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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917394

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#There is growing evidence supporting the association between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and metabolic disease risk. However, little is known about the association between UPF consumption and blood pressure (BP). Thus, this study examined the association between UPF consumption and elevated BP in Korean adults. @*Methods@#This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016–2018) and included 9,188 participants aged 30–79 years without a history of hypertension diagnosis. Food items reported in a one-day 24-hour recall were categorized on the basis of the NOVA (not an acronym) food classification criteria. UPF consumption was estimated as the contribution to total energy intake. Elevated BP was defined as systolic BP ≥120 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥80 mmHg. The independent association between UPF consumption and elevated BP was assessed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The upper tertile of UPF consumption was significantly associated with elevated BP compared with the lower tertile, after adjusting for potential confounders. A linear trend was observed for elevated BP across the tertiles of the dietary energy contribution of UPF. Similar results were found in stratified analyses by age group, smoking, obesity, and overall dietary quality. However, a marginal level of association was found in some subgroups, current smokers, and non-obese adults. @*Conclusions@#The dietary energy contribution of UPF consumption was positively associated with increased prevalence of elevated BP, and these findings suggest that lowering UPF consumption might help prevent BP elevation.

2.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2022013-2022.
Article in 0 | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study examined socioeconomic inequalities in compliance with precautions and health behavior changes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak using a representative Korean sample. @*METHODS@#This exploratory study utilized around 210,000 participants aged ≥25 years in the Korean Community Health Survey 2020. Socioeconomic status was measured with educational attainment and household income. Outcomes included non-compliance with 8 precaution measures and deterioration in 6 health behaviors. The relative inequality index (RII) was calculated to quantify the degree of inequality by education and income level. RII values >1.0 indicate that deprived people have a higher frequency of health problems, and RII values <1.0 conversely indicate a higher frequency of health problems in more advantaged groups. @*RESULTS@#People with lower education or income levels tended to have higher rates of non-compliance with COVID-19 safety precautions (RII range, 1.20 to 3.05). Lower education and income levels were associated with an increased smoking amount (RII=2.10 and 1.67, respectively) and sleep duration changes (RII=1.21 and 1.36, respectively). On the contrary, higher education and income levels were associated with decreased physical activity (RII=0.59 and 0.77, respectively) and increased delivery food consumption (RII=0.27 and 0.37, respectively). However, increased alcohol drinking was associated with lower education and income levels in younger men (RII=1.73 and 1.31, respectively), but with higher levels in younger women (RII=0.73 and 0.68, respectively). @*CONCLUSIONS@#Our findings suggest the need to develop customized strategies, considering the characteristics of the target population, to decrease the burden and impact of the COVID-19 outbreak.

3.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2022041-2022.
Article in 0 | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937550

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#We investigated trends in obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Korean adult population. @*METHODS@#Data from 60,098 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2011 and 2020 aged ≥19 were used. The age-standardized prevalence and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated for obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2), hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or under treatment), diabetes (hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, or under treatment), and hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or under treatment). @*RESULTS@#Over the past decade (2011-2020), the age-standardized APCs (95% confidence intervals) for obesity, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia were 3.0% (2.1 to 3.8), 0.1% (-1.3 to 1.5), 1.5% (-1.0 to 4.0) and 8.0% (5.7 to 10.3), respectively, in men; and -0.2% (-1.5 to 1.2), -0.5% (-1.9 to 0.9), -0.1% (-2.3 to 2.2) and 5.9% (3.9 to 8.0), respectively, in women. In 2020 compared to the previous 3 years (2017-2019), obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia increased in men (6.0, 1.8, 1.9, and 2.8%p, respectively), but an increase was not apparent in women (2.5, -1.1, 0.8, and 0.7%p, respectively). @*CONCLUSIONS@#An increase in major chronic diseases was observed in Korean adults, especially men, during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the future, effective intervention strategies need to be developed according to the characteristics of the target groups.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 470-479, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927165

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Access block due to the lack of hospital beds causes crowding of emergency departments (ED). We initiated the “boarding restriction protocol” that limits the time of stay in the ED for patients awaiting hospitalization to 24 hours from arrival. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the boarding restriction protocol on ED crowding. @*Materials and Methods@#The primary outcome was ED occupancy rate, which was calculated as the ratio of the number of occupying patients to the total number of ED beds. Time factors, such as length of stay (LOS), treatment time, and boarding time, were investigated. @*Results@#The mean of the ED occupancy rate decreased from 1.532±0.432 prior to implementation of the protocol to 1.273±0.353 after (p<0.001). According to time series analysis, the absolute effect caused by the protocol was -0.189 (-0.277 to -0.110) (p=0.001). The proportion of patients with LOS exceeding 24 hours decreased from 7.6% to 4.0% (p<0.001). Among admitted patients, ED LOS decreased from 770.7 (421.4–1587.1) minutes to 630.2 (398.0–1156.8) minutes (p<0.001); treatment time increased from 319.6 (198.5–482.8) minutes to 344.7 (213.4–519.5) minutes (p<0.001); and boarding time decreased from 298.9 (109.5–1149.0) minutes to 204.1 (98.7–545.7) minutes (p<0.001). In pre-protocol period, boarding patients accumulated in the ED during the weekdays and resolved on Friday, but this pattern was alleviated in post-period. @*Conclusion@#The boarding restriction protocol was effective in alleviating ED crowding by reducing the accumulation of boarding patients in the ED during the weekdays

5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 382-392, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926538

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#As the Korean population ages fast, it is estimated that the people with hypertension, especially female patients, will increase rapidly. However, there are few data comparing the size of female and male hypertensive patients in the Korean population. Thus we assessed sex-specific trends in the prevalence and the number of people with hypertension. @*Methods@#We analyzed data for 128,949 adults aged ≥20 years with valid blood pressure measurements from the 1998 to 2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The prevalence and the absolute number of hypertension were estimated with taking into the sampling weights separately for women and men. @*Results@#Overall prevalence of hypertension is higher in men than in women. But, in older adults, women show higher prevalence and the number of people with hypertension. Between 1998 and 2018, prevalence of hypertension increased from 61.8% to 65.9% in elderly (age 65+) women, and from 49.0% to 59.4% in elderly men. During the same period, the number of elderly women with hypertension increased from 1.18 to 2.70 million, while the number of elderly men with hypertension increased from 0.57 to 1.78 million. Among hypertensive patients, undiagnosed hypertension and diagnosed-but-untreated hypertension were more common in men, while treated-but-uncontrolled hypertension were more common in women. @*Conclusion@#The fast-growing number of elderly women with hypertension will be an important public health challenge for the Korean society to solve in order to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease.

6.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 460-474, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926523

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#This study aimed to investigate the association between cardiovascular events and 2 different levels of elevated on-treatment diastolic blood pressures (DBP) in the presence of achieved systolic blood pressure targets (SBP). @*Methods@#A nation-wide population-based cohort study comprised 237,592 patients with hypertension treated. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Elevated DBP was defined according to the Seventh Report of Joint National Committee (JNC7; SBP <140 mmHg, DBP ≥90 mmHg) or to the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) definitions (SBP <130 mmHg, DBP ≥80 mmHg). @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 9 years, elevated on-treatment DBP by the JNC7 definition was associated with an increased risk of the occurrence of primary endpoint compared with achieved both SBP and DBP (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.24) but not in those by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition. Elevated ontreatment DBP by the JNC7 definition was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (aHR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18–1.70) and stroke (aHR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08–1.30). Elevated on-treatment DBP by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition was only associated with stroke (aHR, 1.10;95% CI, 1.04–1.16). Similar results were seen in the propensity-score-matched cohort. @*Conclusion@#Elevated on-treatment DBP by the JNC7 definition was associated a high risk of major cardiovascular events, while elevated DBP by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition was only associated with a higher risk of stroke. The result of study can provide evidence of DBP targets in subjects who achieved SBP targets.

7.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 495-503, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893922

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. To provide an overview of the temporal trends in the burden of CVD, the Korean Society of Cardiology has published the Korea Heart Disease Fact Sheet in 2020. @*Methods@#We analyzed anonymized data of the Causes of Death Statistics, National Health Insurance Claims Database, and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess mortality, hospitalizations, and risk factors for CVD. @*Results@#The CVD mortality decreased until 2010, then steadily increased up to 123 per 100,000 persons in 2018. Since 2002, the number and rate of CVD hospitalization have continued to grow. In 2018, approximately 12.1 million Korean adults had hypertension, 4.3 million had diabetes, 8.7 million had hypercholesterolemia, 14.9 million had obesity, and 8.8 million were currently smoking. The number of risk factors increased markedly with older age; 58.4% of adults age ≥70 years had ≥2 risk factors. @*Conclusions@#CVD mortality and hospitalization have gradually increased in the last decade, and a substantially high proportion of adults were carrying more than 1 cardiovascular risk factor in 2018. With the rapid population aging, a continued increase in CVD appears inevitable in Korea. Concerted and sustained approaches are essential to achieve early prevention and reduce the burden of CVD.

8.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 610-622, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893914

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of routine hypertension (HTN) screening as a part of the national health-screening program. @*Methods@#Two aspects of cost-effectiveness were examined using the national general healthscreening program. First, the cost of case-finding was computed for 5-year interval age groups. Second, the cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained were estimated for 12 different scenarios varying examination starting age, pattern and interval compared with no screening. @*Results@#The cost of finding one new HTN case was low as 26,284 Korean won (KRW) (approximately [approx.] United States Dollar 21) for 70–79 years old to as high as 70,552 KRW for 40–44 years old. Compared with no screening, the costs per QALYs of the following screening strategies were below the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio threshold (approx.KRW 30.5 million): first screening examination with the second confirmatory examination in adults aged ≥40 years every 3 years (KRW 10.2 million), every 2 years (KRW 13.2 million), or annually (KRW 19.9 million). One-way sensitivity analyses suggest that the results were mostly influenced by the sensitivity of the first screening examination, followed by the examination rate of the second confirmatory examination. @*Conclusions@#HTN screening as a part of routine national health screening program was cost-effective for adults aged 40 years or older. The most cost-effective HTN screening strategy was the first screening examination with the second confirmatory examination in aged 40 years or older every 3 years.

9.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 643-655, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893887

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and a major contributor to disability worldwide. Since the majority of cardiovascular events are preventable, identification of modifiable CVD risk factors and implementation of primordial prevention strategies should be a public health priority. In this aspect, the American Heart Association declared a strategic goal to reduce total CVD mortality in the US by 20% within 10 years via eliminating 7 major CVD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, and poor-quality diet) in 2010, and their strategy has been achieving. However, the applicability of similar metrics to prevent CVD among East Asians requires an in-depth investigation of the modifiable CVD risk factors based on national and regional evidence-based findings. Herein, this review article aims to discuss several modifiable risk factors for CVDs, using epidemiological evidence from cohort studies and nationally representative data of 2 East Asian countries: Korea and Japan.

10.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 320-332, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893877

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Understanding the trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is important for developing burden reduction strategies. Based on the Cause of Death Statistics, we examined the changing patterns of CVD mortality in Korea between 1983 and 2018. @*Methods@#Causes of death were coded according to the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision. Deaths from all diseases of circulatory system (I00-I99) and the following 6 subcategories were analyzed: total heart diseases (I00-I13 and I20-I51), hypertensive heart diseases (I10-I13), ischemic heart diseases (I20-I25), myocardial infarction (I21-I23), heart failure (I50), and cerebrovascular diseases (I60-I69). Crude, age-standardized, and age-stratified rates were calculated to assess temporal trends in CVD mortality. @*Results@#The number of deaths and crude mortality rate for all diseases of circulatory system increased recently mainly due to the population ageing. Specifically, total heart diseases showed increasing trend, whereas cerebrovascular diseases showed decreasing trend. Between 1983 and 2018, age-standardized mortality rates significantly declined for all diseases of circulatory system, total heart diseases, hypertensive heart diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases. Age-standardized mortality rates for ischemic heart diseases and myocardial infarction peaked in the early 2000s then decreased thereafter. However, agestandardized mortality rate for heart failure rapidly increased, especially in recent years. @*Conclusions@#CVD mortality in Korea has remarkably decreased over the last 36 years.However, the recent rise in the absolute number of deaths from heart diseases, especially from heart failure, calls for attention in prevention and management of CVD and its sequelae.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892839

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Low bone density (LBD) in the postmenopausal period has long been a pervasive public health concern; however, the association between parity and LBD has yet to be fully elucidated. Thus, we investigated the association between parity and LBD in postmenopausal Korean women. @*Methods@#This study used baseline data from 1287 Korean postmenopausal women aged 40 years or older enrolled in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center community-based cohort study conducted in Korea from 2013 to 2017. The main exposure was parity (nullipara, 1, 2, 3+). The main outcome was LBD, including osteopenia and osteoporosis, based on bone mineral density measured using quantitative computed tomography of the lumbar spine (L1-2). @*Results@#The mean age of participants was 57.1 years, and the median parity was 2. Of the 1287 participants, 594 (46.2%) had osteopenia and 147 (11.4%) had osteoporosis. No significant difference in the prevalence of LBD was found between nullipara and parous women, whereas higher parity was associated with a higher risk of LBD among parous women; the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the presence of LBD was 1.40 (0.97 to 2.02) for a parity of 2 and 1.95 (1.23 to 3.09) for a parity of 3 relative to a parity of 1. @*Conclusions@#Women who have given birth multiple times may be at greater risk of bone loss after menopause; therefore, they should be a major target population for osteoporosis prevention.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892551

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis (KSoLA) has published the Dyslipidemia Fact Sheets in Korea 2020 to provide an overview of magnitude and management status of dyslipidemia and their recent trends therein. @*Methods@#The Fact Sheets were based on the analyses of Korean adults aged 20 years or older of the 2007–2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the 2002–2018 National Health Insurance Big Data (NHI-BD). @*Results@#Between 2007 and 2018, the crude prevalence of hypercholesterolemia increased from 9.0% to 20.7%. During the same period, its management rate also improved yet remained unsatisfactory. In 2018, the prevalence of dyslipidemia was 45.6% in men and 31.3% in women, which increased with older age and presence of metabolic abnormalities.Indeed, the number of people diagnosed with dyslipidemia has increased nearly 8-fold from 1.5 million in 2002 to 11.6 million in 2018; alongside, the number of people receiving pharmacological treatment for dyslipidemia has also risen. Of the 7.7 million people treated for dyslipidemia in 2018, statin accounted for the majority (91.8%) of lipid-lowering drug prescriptions, followed by ezetimibe (14.6%), fibrate (8.5%), and omega-3 acid (5.9%). The most frequently used combination therapy was statin plus ezetimibe, accounting for 72% of dual therapy prescriptions. @*Conclusion@#Dyslipidemia continues to impose a substantial disease burden in Korea. Both healthcare practitioners and patients need to actively adopt guideline-recommended lifestyle modification and pharmacological treatment for comprehensive, timely, and sustained management.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891829

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#With the surge in the elderly population, a growing interest in the prevention and treatment of geriatric diseases has been observed, along with awareness of the severity of problems associated with dementia, a cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between chewing ability and cognitive function among elderly people residing in a rural area. @*Methods@#A total of 162 elderly individuals, aged between 65 and 97 years, were surveyed. Trained examiners conducted interviews and assessments of chewing ability, on the basis of the number of remaining teeth, denture status, masticatory performance evaluating gum, ShadeEye-NCC measuring overall change in color of the gum (ΔE), and T-Scan® III analyzing distribution of occlusion patterns. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination-Dementia Screening (MMSE-DS) tool. @*Results@#Participants with a low score in the MMSE-DS were found to have distinguishably lower denture need, smaller number of remaining teeth, and lesser color change in the masticatory performance evaluating gum. In the cognitive impairment group, a tendency of having unilateral and anterior occlusion led to occlusal discomfort and chewing difficulties. @*Conclusions@#The study highlights important associations between chewing ability and cognitive function. The finding corroborates that tooth loss may be a predictive risk factor for cognitive impairment.

14.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 495-503, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901626

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. To provide an overview of the temporal trends in the burden of CVD, the Korean Society of Cardiology has published the Korea Heart Disease Fact Sheet in 2020. @*Methods@#We analyzed anonymized data of the Causes of Death Statistics, National Health Insurance Claims Database, and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess mortality, hospitalizations, and risk factors for CVD. @*Results@#The CVD mortality decreased until 2010, then steadily increased up to 123 per 100,000 persons in 2018. Since 2002, the number and rate of CVD hospitalization have continued to grow. In 2018, approximately 12.1 million Korean adults had hypertension, 4.3 million had diabetes, 8.7 million had hypercholesterolemia, 14.9 million had obesity, and 8.8 million were currently smoking. The number of risk factors increased markedly with older age; 58.4% of adults age ≥70 years had ≥2 risk factors. @*Conclusions@#CVD mortality and hospitalization have gradually increased in the last decade, and a substantially high proportion of adults were carrying more than 1 cardiovascular risk factor in 2018. With the rapid population aging, a continued increase in CVD appears inevitable in Korea. Concerted and sustained approaches are essential to achieve early prevention and reduce the burden of CVD.

15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 610-622, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901618

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of routine hypertension (HTN) screening as a part of the national health-screening program. @*Methods@#Two aspects of cost-effectiveness were examined using the national general healthscreening program. First, the cost of case-finding was computed for 5-year interval age groups. Second, the cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained were estimated for 12 different scenarios varying examination starting age, pattern and interval compared with no screening. @*Results@#The cost of finding one new HTN case was low as 26,284 Korean won (KRW) (approximately [approx.] United States Dollar 21) for 70–79 years old to as high as 70,552 KRW for 40–44 years old. Compared with no screening, the costs per QALYs of the following screening strategies were below the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio threshold (approx.KRW 30.5 million): first screening examination with the second confirmatory examination in adults aged ≥40 years every 3 years (KRW 10.2 million), every 2 years (KRW 13.2 million), or annually (KRW 19.9 million). One-way sensitivity analyses suggest that the results were mostly influenced by the sensitivity of the first screening examination, followed by the examination rate of the second confirmatory examination. @*Conclusions@#HTN screening as a part of routine national health screening program was cost-effective for adults aged 40 years or older. The most cost-effective HTN screening strategy was the first screening examination with the second confirmatory examination in aged 40 years or older every 3 years.

16.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 643-655, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901591

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and a major contributor to disability worldwide. Since the majority of cardiovascular events are preventable, identification of modifiable CVD risk factors and implementation of primordial prevention strategies should be a public health priority. In this aspect, the American Heart Association declared a strategic goal to reduce total CVD mortality in the US by 20% within 10 years via eliminating 7 major CVD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, and poor-quality diet) in 2010, and their strategy has been achieving. However, the applicability of similar metrics to prevent CVD among East Asians requires an in-depth investigation of the modifiable CVD risk factors based on national and regional evidence-based findings. Herein, this review article aims to discuss several modifiable risk factors for CVDs, using epidemiological evidence from cohort studies and nationally representative data of 2 East Asian countries: Korea and Japan.

17.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 320-332, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901581

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Understanding the trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is important for developing burden reduction strategies. Based on the Cause of Death Statistics, we examined the changing patterns of CVD mortality in Korea between 1983 and 2018. @*Methods@#Causes of death were coded according to the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision. Deaths from all diseases of circulatory system (I00-I99) and the following 6 subcategories were analyzed: total heart diseases (I00-I13 and I20-I51), hypertensive heart diseases (I10-I13), ischemic heart diseases (I20-I25), myocardial infarction (I21-I23), heart failure (I50), and cerebrovascular diseases (I60-I69). Crude, age-standardized, and age-stratified rates were calculated to assess temporal trends in CVD mortality. @*Results@#The number of deaths and crude mortality rate for all diseases of circulatory system increased recently mainly due to the population ageing. Specifically, total heart diseases showed increasing trend, whereas cerebrovascular diseases showed decreasing trend. Between 1983 and 2018, age-standardized mortality rates significantly declined for all diseases of circulatory system, total heart diseases, hypertensive heart diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases. Age-standardized mortality rates for ischemic heart diseases and myocardial infarction peaked in the early 2000s then decreased thereafter. However, agestandardized mortality rate for heart failure rapidly increased, especially in recent years. @*Conclusions@#CVD mortality in Korea has remarkably decreased over the last 36 years.However, the recent rise in the absolute number of deaths from heart diseases, especially from heart failure, calls for attention in prevention and management of CVD and its sequelae.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900543

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Low bone density (LBD) in the postmenopausal period has long been a pervasive public health concern; however, the association between parity and LBD has yet to be fully elucidated. Thus, we investigated the association between parity and LBD in postmenopausal Korean women. @*Methods@#This study used baseline data from 1287 Korean postmenopausal women aged 40 years or older enrolled in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center community-based cohort study conducted in Korea from 2013 to 2017. The main exposure was parity (nullipara, 1, 2, 3+). The main outcome was LBD, including osteopenia and osteoporosis, based on bone mineral density measured using quantitative computed tomography of the lumbar spine (L1-2). @*Results@#The mean age of participants was 57.1 years, and the median parity was 2. Of the 1287 participants, 594 (46.2%) had osteopenia and 147 (11.4%) had osteoporosis. No significant difference in the prevalence of LBD was found between nullipara and parous women, whereas higher parity was associated with a higher risk of LBD among parous women; the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the presence of LBD was 1.40 (0.97 to 2.02) for a parity of 2 and 1.95 (1.23 to 3.09) for a parity of 3 relative to a parity of 1. @*Conclusions@#Women who have given birth multiple times may be at greater risk of bone loss after menopause; therefore, they should be a major target population for osteoporosis prevention.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900255

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis (KSoLA) has published the Dyslipidemia Fact Sheets in Korea 2020 to provide an overview of magnitude and management status of dyslipidemia and their recent trends therein. @*Methods@#The Fact Sheets were based on the analyses of Korean adults aged 20 years or older of the 2007–2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the 2002–2018 National Health Insurance Big Data (NHI-BD). @*Results@#Between 2007 and 2018, the crude prevalence of hypercholesterolemia increased from 9.0% to 20.7%. During the same period, its management rate also improved yet remained unsatisfactory. In 2018, the prevalence of dyslipidemia was 45.6% in men and 31.3% in women, which increased with older age and presence of metabolic abnormalities.Indeed, the number of people diagnosed with dyslipidemia has increased nearly 8-fold from 1.5 million in 2002 to 11.6 million in 2018; alongside, the number of people receiving pharmacological treatment for dyslipidemia has also risen. Of the 7.7 million people treated for dyslipidemia in 2018, statin accounted for the majority (91.8%) of lipid-lowering drug prescriptions, followed by ezetimibe (14.6%), fibrate (8.5%), and omega-3 acid (5.9%). The most frequently used combination therapy was statin plus ezetimibe, accounting for 72% of dual therapy prescriptions. @*Conclusion@#Dyslipidemia continues to impose a substantial disease burden in Korea. Both healthcare practitioners and patients need to actively adopt guideline-recommended lifestyle modification and pharmacological treatment for comprehensive, timely, and sustained management.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899533

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#With the surge in the elderly population, a growing interest in the prevention and treatment of geriatric diseases has been observed, along with awareness of the severity of problems associated with dementia, a cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between chewing ability and cognitive function among elderly people residing in a rural area. @*Methods@#A total of 162 elderly individuals, aged between 65 and 97 years, were surveyed. Trained examiners conducted interviews and assessments of chewing ability, on the basis of the number of remaining teeth, denture status, masticatory performance evaluating gum, ShadeEye-NCC measuring overall change in color of the gum (ΔE), and T-Scan® III analyzing distribution of occlusion patterns. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination-Dementia Screening (MMSE-DS) tool. @*Results@#Participants with a low score in the MMSE-DS were found to have distinguishably lower denture need, smaller number of remaining teeth, and lesser color change in the masticatory performance evaluating gum. In the cognitive impairment group, a tendency of having unilateral and anterior occlusion led to occlusal discomfort and chewing difficulties. @*Conclusions@#The study highlights important associations between chewing ability and cognitive function. The finding corroborates that tooth loss may be a predictive risk factor for cognitive impairment.

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