, 0.616; 95% CI, 0.606 to 0.625) after adjustment for multiple risk factors. The risk of diabetes gradually increased with amount of smoking in both quitters and current smokers. The risk of diabetes in heavy (HR, 1.119; 95% CI, 1.057 to 1.185) and extreme smokers (HR, 1.348; 95% CI, 1.275 to 1.425) among quitters was much higher compared to light smokers among current smokers. @*Conclusion@#Smoking cessation was effective in reducing the risk of diabetes regardless of weight change. However, there was a potential dose-dependent association between smoking amount and the development of diabetes. Diabetes risk still remained in heavy and extreme smokers even after smoking cessation.

16.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 552-561, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832436

ABSTRACT

Background@#People with disabilities are at risk of secondary conditions such as diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk of type 2 diabetes in South Korea, especially among people with all types of disabilities. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service, with two disabilityfree controls matched for each participant with disabilities by age and sex. Information regarding the type, severity and grade of disabilities was obtained based on the National Disability Registry. Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was defined according to the following criteria: presence of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes E11, E12, E13, or E14 and claims for at least one oral anti-diabetic agent or insulin at baseline, or fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL. @*Results@#We included 1,297,806 participants with disabilities and 2,943,719 control. Out of 4,241,525 participants, 841,990 (19.9%) were diagnosed with diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes was higher in the disability group compared with individuals without disabilities (23.1% vs. 18.4%). The odds of having diabetes was higher in the disability group compared with the control group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 1.34). The results showed higher prevalence of diabetes in the mildly disabled group (23.2%) than in the severely disabled group (22.7%). @*Conclusion@#The prevalence and risk of diabetes were higher in people with disabilities compared with the general population. Physicians and public health authorities should focus on people with disabilities for proper diabetes management.

17.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 396-406, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832393

ABSTRACT

Background@#Obesity is associated with thyroid cancer risk. Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects, while progranulin is associated with inflammation and tumorigenesis. We investigated serum adiponectin and progranulin levels in patients with benign thyroid nodule (benign group) and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC; PTC group). The associations between these levels and the clinicopathological features of PTC were evaluated. @*Methods@#We included 157 patients who underwent thyroid surgery (17% of benign and 83% of PTC group). Clinicopathological features including size, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension (ETE), multifocality, American Thyroid Association risk stratification were evaluated. @*Results@#The age was 42.0 years, and 69% were female. Serum adiponectin and progranulin levels were 6.3 μg/mL and 101.5 ng/mL in the benign group and 5.4 μg/mL and 106.1 ng/mL in the PTC group, respectively (P=0.6 and P=0.4, respectively). Serum adiponectin levels showed no significant differences according to clinicopathological features of PTC. The proportions of patients with primary tumor size >1 cm were 3%, 5%, 8%, and 8% according to serum progranulin level quartiles, respectively (P=0.03). The proportions of patients with microscopic/gross ETE were 8%/0%, 9%/1%, 11%/1%, and 11%/2% according to serum progranulin level quartiles, respectively. Median serum progranulin level was significantly higher in patients with PTC >1 cm than in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (P=0.04, 115.3 ng/mL and 104.7 ng/mL, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Serum adiponectin and progranulin levels showed no significant difference between benign and PTC groups. Increased serum progranulin levels were significantly associated with PTC >1 cm and microscopic and gross ETE.

18.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 592-601, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832334

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recent studies suggest an association between diabetes and increased risk of heart failure (HF). However, the associations among obesity status, glycemic status, and risk of HF are not known. In this study, we analyzed whether the risk of HF increases in participants according to baseline glycemic status and whether this increased risk is associated with obesity status. @*Methods@#We analyzed the risk of HF according to baseline glycemic status (normoglycemia, impaired fasting glucose [IFG], and diabetes) in 9,720,220 Koreans who underwent Korean National Health Screening in 2009 without HF at baseline with a median follow-up period of 6.3 years. The participants were divided into five and six groups according to baseline body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, respectively. @*Results@#Participants with IFG and those with diabetes showed a 1.08- and 1.86-fold increased risk of HF, respectively, compared to normoglycemic participants. Compared to the normal weight group (BMI, 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m2 ), the underweight group (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 ) showed a 1.7-fold increased risk of HF, and those with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 showed a 1.1-fold increased risk of HF, suggesting a J-shaped association with BMI. When similar analyses were performed for different glycemic statuses, the J-shaped association between BMI and HF risk was consistently observed in both groups with and without diabetes. @*Conclusion@#Participants with IFG and diabetes showed a significantly increased HF risk compared to normoglycemic participants. This increased risk of HF was mostly prominent in underweight and class II obese participants than in participants with normal weight.

19.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 943-953, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890440

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is a great need to discover factors that could protect pancreatic β-cells from apoptosis and thus prevent diabetes mellitus. Clusterin (CLU), a chaperone protein, plays an important role in cell protection in numerous cells and is involved in various cellular mechanisms, including autophagy. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of CLU through autophagy regulation in pancreatic β-cells. @*Methods@#To identify the protective role of CLU, mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells were incubated with CLU and/or free fatty acid (FFA) palmitate, and cellular apoptosis and autophagy were examined. @*Results@#Treatment with CLU remarkably upregulated microtubule-associated protein 1-light chain 3 (LC3)-II conversion in a doseand time-dependent manner with a significant increase in the autophagy-related 3 (Atg3) gene expression level, which is a mediator of LC3-II conversion. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that the molecular interaction of LC3 with Atg3 and p62 was markedly increased by CLU. Stimulation of LC3-II conversion by CLU persisted in lipotoxic conditions, and FFA-induced apoptosis and dysfunction were simultaneously improved by CLU treatment. Finally, inhibition of LC3-II conversion by Atg3 gene knockdown markedly attenuated the cytoprotective effect of CLU. @*Conclusion@#Taken together, these findings suggest that CLU protects pancreatic β-cells against lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis via autophagy stimulation mediated by facilitating LC3-II conversion. Thus, CLU has therapeutic effects on FFA-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction.

20.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 165-176, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association of visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and advanced fibrosis degree based on noninvasive serum fibrosis markers in the general population with NAFLD.METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, in 7,465 Korean adults who underwent health screening examinations. NAFLD was defined as fatty liver detected on ultrasonography, and visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat was measured using computed tomography. We predicted fibrosis based on the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and categorized the risk for advanced fibrosis as low, indeterminate, or high.RESULTS: The multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios for indeterminate to high risk of advanced fibrosis based on FIB-4, determined by comparing the second, third, and fourth quartiles with the first quartile of VSR, were 3.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 17.97), 9.41 (95% CI, 1.97 to 45.01), and 19.34 (95% CI, 4.06 to 92.18), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios for intermediate to high degree of fibrosis according to APRI also increased across VSR quartiles (5.04 [95% CI, 2.65 to 9.59], 7.51 [95% CI, 3.91 to 14.42], and 19.55 [95% CI, 9.97 to 38.34], respectively). High VSR was more strongly associated with the prevalence of NAFLD in nonobese subjects than in obese subjects, and the associations between VSR and intermediate to high probability of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD were stronger in obese subjects than in nonobese subjects.CONCLUSION: High VSR values predicted increased NAFLD risk and advanced fibrosis risk with NAFLD, and the predictive value of VSR for indeterminate to high risk of advanced fibrosis was higher in obese subjects than in nonobese subjects.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Abdominal Fat , Aspartic Acid , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatty Liver , Fibrosis , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Liver Cirrhosis , Mass Screening , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Prevalence , Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal , Ultrasonography
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