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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 631-634, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833343

ABSTRACT

Thirteen patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) visited a university hospital in Seoul before recognizing their disease infections, causing contact with 184 hospital workers. We classified the patients into four risk levels and provided corresponding management measures. At 31 days after the last event, all screening laboratory results were negative, and no symptoms/signs were reported.

2.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 940-948, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833075

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Associations between blood lipids and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) have been reported in observational studies. However, due to confounding and reverse causation, observational studies are influenced by bias, thus their results show inconsistency in the effects of lipid levels on IHD. In this study, we evaluate whether lipid levels have an effect on the risk of IHD in a Korean population. @*Methods@#A 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study, using the genetic variants associated with lipid levels as the instrumental variables was performed. Genetic variants significantly associated with lipid concentrations were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n=35,000), and the same variants on IHD were obtained from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (n=13,855). Inverse variance weighting (IVW), weighted median, and MR-Egger approaches were used to assess the causal association between lipid levels and IHD. Radial MR methods were applied to remove outliers subject to pleiotropic bias. @*Results@#Causal association between low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and IHD was observed in the IVW method (odds ratio, 1.013; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–1.109).However, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) did not show causal association with IHD. In the Radial MR analysis of the relationship between HDL-C, TG and IHD, outliers were detected. Interestingly, after removing the outliers, a causal association between TG and IHD was found. @*Conclusions@#High levels LDL-C and TG were causally associated with increased IHD risk in a Korean population, these results are potentially useful as evidence of a significant causal relationship.

3.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 432-440, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Although dietary management is strongly recommended in patients with hypertension, little is known about how many manage their diet and follow the guidelines for hypertension. We investigated the prevalence of dietary management among adults with known hypertension and evaluated their compliance to the dietary guidelines.@*METHODS@#Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2016 were used. Among 15,870 adults aged 30–79 years, 4,162 reported a physician-diagnosed hypertension. Diet management behavior was defined by self-report response. Actual dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary quality was evaluated using the Korean Healthy Eating Index (KHEI).@*RESULTS@#Among adults with hypertension, 28.0% reported that they were managing their diet. Those with hypertension consumed significantly less dietary sodium (p value<0.01), but also less potassium (p value<0.01), resulting in no difference of sodium-to-potassium ratio compared to those without hypertension (p value=0.66). Among those with hypertension, diet-managing adults had better KHEI score (66.9, p value<0.01) and consumed less sodium (3,354.3 mg, p value<0.01) than not-managing adults (63.6 score and 3,554.5 mg, respectively). However, total KHEI score was rather lower in those with hypertension (p value<0.01) than those without hypertension and their sodium intake was still over the recommended amount.@*CONCLUSIONS@#More than two-thirds of Korean adults with hypertension did not manage their diet in daily life. More effective strategies are needed to increase the level of compliance with dietary recommendations for people with high blood pressure.

4.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 485-498, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833026

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#This study compared the potential impacts of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the 2018 Korean Society of Hypertension (KSH) guidelines on prevalence of hypertension, recommended antihypertensive treatment, and achievement of target blood pressure (BP) in Korean population. @*Methods@#We analyzed the 2007–2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to calculate guideline-specific hypertension prevalence and treatment implications on 59,767 adults aged 20 years or older by sex and age. @*Results@#The prevalence of hypertension was markedly higher 46.3% by the ACC/AHA guideline due to the lowered BP cutoff than 25.9% by the KSH guideline; the increase was most pronounced in young adults. Yet, there was only a marginal 1.6% increase in the percentage of adults suggested pharmacological approach by the ACC/AHA guideline, but selectively in the older subgroups. Overall, 45.6% of Korean adults treated for hypertension failed to meet BP goal according to the KSH guideline; the underachievement extended to 61.7% of participants according to the ACC/AHA guideline. @*Conclusions@#The lowered BP threshold, 130/80 mmHg, by the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline, in conjuncture with 10-year risk calculation largely driven by age, would increase pharmacological treatment preferentially in very old individuals, while increasing prevalence and uncontrolled rate mostly in younger subgroups. Adoption of lower BP cutoff to the KSH guideline would require validated cardiovascular disease risk assessment tools accounting for risk distributions specific to Korean population.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#We aim to explore the additional discriminative accuracy of a deep learning (DL) algorithm using repeated-measures data for identifying people at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to Cox hazard regression.@*METHODS@#Two CVD prediction models were developed from National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS): a Cox regression model and a DL model. Performance of each model was assessed in the internal and 2 external validation cohorts in Koreans (National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort; NHIS-NSC) and in Europeans (Rotterdam Study). A total of 412,030 adults in the NHIS-HEALS; 178,875 adults in the NHIS-NSC; and the 4,296 adults in Rotterdam Study were included.@*RESULTS@#Mean ages was 52 years (46% women) and there were 25,777 events (6.3%) in NHIS-HEALS during the follow-up. In internal validation, the DL approach demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.896 (95% confidence interval, 0.886–0.907) in men and 0.921 (0.908–0.934) in women and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (net reclassification index [NRI], 24.8% in men, 29.0% in women). In external validation with NHIS-NSC, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.868 (0.860–0.876) in men and 0.889 (0.876–0.898) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 24.9% in men, 26.2% in women). In external validation applied to the Rotterdam Study, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.860 (0.824–0.897) in men and 0.867 (0.830–0.903) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 36.9% in men, 31.8% in women).@*CONCLUSIONS@#A DL algorithm exhibited greater discriminative accuracy than Cox model approaches.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02931500

6.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 1077-1091, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832977

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control have been substantially improved in the last decades worldwide, but hypertension management in younger adults is still challenged. We analyzed a nationally representative sample of Korea to investigate factors affecting hypertension management among the young Korean population. @*Methods@#Among 8,024 young adults aged 30–49 years from the 2014–2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1,103 participants with hypertension were analyzed to identify factors associated with hypertension management status. Multiple logistic regression models were conducted separately by sex. @*Results@#Young adults with hypertension showed a low rate of awareness (35.8%), treatment (30.9%), and control (23.0%). The older age (40–49 years), obese (body mass index ≥25.0 kg/ m 2 ), having diabetes mellitus (DM), and having past-history of cardiovascular disease were positively associated with awareness, and taking health examination in the past 2 years were positively associated with both treatment and control of hypertension among male. Young females who were older (40–49 years), rural residents, unemployed, not taking sodium over the recommended amount, having dyslipidemia, and having DM showed a higher likelihood of awareness. Young females who have not experienced unmet medical needs in the past year were more likely to be treated or controlled with hypertension. @*Conclusions@#The factors associated with hypertension awareness, treatment, and control were different by sex and age group. Enhancing attention on hypertension among young hypertension and encouraging them to visit clinics would be key strategies to improve hypertension management among the young hypertensive population.

7.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 361-369, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Cigarette smoking has been reported to be associated with arterial stiffness. However, the clinical relevance of smoking cessation on arterial stiffness is debatable. Thus, we evaluated whether smoking cessation is associated with arterial stiffness.@*METHODS@#A total of 1,169 male participants aged 30–64 years with absence of cardiovascular diseases in 2013–2017 were selected from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort study. The subjects were classified into the following 5 groups based on self-reporting: non-smokers, former smokers (<1, 1 to <10, and ≥10, years after cessation), and current smokers. Arterial stiffness was assessed using the augmentation index (AIx). The radial artery AIx was obtained from the peripheral artery waveform. The association was explored cross-sectionally.@*RESULTS@#The AIx of former smokers did not differ from that of non-smokers (p=0.089). However, after former smokers were stratified by duration of smoking cessation, we noted a linear trend according to the smoking status (p<0.001). Men who quit smoking <1 year ago showed an elevated AIx (β=3.94, standard error=1.54, p=0.011) as much as ones of current smokers (β=4.39, standard error=0.74, p<0.001), while those who quit more than a decade ago showed an AIx similar to that of non-smokers (β=0.35, standard error=0.82, p=0.670) after controlling covariates.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A dose-response association between smoking cessation and AIx was revealed, which implies the possibility of a reversible effect of smoking cessation on arterial stiffness. Therefore, our findings may motivate current smokers to modify their smoking habits to delay or reverse disease progression.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832382

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence suggests that habitual snoring is an independent risk factor for poor glycemic health. We examined the associations between snoring with prediabetes and diabetes in Korean population. @*Methods@#Self-reported snoring characteristics were collected from 3,948 middle-aged adults without prior cardiovascular diseases. Multivariable linear regression assessed the association of snoring intensity, frequency, disruptiveness, and disrupted breathing with fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. Then, multinomial regression evaluated how increasing snoring symptoms are associated with the risk for prediabetes and diabetes, adjusting for socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors of diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and other sleep variables. @*Results@#Higher snoring intensity and frequency were positively associated with fasting glucose and HbA1c levels. Participants presenting the most severe snoring were at 1.84 times higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 2.29) for prediabetes and 2.24 times higher risk (95% CI, 1.84 to 2.95) for diabetes, compared to non-snorers. Such graded association was also observed amongst the most frequent snorers with higher risk for prediabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.78; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.22) and diabetes (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.45 to 2.85). Disruptive snoring (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.28) and near-daily disruptive breathing (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.02 to 4.19) were associated with higher odds for diabetes. Such findings remained robust after additional adjustment for sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, unwakefulness, and sleep-deprived driving. @*Conclusion@#Snoring is associated with impaired glucose metabolism even in otherwise metabolically healthy adults. Habitual snorers may require lifestyle modifications and pharmacological treatment to improve glycemic profile.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832380

ABSTRACT

Background@#Inflammatory cytokines are increasingly utilized to detect high-risk individuals for cardiometabolic diseases. However, with large population and assay methodological heterogeneity, no clear reference currently exists. @*Methods@#Among participants of the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort, of communitydwelling adults aged 30 to 64 without overt cardiovascular diseases, we presented distributions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and -β, interleukin (IL)-1α, -1β, and 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and -3 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with and without non-detectable (ND) measurements using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then, we compared each markers by sex, age, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, using the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test. @*Results@#In general, there were inconsistencies in direction and magnitude of differences in distributions by sex, age, and prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders. Overall, the median and the 99th percentiles were higher in men than in women. Older participants had higher TNF-α, high sensitivity IL-6 (hsIL-6), MCP-1, hsCRP, TNF-β, and MCP-3 median, after excluding the NDs.Participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus had higher median for all assayed biomarkers, except for TNF-β, IL-1α, and MCP-3, in which the medians for both groups were 0.00 due to predominant NDs. Compared to normotensive group, participants with hypertension had higher TNF-α, hsIL-6, MCP-1, and hsCRP median. When stratifying by dyslipidemia prevalence, the comparison varied significantly depending on the treatment of NDs. @*Conclusion@#Our findings provide sex-, age-, and disease-specific reference values to improve risk prediction and diagnostic performance for inflammatory diseases in both population- and clinic-based settings.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832361

ABSTRACT

Background@#We examined the associations between thigh muscle area (TMA) and insulin resistance (IR) according to body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged Korean general population. @*Methods@#TMA was measured using quantitative computed tomography and corrected by body weight (TMA/Wt) in 1,263 men, 788 premenopausal women, and 1,476 postmenopausal women all aged 30 to 64 years. The tertiles of TMA/Wt were calculated separately for men and for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was performed using fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and increased IR was defined according to sex-specific, top quartiles of HOMA-IR. Associations between the TMA/Wt tertiles and increased IR according to the BMI categories (<25 and ≥25 kg/m2 ) were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#In men with higher BMIs, but not in those with lower BMIs, the presence of an increased IR had significantly higher odds ratios in the lower TMA/Wt tertiles, even after adjustment for visceral fat area. However, in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, there was no significant inverse association between TMA/Wt tertiles and increased IR, regardless of BMI category. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that the thigh muscle is inversely associated with IR in men, particularly in those with higher BMIs.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831825

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Cigarette smoking and abnormal blood lipids are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of previous studies on the relationship between cigarette smoking and dyslipidemia are controversial. In the present study, we investigated the independent association between cigarette smoking and blood lipid levels in a male Korean population. @*Methods@#A total of 1,932 men aged from 30 to 64 years old participated in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort study. Smoking history was obtained by in-person interviews. In all regression models, measurements of triglyceride levels were log-transformed. @*Results@#Triglyceride levels were higher in current smokers than in never-smokers (median: 149 mg/dL vs. 115 mg/dL, p < 0.001) even after adjusting age, body mass index, alcohol intake, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, physical activity, and nutrition intake (β = 0.14, p < 0.001). We further divided people into heavy and light smokers using 20 pack-years as the cut-off. Higher triglyceride were found in current heavy smokers (β = 0.18, p < 0.001), current light smokers (β = 0.13, p < 0.001), as well as in past heavy smokers (β = 0.08, p = 0.037), as compared to never-smokers. Moreover, significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were observed in current heavy smokers (β = –2.27 mg/dL, p = 0.009). @*Conclusions@#Cigarette smoking is associated with higher triglyceride in Korean men, with the most dramatic effect seen in current smokers with a smoking history of more than 20 pack-years. HDL-C were also lower in current smokers with more than 20 pack-years.

12.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 432-440, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although dietary management is strongly recommended in patients with hypertension, little is known about how many manage their diet and follow the guidelines for hypertension. We investigated the prevalence of dietary management among adults with known hypertension and evaluated their compliance to the dietary guidelines.METHODS: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2016 were used. Among 15,870 adults aged 30–79 years, 4,162 reported a physician-diagnosed hypertension. Diet management behavior was defined by self-report response. Actual dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary quality was evaluated using the Korean Healthy Eating Index (KHEI).RESULTS: Among adults with hypertension, 28.0% reported that they were managing their diet. Those with hypertension consumed significantly less dietary sodium (p value<0.01), but also less potassium (p value<0.01), resulting in no difference of sodium-to-potassium ratio compared to those without hypertension (p value=0.66). Among those with hypertension, diet-managing adults had better KHEI score (66.9, p value<0.01) and consumed less sodium (3,354.3 mg, p value<0.01) than not-managing adults (63.6 score and 3,554.5 mg, respectively). However, total KHEI score was rather lower in those with hypertension (p value<0.01) than those without hypertension and their sodium intake was still over the recommended amount.CONCLUSIONS: More than two-thirds of Korean adults with hypertension did not manage their diet in daily life. More effective strategies are needed to increase the level of compliance with dietary recommendations for people with high blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Compliance , Diet Therapy , Diet , Eating , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Nutrition Policy , Nutrition Surveys , Potassium , Prevalence , Self Care , Sodium , Sodium, Dietary
13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1262-1272, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831146

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The epidemiology of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (BNHL) in Asia is not well described, and rates of second primary malignancies (SPM) in these patients are not known. We aimed to describe temporal changes in BNHL epidemiology and SPM incidence in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective cohort study used claims data from the National Health Insurance Service that provides universal healthcare coverage in Korea. Newly diagnosed patients aged at least 19 years with a confirmed diagnosis of one of six BNHL subtypes (diffuse large cell B-cell lymphoma [DLBCL], small lymphocytic and chronic lymphocytic [CLL/SLL], follicular lymphoma [FL], mantle cell lymphoma [MCL], marginal zone lymphoma [MZL], and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia [WM]) during the period 2006-2015 were enrolled and followed up until death, dis-enrolment, or study end, whichever occurred first. Patients with pre-existing primary cancers prior to the diagnosis of BNHL were excluded. @*Results@#A total of 19,500 patients with newly diagnosed BNHL were identified out of 27,866 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). DLBCL was the most frequently diagnosed subtype (41.9%-48.4% of NHL patients annually, 2011-2015). Standardized incidence of the six subtypes studied per 100,000 population increased from 5.74 in 2011 to 6.96 in 2015, with most increases in DLBCL, FL, and MZL. The incidence (95% confidence interval) of SPM per 100 person-years was 2.74 (2.26-3.29) for CLL/SLL, 2.43 (1.57-3.58) for MCL, 2.41 (2.10-2.76) for MZL, 2.23 (2.07-2.40) for DLBCL, 1.97 (1.61-2.38) for FL, and 1.41 (0.69-2.59) for WM. @*Conclusion@#BNHL has been increasingly diagnosed in Korea. High rates of SPM highlight the need for continued close monitoring to ensure early diagnosis and treatment.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the additional discriminative accuracy of a deep learning (DL) algorithm using repeated-measures data for identifying people at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to Cox hazard regression.METHODS: Two CVD prediction models were developed from National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS): a Cox regression model and a DL model. Performance of each model was assessed in the internal and 2 external validation cohorts in Koreans (National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort; NHIS-NSC) and in Europeans (Rotterdam Study). A total of 412,030 adults in the NHIS-HEALS; 178,875 adults in the NHIS-NSC; and the 4,296 adults in Rotterdam Study were included.RESULTS: Mean ages was 52 years (46% women) and there were 25,777 events (6.3%) in NHIS-HEALS during the follow-up. In internal validation, the DL approach demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.896 (95% confidence interval, 0.886–0.907) in men and 0.921 (0.908–0.934) in women and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (net reclassification index [NRI], 24.8% in men, 29.0% in women). In external validation with NHIS-NSC, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.868 (0.860–0.876) in men and 0.889 (0.876–0.898) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 24.9% in men, 26.2% in women). In external validation applied to the Rotterdam Study, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.860 (0.824–0.897) in men and 0.867 (0.830–0.903) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 36.9% in men, 31.8% in women).CONCLUSIONS: A DL algorithm exhibited greater discriminative accuracy than Cox model approaches.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02931500


Subject(s)
Adult , Artificial Intelligence , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insurance, Health , Learning , Male , Mass Screening , National Health Programs
15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 361-369, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking has been reported to be associated with arterial stiffness. However, the clinical relevance of smoking cessation on arterial stiffness is debatable. Thus, we evaluated whether smoking cessation is associated with arterial stiffness.METHODS: A total of 1,169 male participants aged 30–64 years with absence of cardiovascular diseases in 2013–2017 were selected from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort study. The subjects were classified into the following 5 groups based on self-reporting: non-smokers, former smokers (<1, 1 to <10, and ≥10, years after cessation), and current smokers. Arterial stiffness was assessed using the augmentation index (AIx). The radial artery AIx was obtained from the peripheral artery waveform. The association was explored cross-sectionally.RESULTS: The AIx of former smokers did not differ from that of non-smokers (p=0.089). However, after former smokers were stratified by duration of smoking cessation, we noted a linear trend according to the smoking status (p<0.001). Men who quit smoking <1 year ago showed an elevated AIx (β=3.94, standard error=1.54, p=0.011) as much as ones of current smokers (β=4.39, standard error=0.74, p<0.001), while those who quit more than a decade ago showed an AIx similar to that of non-smokers (β=0.35, standard error=0.82, p=0.670) after controlling covariates.CONCLUSIONS: A dose-response association between smoking cessation and AIx was revealed, which implies the possibility of a reversible effect of smoking cessation on arterial stiffness. Therefore, our findings may motivate current smokers to modify their smoking habits to delay or reverse disease progression.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Metabolic Diseases , Radial Artery , Smoke , Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Vascular Stiffness
16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834589

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#We compared the associations of 3 computed tomography (CT)-based abdominal adiposity indexes with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among middle-aged Korean men and women. @*Methods@#The participants were 1366 men and 2480 women community-dwellers aged 30-64 years. Three abdominal adiposity indexes—visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR)—were calculated from abdominal CT scans. NAFLD was determined by calculating the Liver Fat Score from comorbidities and blood tests. An NAFLD prediction model that included waist circumference (WC) as a measure of abdominal adiposity was designated as the base model, to which VFA, SFA, and VSR were added in turn. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and net reclassification improvement (NRI) were calculated to quantify the additional predictive value of VFA, SFA, and VSR relative to WC. @*Results@#VFA and VSR were positively associated with NAFLD in both genders. SFA was not significantly associated with NAFLD in men, but it was negatively associated in women. When VFA, SFA, and VSR were added to the WC-based NAFLD prediction model, the AUC improved by 0.013 (p<0.001), 0.001 (p=0.434), and 0.009 (p=0.007) in men and by 0.044 (p<0.001), 0.017 (p<0.001), and 0.046 (p<0.001) in women, respectively. The IDI and NRI were increased the most by VFA in men and VSR in women. @*Conclusions@#Using CT-based abdominal adiposity indexes in addition to WC may improve the detection of NAFLD. The best predictive indicators were VFA in men and VSR in women.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i) as add-on medications to metformin on progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, compared with sulfonylurea (SU) or thiazolidinedione (TZD). METHODS: We identified 4,447 patients with DPP4i, 6,136 with SU, and 617 with TZD in addition to metformin therapy from the database of Korean National Health Insurance Service between January 2013 and December 2015. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for DR progression. The progression of DR was defined by the procedure code of panretinal photocoagulation, intravitreal injection or vitrectomy; or the addition of diagnostic code of vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, or neovascular glaucoma. RESULTS: The age and sex-adjusted HR of DR progression was 0.74 for DPP4i add-on group compared with SU add-on group (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.89). This lower risk of DR progression remained significant after additional adjustments for comorbidities, duration of metformin therapy, intravitreal injections and calendar index year (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.97). CONCLUSION: This population-based cohort study showed that the use of DPP4i as add-on therapy to metformin did not increase the risk of DR progression compared to SU.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Glaucoma, Neovascular , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Intravitreal Injections , Light Coagulation , Metformin , National Health Programs , Retinal Detachment , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Hemorrhage
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between changes in anthropometric indices and fasting insulin levels among healthy adolescents and whether the association differed by baseline obesity status. METHODS: This analysis was based on data collected for the JS High School study; 884 healthy adolescents aged 15 to 16 years followed up for 24 to 30 months were included. Changes in anthropometric indices and fasting insulin levels were computed as the difference between baseline and follow-up values. Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the association between changes in anthropometric indices and fasting insulin levels. Based on body mass index (BMI)-for-age and waist circumference (WC)-for-age percentiles, participants were classified as normal weight (<85th percentile), overweight (85th percentile to <95th percentile), or obese (≥95th percentile). RESULTS: Changes in BMI, WC, waist-hip ratio, and waist-height ratio were significantly associated with changes in fasting insulin levels in both sexes (P<0.05). In analyses stratified by baseline obesity status, the association between change in BMI and change in fasting insulin was significantly stronger in overweight (males: standardized β=1.136; females: standardized β=1.262) and obese (males: standardized β=1.817; females: standardized β=2.290) participants than in those with normal weight (males: standardized β=0.957; females: standardized β=0.976) at baseline. Results were similar for changes in WC. CONCLUSION: Changes in anthropometric indices were positively associated with fasting insulin level increases. Moreover, those who were overweight or obese at baseline had a higher absolute increase in fasting insulin levels per one standard deviation unit increase in anthropometric indices than adolescents with normal weight.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Fasting , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insulin , Linear Models , Obesity , Overweight , Waist Circumference , Waist-Height Ratio , Waist-Hip Ratio
20.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 267-277, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the right-left arm difference in detection of hypertension in the general Korean population. METHODS: This study analyzed data from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort. Study population was 2,103 people who were aged 30 to 64 years old, without history of major cardiovascular diseases, and did not use antihypertensive medication. Brachial blood pressures (BPs) were measured for both arms using an automated oscillometric device equipped with 2 cuffs for simultaneous double-arm measurements. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP) were measured 3 times, and the average value was used in the analysis. Overall hypertension was defined as elevated blood pressure (SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mmHg) at the arm with higher value, while right-arm or left-arm hypertension was defined as elevated BP at each arm. Sensitivity was calculated as the number of each-arm hypertension divided by the number of overall hypertension. RESULTS: Overall 8.6% of the population had hypertension at either arm, while 7.8% had right-arm hypertension, 7.2% had left-arm hypertension, and 6.4% had both arms hypertension. The sensitivity for the detection of hypertension was 90.6% when BP was measured only at right arm, and 83.4% when measured only at left arm. Corresponding sensitivity were 87.9% and 87.1% in men, and 95.4% and 76.9% in women. CONCLUSIONS: Single-arm measurements, compared to double-arm measurements, may underestimate the prevalence of hypertension. However, if double-arm measurements are unavailable, right arm is preferred for measurement of BP, especially in women.


Subject(s)
Arm , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Metabolic Diseases , Prevalence
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