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1.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 537-546, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763774

ABSTRACT

Silent information regulator 2 (Sirtuin2 / SIRT2) is a NAD⁺-dependent deacetylase that regulates the cellular oxidative stress response. It modulates transcriptional silencing and protein stability through deacetylation of target proteins including histones. Previous studies have shown that SIRT2 plays a role in mood disorders and hippocampus-dependent cognitive function, but the underlying neurobiological mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we report that chronic stress suppresses SIRT2 expression in the hippocampus. Molecular and biochemical analyses indicate that the stress-induced decrease in the SIRT2 expression downregulates synaptic plasticity-related genes in the hippocampus through the increase of euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (Ehmt2) (also known as G9a). shRNA-mediated knockdown of SIRT2 in the dentate gyrus alters the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes in a way similar to those induced by chronic stress, and produces depression-like behaviors. Our results indicate that SIRT2 plays an important role in the response to stress, thereby modulating depression-like behaviors.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Dentate Gyrus , Depression , Down-Regulation , Hippocampus , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase , Histones , Mood Disorders , Neuronal Plasticity , Oxidative Stress , Protein Stability , Up-Regulation
2.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e455-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914301

ABSTRACT

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) affects mood and neuroplasticity in the brain, where its role is poorly understood. In the present study we investigated whether capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-trans-6-nonenamide), an agonist of TRPV1, induced chromatin remodeling and thereby altered gene expression related to synaptic plasticity. We found that capsaicin treatment resulted in upregulation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the mouse hippocampus and HDAC2 was enriched at Psd95, synaptophysin, GLUR1, GLUR2 promoters. Viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC2 induced expression of Synapsin I and prevented the detrimental effects of capsaicin on Synapsin I expression in mice, supporting the role of HDAC2 in regulation of capsaicin-induced Synapsin I expression. Taken together, our findings implicate HDAC2 in capsaicin-induced transcriptional regulation of synaptic molecules and support the view that HDAC2 is a molecular link between TRPV1 activity and synaptic plasticity.

3.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 155-162, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728626

ABSTRACT

3-(2-Carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant-like effects in animal models of depression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral actions remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CPP rapidly stimulates histone deacetylase (HDAC) 5 phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons. These effects are accompanied by calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) and protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylation. Behavioral experiments revealed that viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC5 blocked the antidepressant effects of CPP in stressed animals. Taken together, our results imply that CPP acts via HDAC5 and suggest that HDAC5 is a common regulator contributing to the antidepressant actions of NMDA receptor antagonists such as CPP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Depression , Hippocampus , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Models, Animal , N-Methylaspartate , Neurons , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases
4.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 451-458, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We examined the chemical composition and the effect of fermented deer antler on hematopoietic factors in bone marrow cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: For the preparation of fermented deer antler extract (FAB), fermentation was carried out using Bacillus subtilis at 30degrees C for 7 days. The hematopoietic effect of FAB was investigated hematopoietic factors in marrow cells. RESULTS: The contents of total sugar, sulfated glycosaminoglycans, and uronic acid and the dry weight gradually increased with fermentation time. The sialic acid content (from 0.14 mg/mL to 0.54 mg/mL) was the highest on the 4th day of fermentation after which it decreased. The proliferating activity of bone marrow cells increased with fermentation times. The levels of various hematopoietic growth factors were determined to verify the beneficial effect of deer antler extract fermented by B. subtilis on hematopoiesis. FAB increased the number of stem cell factors and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in bone marrow cells. In addition, FAB augmented the burst-forming unit erythroid and total colonies in splenocyte-conditioned medium compared with non-fermented antler extract (NFA). However, FAB did not affect the mRNA levels of erythropoietin, an important factor for erythropoiesis. CONCLUSIONS: FAB, like NFA, did not directly affect hematopoiesis, but contributed to hematopoiesis by stimulating the production of hematopoietic factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antlers , Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus , Bone Marrow Cells , Bone Marrow , Deer , Erythropoiesis , Erythropoietin , Fermentation , Glycosaminoglycans , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Hematopoiesis , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , RNA, Messenger , Stem Cell Factor
5.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 45-50, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165482

ABSTRACT

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a monoamine neurotransmitter, regulates neurological functions such as mood, sleep, and appetite. Erythropoietin (EPO) is well known for erythropoiesis but has recently emerged as a therapeutic agent in brain diseases. However, the mechanisms that induce EPO in the brain remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the effects of 5-HT involve EPO in murine hippocampal neurons. 5-HT produced a significant increase in neuronal differentiation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells. Expression of erythropoietin was increased in 5-HT-treated cells as well. The actions of 5-HT and EPO appeared to be similar in neurite outgrowth and spine formation. In addition, we show that hippocampal expression of EPO was decreased by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and that antidepressant treatment to maintain 5-HT concentration in synaptic cleft reversed this effect. In conclusion, actions of antidepressants might involve EPO induction in the brain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antidepressive Agents , Appetite , Brain , Brain Diseases , Depression , Erythropoiesis , Erythropoietin , Hippocampus , Neurites , Neurons , Neurotransmitter Agents , Serotonin , Spine , Stem Cells
6.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 281-285, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728308

ABSTRACT

A previous animal study has shown the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) and its non-erythropoietic carbamylated derivative (CEPO) on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effect of EPO on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and to compare the ability of EPO and CEPO promoting dendrite elongation in cultured hippocampal neural progenitor cells. Two-month-old male BALB/c mice were given daily injections of EPO (5 U/g) for seven days and were sacrificed 12 hours after the final injection. Proliferation assays demonstrated that EPO treatment increased the density of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) compared to that in vehicle-treated controls. Functional differentiation studies using dissociated hippocampal cultures revealed that EPO treatment also increased the number of double-labeled BrdU/microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) neurons compared to those in vehicle-treated controls. Both EPO and CEPO treatment significantly increased the length of neurites and spine density in MAP2(+) cells. In summary, these results provide evidences that EPO and CEPO promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. These suggest that EPO and CEPO could be a good candidate for treating neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety associated with neuronal atrophy and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Anxiety , Atrophy , Bromodeoxyuridine , Dendrites , Dentate Gyrus , Depression , Erythropoietin , Hippocampus , Neurites , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Spine , Stem Cells
7.
Korean Journal of Stroke ; : 43-45, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171308

ABSTRACT

The accessory middle cerebral artery (MCA) is an anomalous vessel which arises from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and runs through the Sylvian fissure along with the normal MCA. Here we present a case of acute cerebral infarction in a patient with stenosis of the accessory MCA. The accessory MCA, which originated from the proximal A1 segment of the ACA, had severe focal stenosis in its proximal part and the ischemic lesions were in the frontal subcortical white matter. This case illustrates the anomalous vessel and its territory, the atheromatous vascular change, and the related ischemic insults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Cerebral Infarction , Constriction, Pathologic , Glycosaminoglycans , Middle Cerebral Artery
8.
Korean Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery ; : 7-12, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: The aim of this study is to clarify the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic hepatectomy, through comparing the early and late periods of perioperative outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 138 patients who underwent laparoscopic hepatectomy from January 2003 to June 2011, at Yeungnam University Hospital. We divided the total patients to early period (from January 2003 to February 2007, n=49) and late period (from March 2007 to June 2011, n=89) groups and compared the perioperative outcomes including the mean operation time, intra-operative blood loss, postoperative hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and duration of liver function test (LFT) normalization. RESULTS: The mean operation time was 308 minutes (range: 140-510) in the early group and 193 minutes (range: 40-350) in the late period group (p<0.001). The mean intraoperative blood loss was 171 ml (range: 50-1,200) in the early and 44 ml (range: 0-400) in the late group (p=0.005). The postoperative hospital stay was 9.7 days (range: 4-31) in the early and 6.8 days (range: 2-9) in the late period (p<0.001). The ICU stay hour was 21.6 hours (range: 0-120) in the early and 2.8 hour (range: 0-24) in the late period (p<0.001). The duration of LFT normalization was 5.7 days (range: 0-39) in the early and 2.1 days (range: 0-20) in the late period (p=0.003). The perioperative outcomes in the late period were better than the early period, which showed a statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic hepatectomy is feasible and can be safely performed in selected patients but requires a long experience in open liver resection and mastery of laparoscopic surgical skills.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatectomy , Intensive Care Units , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Liver , Liver Function Tests , Postoperative Hemorrhage , Retrospective Studies
9.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 39-48, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27765

ABSTRACT

SRG3 (SWI3-related gene) is a core subunit of mouse SWI/SNF complex and is known to play a critical role in stabilizing the SWI/SNF complex by attenuating its proteasomal degradation. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is reported to act as an important endogenous regulator in the proliferation and differentiation of mammalian neural stem cells. Because limited expression of SRG3 occurs in the brain and thymus during mouse embryogenesis, it was hypothesized that the altered SRG3 expression level might affect the process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Due to the embryonic lethality of homozygous knockout mice, this study focuses on dissecting the effect of overexpressed SRG3 on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. The BrdU incorporation assay, immunostaing with neuronal markers for each differentiation stage, and imunoblotting analysis with intracellular molecules involved in survival in adult hippocampal neurogenesis found no alteration, suggesting that the overexpression of SRG3 protein in mature neurons had no effect on the entire process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis including proliferation, differentiation, and survival.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Pregnancy , Brain , Bromodeoxyuridine , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Embryonic Development , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Neural Stem Cells , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Thymus Gland
10.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 732-738, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106411

ABSTRACT

It has been shown that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-induced neuronal differentiation is extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent. However, an involvement of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK), an upstream kinase of ERK, has not been directly demonstrated in this process. Therefore, we investigated whether the MEK1 plays a critical role in the NCAM-induced neuronal differentiation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells (NPCs). NPCs were transiently transfected with expression plasmids encoding activated or dominant negative (DN) forms of MEK1. The expression of DN MEK1 inhibited neuronal phenotype acquisition and soluble NCAM rescued the defect in the neuronal phenotype acquisition in DN-MEK1-transfected cells, suggesting that NCAM might contribute to the neuronal differentiation via distinct, parallel pathways including the MEK pathway. In cells expressing wild type MEK1 or constitutively active MEK1 on the other hand, the percentage of cells positive for beta-tubulin type III (Tuj1), a marker for early postmitotic neurons, was higher than seen in vector-transfected cells. These results suggest that the activation of MEK1 is required for obtaining neuronal phenotype in NPCs.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Transfection , Stem Cells/cytology , Solubility , Phenotype , Neurons/cytology , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/pharmacology , Mutation/genetics , MAP Kinase Kinase 1/genetics , Hippocampus/cytology , Gene Expression Regulation , Cells, Cultured , Cell Differentiation
11.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 401-410, 2002.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76372

ABSTRACT

Rat hippocampal precursor cells isolated from hippocampi of embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5) rat embryos were found to proliferate in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor. Addition of soluble neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to these precursor cells reduced cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner and enhanced the induction of precursor cells' differentiation to the neuronal lineage. Given these findings that NCAM induces the differentiation of hippocampal precursor cells, we investigated possible effects of NCAM on the expression of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors during the differentiation. Soluble NCAM upregulated the transcription of bHLH transcription factors, neurogenin1 and NeuroD, but decreased HES5. Western blot analysis showed that NCAM increased the expression levels of CaMKII, p-MAPK, GluR1 and NR1 but decreased p-STAT3. These results support a role for NCAM in the inhibition of proliferation and the induction of neural differentiation of hippocampal neural precursor cells, and act as developmental regulators of the bHLH families, ultimately leading to the generation of glutamatergic neural cell types in the differentiation of hippocampal precursor cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Division/drug effects , Cell Lineage/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs , Hippocampus/cytology , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/pharmacology , Neurons/cytology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptors, Glutamate/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Stem Cells/cytology , Transcription Factors/genetics
12.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 90-94, 2002.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228522

ABSTRACT

Cocaine analogue, CFT (2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane) binding to dopamine transporter (DAT) in different species is quite heterogeneous. CFT is scarcely detected in bovine DAT whereas it is conspicuous in humans. To examine the structural basis for this functional discrepancy, we analyzed transporter chimeras of these two DATs. The CFT binding activities are avid in all of the chimeric DATs of which both of the 3rd and the 6-8th transmembrane domain (TM) are composed of human DAT sequences. On the contrary, CFT binding activities were scarcely detected if either or both of two regions are replaced with bovine sequences. These findings indicate that the CFT binding absolutely requires human DAT sequences, at least, in the regions encompassing the 3rd and 6-8th transmembrane domain (TM), and that these regions might contribute to form the 3-dimensional pocket for CFT binding.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Humans , Animals , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Cocaine/analogs & derivatives , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Tertiary
13.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 693-700, 1996.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antituberculous therapy is set a short-term therpy used isoniazid(INH), rifampin(RFP), ethambutol(EMB), pyrazinamide(PZA) from 1970s' and treatment rate has been very improved. But drug interruption or irregular medication due to side effects and resistance of drug are serious problem to retreatment cases, specially. Ofloxasine(OFX), developed from Quinolone at 1980's is effective not only other respiratory infectious disease but also pulmonary tube rculosis. And this is useful drug instead of injection agents for retreatment patients who have side effects to other drugs, lived far distance from medical clinics. So, we will evaluate theffectiveness as four oral drags involving OFX. METHOD: A retrospective study was made through the regular follow up of smear positive cases,who treated by four drag, namely, prothionamide (PTA) cycloserine(CS), OFX, paraminosalicylic acid(PAS). RESULTS: 1) Out of 66case with positive sputum AFB smear, 42(64%)cases achieved the negative conversion. 2) Considering the negative conversion in all group, 34 case (52%) of sputum conversion occured within first 6 months, on the extent of diease was minimal, moderate, far advavanced pulmonary tuberculosis, sputum AFB smear negative response to treatment was 100%, 78% , 46% respectively. 3) The roentgenological improvement occured in 38(58%), extent of diease was minimal, moderately, far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, Roentgenological improvement to retreatment was 75%, 64%, 46%. 4) When the duration of patients illness was less than 1 year, 1 to 3 years, 3 to 5 years and more than 5 years, sputum AFB smear negative response to retreatment was 100%, 88%, 80%, 52%. 5) On side effects, major problems are gastrointestinal troubles, mild liver function abnormality, psychotic problemes, and skin problem(urticaria, itching sensation). CONCLUSION: The duration & extents of patients illness was shorter & minimal, sputum AFB smear negative response rate was better. Radiologic response is better as shorter duration and minimal extent of diease. But, as diease is longer duration & far advanced, sputum negative conversion & Roentgenological improvement is poor and limited. The adverse reaction was mainly observed gastrointestinal troubles(indigestion, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) and are well controled by symptomatic management in most patients, as regard to tolerance to the secondary drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdominal Pain , Aminosalicylic Acid , Communicable Diseases , Cycloserine , Follow-Up Studies , Liver , Nausea , Prothionamide , Pruritus , Retreatment , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Sputum , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Vomiting
14.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 693-700, 1996.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antituberculous therapy is set a short-term therpy used isoniazid(INH), rifampin(RFP), ethambutol(EMB), pyrazinamide(PZA) from 1970s' and treatment rate has been very improved. But drug interruption or irregular medication due to side effects and resistance of drug are serious problem to retreatment cases, specially. Ofloxasine(OFX), developed from Quinolone at 1980's is effective not only other respiratory infectious disease but also pulmonary tube rculosis. And this is useful drug instead of injection agents for retreatment patients who have side effects to other drugs, lived far distance from medical clinics. So, we will evaluate theffectiveness as four oral drags involving OFX. METHOD: A retrospective study was made through the regular follow up of smear positive cases,who treated by four drag, namely, prothionamide (PTA) cycloserine(CS), OFX, paraminosalicylic acid(PAS). RESULTS: 1) Out of 66case with positive sputum AFB smear, 42(64%)cases achieved the negative conversion. 2) Considering the negative conversion in all group, 34 case (52%) of sputum conversion occured within first 6 months, on the extent of diease was minimal, moderate, far advavanced pulmonary tuberculosis, sputum AFB smear negative response to treatment was 100%, 78% , 46% respectively. 3) The roentgenological improvement occured in 38(58%), extent of diease was minimal, moderately, far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, Roentgenological improvement to retreatment was 75%, 64%, 46%. 4) When the duration of patients illness was less than 1 year, 1 to 3 years, 3 to 5 years and more than 5 years, sputum AFB smear negative response to retreatment was 100%, 88%, 80%, 52%. 5) On side effects, major problems are gastrointestinal troubles, mild liver function abnormality, psychotic problemes, and skin problem(urticaria, itching sensation). CONCLUSION: The duration & extents of patients illness was shorter & minimal, sputum AFB smear negative response rate was better. Radiologic response is better as shorter duration and minimal extent of diease. But, as diease is longer duration & far advanced, sputum negative conversion & Roentgenological improvement is poor and limited. The adverse reaction was mainly observed gastrointestinal troubles(indigestion, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) and are well controled by symptomatic management in most patients, as regard to tolerance to the secondary drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdominal Pain , Aminosalicylic Acid , Communicable Diseases , Cycloserine , Follow-Up Studies , Liver , Nausea , Prothionamide , Pruritus , Retreatment , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Sputum , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Vomiting
15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 455-461, 1988.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63588

ABSTRACT

The antiarrhythmic efficacy if low dose amiodarone treatment was studied in 30 cases of ventricular premature beats(VPBs). Amiodarone was administered 600mg daily in three divided doses for for initial 7-10 days as loadihg dosage,then 100-200mg once daily as maintenance. The results obtained were as follow : 1) The complete control of VPBs was achieved by amiodarone treatment in 90%, 27cases of 30 cases(all 11 cases with simple VPBs and 16 cases of the remainders with complex VPBs). 2) The QT interval and QTc were significantly prolonged, whereas heart rate was reduced significantly after amiodarone treatment. 3) In 27 cases of responder, the frequency of VPBs began to decrease overtly 2-3 days after amiodarone administration, then relatively stablized in 6 days, and complete cnotrol of VPBs was achieved in all cases about 10 days after treatment. 4) No significant side-reaction was observed except the decrease of serm T3 level after treatment.


Subject(s)
Amiodarone , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Heart Rate , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
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