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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e126-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976941

ABSTRACT

Background@#The quality-of-life of patients with irritable bowel syndrome is low; incorrect diagnosis/treatment causes economic burden and inappropriate consumption of medical resources. This survey-based study aimed to analyze the current status of irritable bowel syndrome treatment to examine differences in doctors’ perceptions of the disease, and treatment patterns. @*Methods@#From October 2019 to February 2020, the irritable bowel syndrome and Intestinal Function Research Study Group of the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility conducted a survey on doctors working in primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare institutions. The questionnaire included 37 items and was completed anonymously using the NAVER platform (a web-based platform), e-mails, and written forms. @*Results@#A total of 272 doctors responded; respondents reported using the Rome IV diagnostic criteria (amended in 2016) for diagnosing and treating irritable bowel syndrome.Several differences were noted between the primary, secondary, and tertiary physicians’ groups. The rate of colonoscopy was high in tertiary healthcare institutions. During a colonoscopy, the necessity of random biopsy was higher among physicians who worked at tertiary institutions. ‘The patient did not adhere to the diet’ as a reason for ineffectiveness using low-fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides, and polyols diet treatment was higher among physicians in primary/secondary institutions, and ‘There are individual differences in terms of effectiveness’ was higher among physicians in tertiary institutions. In irritable bowel syndrome constipation predominant subtype, the use of serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist (ramosetron) and probiotics was higher in primary/secondary institutions, while serotonin type 4 receptor agonist was used more in tertiary institutions. In irritable bowel syndrome diarrhea predominant subtype, the use of antispasmodics was higher in primary/secondary institutions, while the use of serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist (ramosetron) was higher in tertiary institutions. @*Conclusion@#Notable differences were observed between physicians in primary/secondary and tertiary institiutions regarding the rate of colonoscopy, necessity of random biopsy, the reason for the ineffectiveness of low-fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides, and polyols diet, and use of drug therapy in irritable bowel syndrome. In South Korea, irritable bowel syndrome is diagnosed and treated according to the Rome IV diagnostic criteria, revised in 2016.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 652-658, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976695

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the effects of economic status (classified based on insurance type and residential area) on oncological outcomes of prostate cancer using a nationwide database. We additionally investigated oncological outcomes based on economic status and residential area in patients who underwent surgical treatment. @*Materials and Methods@#The study included 75,518 men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer between 2009 and 2018 in whom oncological outcomes were investigated based on economic status and residential area. Among the 75,518 men with prostate cancer, the data of 29,973 men who underwent radical prostatectomy were further analyzed. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the effects of economic status and residential area on postoperative oncological outcomes. @*Results@#Among the 75,518 patients with prostate cancer, 3,254 (4.31%) were medical aid beneficiaries. The 5-year overall survival rates were 81.2% and 64.8% in the health insurance and medical aid groups, respectively. Radical prostatectomy was more common in the health insurance group, and surgical intervention was significantly affected by the residential area. Among patients who underwent surgery, 5-year androgen deprivation therapy–free and overall survival were better in the health insurance group. Multivariate analysis showed that insurance type and residential area were significantly associated with the androgen deprivation therapy–free and overall survival after adjustment for other variables. @*Conclusion@#Economic status and residential area were shown to affect not only treatment patterns but also post-diagnosis and postoperative oncological outcomes. Political support for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of prostate cancer is warranted for medically vulnerable populations.

3.
Annals of Dermatology ; : S55-S58, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976640

ABSTRACT

Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a well-defined hyperpigmented patch that recurs in a fixed location each time a particular drug is taken. Common causative agents of FDE are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, non-narcotic analgesics, sedatives, anticonvulsants, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. We report a 33-year-old male who presented with a recurrent, localized, brownish-to-erythematous macule and papules on the peri-philtrum area two hours after taking valacyclovir. Three episodes of valacyclovir ingestion for treatment of Herpes simplex virus infection provoked a similar skin rash at the same site. Histopathology results showed vacuolar degeneration in the basal layer of the epidermis, pigmentary incontinence, and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration in the papillary dermis. Although patch test and skin prick test showed negative responses to acyclovir and valacyclovir, an intradermal test showed a positive reaction only to valacyclovir. The oral provocation test to acyclovir and valacyclovir showed a positive reaction only to valacyclovir. Through drug history, histopathological examination, patch test, intradermal test, and oral provocation test, we established a final diagnosis of FDE due to valacyclovir without cross-reactivity to acyclovir. To find alternative therapeutic drugs, we suggest diagnostic tests with not only the suspected drugs, but also other drugs in the same class.

4.
Annals of Dermatology ; : S71-S75, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976639

ABSTRACT

Primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis (PLCA) is characterized by extracellular deposition of pathological fibril aggregation of proteins in the skin without systemic involvement.Macular amyloidosis, lichen (papular) amyloidosis, and nodular amyloidosis are three different subtypes of PLCA. Although the pathological mechanism of PLCA has not yet been clarified, it is assumed that a nucleus formation of amyloid fibril is formed due to repeated external stimulation, such as subcutaneous injection, which often poses diagnostic challenges. Herein, we present a 54-year-old Korean male patient with cutaneous localized amyloidosis which occurred after repeated local insulin injections, and discuss the relationship between insulin therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus and dermal amyloid deposition.

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 176-185, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968753

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There have been little research on the cancer risks of patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) in Korea. We aimed to investigate the clinical features of PJS patients and their cancer incidence rate. @*Methods@#Patients with PJS from nine medical centers were enrolled. In those patients diagnosed with cancer, data obtained included the date of cancer diagnosis, the tumor location, and the cancer stage. The cumulative risks of gastrointestinal cancers and extra-gastrointestinal cancers were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. @*Results@#A total of 96 PJS patients were included. The median age at diagnosis of PJS was 23.4 years. Cancer developed in 21 of the 96 patients (21.9%). The age of PJS diagnosis was widely distributed (0.9 to 72.4 years). The most common cancers were gastrointestinal cancer (n = 12) followed by breast cancer (n = 6). The cumulative lifetime cancer risk was calculated to be 62.1% at age 60. The cumulative lifetime gastrointestinal cancer risk was 47.1% at age 70. The cumulative lifetime extra- gastrointestinal cancer risk was 40.3% at age 60. @*Conclusions@#PJS onset may occur at any age and the risks of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal cancer are high. Thorough surveillance of PJS patients for malignancies is vital.

6.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 1-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968702

ABSTRACT

The introduction of device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) in the beginning of the 21st century has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the small intestine. In contrast to capsule endoscopy, the other main diagnostic modality of small bowel diseases, DAE has the unique advantages of allowing the observation of the region of interest in detail and enabling tissue acquisition and therapeutic intervention. As DAE becomes an essential procedure in daily clinical practice, there is an increasing need for correct guidelines on when and how it is to be performed and what technical factors should be taken into consideration. In response to these needs, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases has developed an expert consensus statement on the performance of DAE by reviewing current evidence. This expert consensus statement particularly focuses on the indications, choice of insertion route, therapeutic intervention, complications, and relevant technical points.

7.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 270-274, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000664

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) deficiency is a rare mitochondrial disorder caused by a genetic mutation affecting the activity of the PDHC enzyme, which plays a major role in the tricarboxylic cycle. Few cases of surgery or anesthesia have been reported. Moreover, there is no recommended anesthetic method.Case: A 24-month-old child with a PDHC deficiency presented to the emergency room with respiratory failure, mental decline, systemic cyanosis, and lactic acidosis. During hospitalization period, the patient presented with pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and multiple air pockets in the heart. Two surgeries were performed under general anesthesia using an inhalational anesthetic agent. The patient was discharged with home ventilation. @*Conclusions@#Anesthesiologists should be wary of multiple factors when administering anesthesia to patients with PDHC deficiency, including airway abnormalities, acid-base imbalance, intraoperative fluid management, selection of appropriate anesthetics, and monitoring of lactic acid levels.

8.
International Journal of Arrhythmia ; : 7-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000502

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary vein isolation is an well-established treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation (AF), and it is especially effective for patients with paroxysmal AF. However, the success rate is limited for patients with persistent AF, because non-pul‑ monary vein triggers which increase AF recurrence are frequently found in these patients. The major non-pulmonary vein triggers are from the left atrial posterior wall, left atrial appendage, ligament of Marshall, coronary sinus, superior vena cava, and crista terminalis, but other atrial sites can also generate AF triggers. All these sites have been known to contain atrial myocytes with potential arrhythmogenic electrical activity. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of these non-pulmonary vein triggers are well studied; however, the clinical outcome of catheter ablation for persistent AF is still unclear. Here, we reviewed the current ablation strategies for persistent AF and the clinical implications of major non-pulmonary vein triggers.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 731-740, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000422

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There are few reports regarding mixed carcinoma, defined as a mixture of glandular and poorly cohesive components, in patients with gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion and characteristics of mixed carcinoma in GC patients. @*Methods@#A total of 7,215 patients diagnosed with GC at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were enrolled from March 2011 to February 2020. GC was divided into four groups (wellmoderately differentiated GC, poorly differentiated GC, poorly cohesive carcinoma, and mixed carcinoma). The proportion of each GC type and the clinicopathological features were analyzed and divided into early GC and advanced GC. @*Results@#The proportion of mixed carcinoma was 10.9% (n=787). In early GC, submucosal invasion was the most common in poorly differentiated (53.7%), and mixed carcinoma ranked second (41.1%). Mixed carcinoma showed the highest proportion of lymph node metastasis in early GC (23.0%) and advanced GC (78.3%). In advanced GC, the rate of distant metastasis was 3.6% and 3.9% in well-moderately differentiated GC and mixed carcinoma, respectively, lower than that in poorly differentiated GC (6.4%) and poorly cohesive carcinoma (5.7%), without statistical significance. @*Conclusions@#Mixed carcinoma was associated with lymph node metastasis compared to other histological GC subtypes. And it showed relatively common submucosal invasion in early GC, but the rates of venous invasion and distant metastasis were lower in advanced GC. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanism underlying these characteristics of mixed carcinoma (Trial registration number: NCT04973631).

10.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 627-639, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002062

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the effects of sevoflurane exposure on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), expression and ablation of natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) ligands (UL16-binding proteins 1–3 and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related molecules A/B), and natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells. @*Methods@#Three human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, and HCC-70) were incubated with 0 (control), 600 (S6), or 1200 μM (S12) sevoflurane for 4 h. The gene expression of NKG2D ligands and their protein expression on cancer cell surfaces were measured using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and flow cytometry, respectively. Protein expression of MMP-1 and -2 and the concentration of soluble NKG2D ligands were analyzed using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. @*Results@#Sevoflurane downregulated the mRNA and protein expression of the NKG2D ligand in a dose-dependent manner in MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, and HCC-70 cells but did not affect the expression of MMP-1 or -2 or the concentration of soluble NKG2D ligands in the MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, and HCC-70 cells. Sevoflurane attenuated NK cell-mediated cancer cell lysis in a dose-dependent manner in MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, and HCC-70 cells (P = 0.040, P = 0.040, and P = 0.040, respectively). @*Conclusions@#Our results demonstrate that sevoflurane exposure attenuates NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. This could be attributed to a sevoflurane-induced decrease in the transcription of NKG2D ligands rather than sevoflurane-induced changes in MMP expression and their proteolytic activity.

11.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 871-878, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001818

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We assessed the clinical manifestations and prognostic factors associated with ocular infection in patients diagnosed with orbital and preseptal cellulitis. @*Methods@#We enrolled 40 patients diagnosed with ocular infection accompanied by orbital and preseptal cellulitis between October 2015 and December 2021. We divided patients into the “treatment success group” (patients whose infection resolved) and the “treatment failure group” (patients whose infection worsened and required evisceration). Clinical characteristics, such as infection-related ocular findings and microbiological features, were analyzed retrospectively in both groups. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors associated with treatment failure. @*Results@#The mean age of patients was 72.8 ± 11.92 years, with 17 (42.5%) of them being male. Among the patients, 11 had bacterial infections, and 3 had fungal infections. In total, 6 (15%) and 34 (85%) patients were classified into the treatment success and failure groups, respectively. The chi-square test revealed a significant association between the treatment failure group and several clinical factors, such as low best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the logarithm of the minimum angle resolution (logMAR) BCVA > 2, low intraocular pressure (IOP) 2, IOP < 5 mmHg, large size of the corneal lesion, and a prolonged duration of symptoms demonstrated significant association with treatment failure. Notably, hypopyon is an important prognostic factor for treatment failure.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e195-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001125

ABSTRACT

Background@#In Korea, during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we responded to the uncertainty of treatments under various conditions, consistently playing catch up with the speed of evidence updates. Therefore, there was high demand for national-level evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for clinicians in a timely manner. We developed evidence-based and updated living recommendations for clinicians through a transparent development process and multidisciplinary expert collaboration. @*Methods@#The National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA) and the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS) collaborated to develop trustworthy Korean living guidelines. The NECA-supported methodological sections and 8 professional medical societies of the KAMS worked with clinical experts, and 31 clinicians were involved annually. We developed a total of 35 clinical questions, including medications, respiratory/critical care, pediatric care, emergency care, diagnostic tests, and radiological examinations. @*Results@#An evidence-based search for treatments began in March 2021 and monthly updates were performed. It was expanded to other areas, and the search interval was organized by a steering committee owing to priority changes. Evidence synthesis and recommendation review was performed by researchers, and living recommendations were updated within 3–4 months. @*Conclusion@#We provided timely recommendations on living schemes and disseminated them to the public, policymakers and various stakeholders using webpages and social media.Although the output was successful, there were some limitations. The rigor of development issues, urgent timelines for public dissemination, education for new developers, and spread of several new COVID-19 variants have worked as barriers. Therefore, we must prepare systematic processes and funding for future pandemics.

13.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 264-274, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000906

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based microsatellite instability (MSI) testing was comprehensively analyzed and compared with immunohistochemistry (IHC) for mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression in patients with gastric cancer (GC). @*Materials and Methods@#In 5,676 GC cases, PCR-based MSI testing using five microsatellites (BAT-26, BAT-25, D5S346, D2S123, and D17S250) and IHC for MLH1 were performed. Reevaluation of MSI testing/MLH1 IHC and additional IHC for MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 were performed in discordant/indeterminate cases. @*Results@#Of the 5,676 cases, microsatellite stable (MSS)/MSI-low and intact MLH1 were observed in 5,082 cases (89.5%), whereas MSI-high (MSI-H) and loss of MLH1 expression were observed in 502 cases (8.8%). We re-evaluated the remaining 92 cases (1.6%) with a discordant/ indeterminate status. Re-evaluation showed 1) 37 concordant cases (0.7%) (18 and 19 cases of MSI-H/MMR-deficient (dMMR) and MSS/MMR-proficient (pMMR), respectively), 2) 6 discordant cases (0.1%) (3 cases each of MSI-H/pMMR and MSS/dMMR), 3) 14 MSI indeterminate cases (0.2%) (1 case of dMMR and 13 cases of pMMR), and 4) 35 IHC indeterminate cases (0.6%) (22 and 13 cases of MSI-H and MSS, respectively). Finally, MSI-H or dMMR was observed in 549 cases (9.7%), of which 47 (0.8%) were additionally confirmed as MSI-H or dMMR by reevaluation. Sensitivity was 99.3% for MSI testing and 95.4% for MMR IHC. @*Conclusions@#Considering the low incidence of MSI-H or dMMR, discordant/indeterminate results were occasionally identified in GCs, in which case complementary testing is required.These findings could help improve the accuracy of MSI/MMR testing in daily practice.

14.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 56-66, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967992

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study evaluated the effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol on brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the cerebrospinal fluid (c-BDNF) and mechanical allodynia in a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) rat model. @*Methods@#After fixing the rat’s skull on a stereotactic frame under general anesthesia, craniotomy was performed. After impact, 10 µl of drug was injected into the cisterna magna (group S: sham, group D: dexmedetomidine 5 μg/kg, group P: propofol 500 μg/kg, and group T: untreated TBI). The 50% mechanical withdrawal threshold (50% MWT) and c-BDNF level were measured on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 7, and 14. @*Results@#The 50% MWT measured on PODs 1, 7, and 14 was lower and the c-BDNF level on POD 1 was higher in group T than in group S. In group D, the c-BDNF level on POD 1 was lower than that in group T and was comparable with that in group S during the whole study period. The 50% MWT of group D was higher than that of group T throughout the postoperative period. In group P, there were no significant differences in the 50% MWT during the entire postoperative period compared with group T; the c-BDNF level was higher than that in group T on POD 1. @*Conclusions@#Intrathecal administration of dexmedetomidine may attenuate TBI-induced mechanical allodynia for up to two weeks post-injury through immediate suppression of c-BDNF in mild TBI rats. The inhibition of c-BDNF expression in the acute phase reduced the occurrence of TBI-induced chronic neuropathic pain.

15.
Intestinal Research ; : 3-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967001

ABSTRACT

The introduction of device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) in the beginning of 21st century has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the small intestine. In contrast to capsule endoscopy, the other main diagnostic modality of the small bowel diseases, DAE has the unique advantages of observing the region of interest in detail and enabling tissue acquisition and therapeutic intervention. As DAE becomes an essential procedure in daily clinical practice, there is an increasing need for correct guidelines on when and how to perform it and what technical factors should be considered. In response to these needs, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases developed an expert consensus statement on the performance of DAE by reviewing the current evidence. This expert consensus statement particularly focuses on the indications, choice of insertion route, therapeutic intervention, complications, and relevant technical points.

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 243-258, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966895

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The incidence and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) shows sex difference.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on GC survival depending on sex. @*Methods@#The sex, age, location, histology, TNM stages, BMI, and survival were analyzed in GC patients from May 2003 to February 2020 at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. @*Results@#Among 14,688 patients, there were twice as many males (66.6%) as females (33.4%).However, under age 40 years, females (8.6%) were more prevalent than males (3.1%). Cardia GC in males showed a U-shaped distribution for underweight (9.6%), normal (6.4%), overweight (6.1%), obesity (5.6%), and severe obesity (9.3%) but not in females (p=0.003). Females showed decreased proportion of diffuse-type GC regarding BMI (underweight [59.9%], normal [56.8%], overweight [49.5%], obesity [44.8%], and severe obesity [41.7%]), but males did not (p<0.001). Both sexes had the worst prognosis in the underweight group (p<0.001), and the higher BMI, the better prognosis in males, but not females. Sex differences in prognosis according to BMI tended to be more prominent in males than in females in subgroup analysis of TNM stages I, II, and III and the operative treatment group. @*Conclusions@#GC-specific survival was affected by BMI in a sex-dependent manner. These differences may be related to genetic, and environmental, hormonal factors; body composition; and muscle mass (Trial registration number: NCT04973631).

17.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 6-16, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939067

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Dietary factors can aggravate the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Many IBS patients try restrictive diets to relieve their symptoms, but the types of diets with an exacerbating factor are unknown. Therefore, this paper reports the results of a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) reviewing the efficacy of food restriction diets in IBS. @*Methods@#The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched until July 21, 2021, to retrieve RCTs assessing the efficacy of restriction diets in adults with IBS. Two independent reviewers performed the eligibility assessment and data abstraction. RCTs that evaluated a restriction diet versus a control diet and assessed the improvement in global IBS symptoms were included. These trials reported a dichotomous assessment of the overall response to therapy. @*Results@#A total of 1,949 citations were identified. After full-text screening, 14 RCTs were considered eligible for the systematic review and network meta-analysis. A starch- and sucrose-reduced diet and a diet with low-fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) showed significantly better results than a usual diet. Symptom flare-ups in patients on a gluten-free diet were also significantly lower than in those on high-gluten diets. @*Conclusions@#These findings showed that the starch- and sucrose-reduced, low FODMAP, and gluten-free diets had superior effects in reducing IBS symptoms. Further studies, including head-to-head trials will be needed to establish the effectiveness of dietary restrictions on IBS symptoms.

18.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 338-349, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938459

ABSTRACT

Background@#Microcirculatory disturbances are typically most severe during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), which occurs during cardiac surgeries. If microvascular reactivity compensates for microcirculatory disturbances during CPB, tissue hypoxemia can be minimized. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether microvascular reactivity during CPB could predict major adverse events (MAE) after cardiac surgery. @*Methods@#This prospective observational study included 115 patients who underwent elective on-pump cardiac surgeries. A vascular occlusion test (VOT) with near-infrared spectroscopy was performed five times for each patient: before the induction of general anesthesia, 30 min after the induction of general anesthesia, 30 min after applying CPB, 10 min after protamine injection, and post-sternal closure. The postoperative MAE was recorded. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve analysis was performed for the prediction of MAE using the recovery slope. @*Results@#Of the 109 patients, MAE occurred in 32 (29.4%). The AUROC curve for the recovery slope during CPB was 0.701 (P < 0.001; 95% CI [0.606, 0.785]). If the recovery slope during CPB was < 1.08%/s, MAE were predicted with a sensitivity of 62.5% and specificity of 72.7%. @*Conclusions@#Our study demonstrated that the recovery slope of the VOT during CPB could predict MAE after cardiac surgery. These results support the idea that disturbances in microcirculation induced by CPB can predict the development of poor clinical outcomes, thereby demonstrating the potential role of microvascular reactivity as an early predictor of MAE after cardiac surgery.

19.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 592-601, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938300

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated the clinical manifestations of, and risk factors for, infectious keratitis in patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). @*Methods@#A total of 11 patients who developed infectious keratitis after a diagnosis of ocular GVHD between January 2015 and December 2020, and 36 who did not (the control group), were included in this retrospective study. We recorded sex, age, any underlying disease, any other organ affected by systemic GVHD, systemic immunosuppressant use, follow-up duration, clinical manifestations, the severity of ocular GVHD prior to infection, the size of the epithelial defect, the depth of infiltration, hypopyon status, and the results of microbiological tests. Systemic and ocular indices (including systemic GVHD status) were compared using the chi-squared test. Risk factors for infection were identified. @*Results@#Of the corneal indices, the presence of corneal filaments, the extent of corneal neovascularization, and the number of corneal epithelial defects were significantly higher in the infected group (p = 0.023, p = 0.004, and p = 0.001, respectively). GVHD severity was also significantly higher in that group (p < 0.001). The presence of corneal filaments, corneal neovascularization, and corneal epithelial defects prior to infection correlated significantly with the risk of infection (p = 0.046, p = 0.010, and p = 0.003, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified corneal epithelial defects as a significant risk factor for infection (p = 0.029). @*Conclusions@#In patients with ocular GVHD, corneal epithelial defects, corneal neovascularization, and corneal filaments prior to infection were associated with the development of infection. In particular, corneal epithelial defects before infection was a significant risk factor for infection.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e228-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938060

ABSTRACT

Background@#Glucocorticoids are one of the current standard agents for moderate to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment based on the RECOVERY trial. Data on the real clinical application of steroids for COVID-19 are scarce and will help guide the optimal use of steroids. We described the current prescription pattern of steroids for COVID-19 and investigated the factors related to specific practices. @*Methods@#All adults aged ≥ 19 years who were diagnosed with COVID-19 by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and admitted to one of 3 study hospitals from 8 December 2020 to 30 June 2021 were enrolled. Demographic and clinical data, including medications and oxygen therapy, were retrospectively collected from electronic medical records. The severity of comorbidities and COVID-19 were measured. The subjects were divided into steroid and nonsteroid groups, and the steroid group was then subdivided into standard and higher/longer groups. @*Results@#Among a total of 805 patients, 217 (27.0%) were treated with steroids. The steroid group showed a higher rate of oxygen therapy (81.1% vs. 2.7%), more concomitant use of remdesivir (77.4% vs. 1.4%) or antibiotics (79.3% vs. 4.3%), and a higher proportion of high risk according to National Early Warning Score-2 score (30.0% vs. 0.9%) or severe risk according to National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Ordinal Scale score (81.1% vs. 2.7%) than the nonsteroid group. The mortality of the steroid group was 4.6%. In the steroid group, 82.5% received a standard or lower dose of steroids within ten days, and 17.5% (38/217) received a higher or longer dose of steroids. Multivariate analysis showed that initial lymphopenia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89–0.99) and high level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (aOR, 1.00; 95% CI, 1.00–1.01) were independent risk factors for higher doses or longer steroid use. @*Conclusion@#The dose and duration of steroids were in line with current guidelines in 82.5% of COVID-19 patients, but the outliers may need tailored therapy according to surrogate markers, such as initial lymphopenia or high level of LDH.

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