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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901044

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in human trabecular meshwork cells (HTMC). @*Methods@#Primary HTMC cultures were exposed to 0, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL anti-VEGF bevacizumab (BV) for 24 hours. The permeability through the trabecular meshwork cell monolayer was assessed using carboxyfluorescein and trans-epithelial endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). The levels of MMP-1/-2 were measured by Western blotting and the production of nitric oxide (NO) was assessed with the Griess assay. @*Results@#Bevacizumab at 0.50 mg/mL decreased the permeability of carboxyfluorescein significantly (p = 0.017) and did not affect TEER (p = 0.308). Administration of 0.50 mg/mL BV decreased MMP-1 and MMP-2 activities (p = 0.014, p = 0.016, respectively) and inhibited NO production significantly (p = 0.023). @*Conclusions@#Anti-VEGF decreased the permeability through the HTMC monolayer, which was accompanied by decreased MMP-1/-2 activity and limited NO production.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897872

ABSTRACT

Synovial sarcoma occurring in the pleura and lung is extremely rare. We report a case of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma as a second malignant neoplasm. The patient had been diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia at 5 years of age, and received matched sibling donor allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, with total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide conditioning. At 22 years of age, he complained of worsening chest discomfort and exertional dyspnea. Chest CT revealed a huge mass in the right middle lobe, pleura, and diaphragm. The patient was initially diagnosed as sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma, without any environmental or occupational asbestos exposure. Five months later, the patient presented with soft tissue metastasis and underwent needle biopsy. Pathological examination including SYT-SSX RT-PCR revealed synovial sarcoma, which led to a review of the original tumor findings and confirmed the diagnosis of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma.To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma developed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897416

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the cause of pneumonia outbreaks in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In February 2020, the World Health Organization named the disease cause by SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In response to the pandemic, the Korean Cancer Association formed the COVID-19 task force to develop practice guidelines. This special article introduces the clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients which will help oncologists best manage cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893340

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in human trabecular meshwork cells (HTMC). @*Methods@#Primary HTMC cultures were exposed to 0, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL anti-VEGF bevacizumab (BV) for 24 hours. The permeability through the trabecular meshwork cell monolayer was assessed using carboxyfluorescein and trans-epithelial endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). The levels of MMP-1/-2 were measured by Western blotting and the production of nitric oxide (NO) was assessed with the Griess assay. @*Results@#Bevacizumab at 0.50 mg/mL decreased the permeability of carboxyfluorescein significantly (p = 0.017) and did not affect TEER (p = 0.308). Administration of 0.50 mg/mL BV decreased MMP-1 and MMP-2 activities (p = 0.014, p = 0.016, respectively) and inhibited NO production significantly (p = 0.023). @*Conclusions@#Anti-VEGF decreased the permeability through the HTMC monolayer, which was accompanied by decreased MMP-1/-2 activity and limited NO production.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890168

ABSTRACT

Synovial sarcoma occurring in the pleura and lung is extremely rare. We report a case of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma as a second malignant neoplasm. The patient had been diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia at 5 years of age, and received matched sibling donor allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, with total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide conditioning. At 22 years of age, he complained of worsening chest discomfort and exertional dyspnea. Chest CT revealed a huge mass in the right middle lobe, pleura, and diaphragm. The patient was initially diagnosed as sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma, without any environmental or occupational asbestos exposure. Five months later, the patient presented with soft tissue metastasis and underwent needle biopsy. Pathological examination including SYT-SSX RT-PCR revealed synovial sarcoma, which led to a review of the original tumor findings and confirmed the diagnosis of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma.To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma developed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889712

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the cause of pneumonia outbreaks in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In February 2020, the World Health Organization named the disease cause by SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In response to the pandemic, the Korean Cancer Association formed the COVID-19 task force to develop practice guidelines. This special article introduces the clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients which will help oncologists best manage cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874357

ABSTRACT

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) is a rare liver cancer affecting adolescents and young adults without any pre existing liver disease. Hyperammonemic encephalopathy (HAE) is a serious paraneoplastic syndrome, and several cases of HAE have been reported in patients with FLHCC. This condition is rare; hence, there are currently no management guidelines for cancer-related HAE. Herein, we report a case of an 18-year-old man with advanced FLHCC who developed HAE during the first course of chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and interferon-α. He was successfully treated with continuous venovenous hemofiltration, sodium benzoate, sodium phenylbutyrate, and amino acid supplementation for HAE. After the second course of chemotherapy, he underwent surgery, and thereafter, his ammonia levels were normal without any ammonia scavenger therapy. Treatments for HAE described here will be helpful for this rare, but serious metabolic complication of FLHCC and could partially applied to HAE related to any malignancies.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874346

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the incidence and relative survival rates (RSRs) for cancers among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15-39 years between 1993 and 2016 in Korea @*Materials and Methods@#Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry were used to calculate percent distributions, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) per million, annual percent changes (APCs), average APCs, and RSRs for cancers diagnosed in AYAs. @*Results@#ASR of all cancers among AYAs was 654.5 per million. The largest diagnosed group of cancers was carcinomas (almost 80%). Crude incidence increased with age, from 170.4 per million for those aged 15-19 years to 1,639.8 per million for those aged 35-39 years. ASR increased from 414.8 per million to 820.4 per million, with an APC of 9.0%. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma showed the most rapid increment (APC, 14.0%), followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (APC, 13.4%). The 5-year RSR among AYAs significantly improved from 62.1% to 90.8%. Survival improvement in AYAs was higher than that in children but lower than that in older adults (APC, 2.1% vs. 1.9% vs. 3.1%). The most marked survival improvement was found for leukemia and lymphoma. Astrocytoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and carcinoma of the trachea, bronchus, and lung had a 5-year RSR of < 50%. @*Conclusion@#There was an improvement in cancer survivals in AYAs, comparable to that achieved in children. However, survivals in several cancer types do not appear to be improving. Further research focusing on the epidemiology and therapeutic strategies for cancers in AYAs is needed.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833207

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the senescence and oxidative stress of cultured human trabecularmeshwork cells (HTMCs). @*Methods@#After inducing oxidative stress with 200 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), primary cultured HTMCs were exposed to 0, 50,and 100 μM sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) for 24 hours. Cell survival and senescence were measured using an MTT assayand SA-β-galactosidase staining, respectively. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide were measuredusing the dichlorofluorescein assay and modified cytochrome c assay. Production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of eNOSmRNA were assessed using the Griess assay and reverse polymerase chain reaction. @*Results@#Cell survival was not affected by 200 μM H2O2. Exposure to 50 and 100 μM NaHS significantly decreased cellular senescence,compared with the H2O2-exposed control. Exposure to 50 and 100 μM NaHS decreased the generation of ROS, andexposure to 100 μM NaHS decreased the generation of superoxide. Treatment with 100 μM NaHS increased the production ofNO and expression of eNOS mRNA, respectively. @*Conclusions@#NaHS decreased the cellular senescence associated with the decreased generation of free radicals. Thus, H2Scould inhibit the senescence of HTMCs by reducing oxidative stress.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831549

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) is a rare disease characterized by premature red blood cell (RBC) destruction due to intrinsic RBC defects. The RBC Disorder Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology established and updated the standard operating procedure for making an accurate diagnosis of HHA since 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate a nationwide epidemiology of Korean HHA. @*Methods@#We collected the data of a newly diagnosed pediatric HHA cohort (2007–2016) and compared this cohort's characteristics with those of a previously surveyed pediatric HHA cohort (1997–2006) in Korea. Each participant's information was retrospectively collected by a questionnaire survey. @*Results@#A total of 369 children with HHA from 38 hospitals distributed in 16 of 17 districts of Korea were investigated. RBC membranopathies, hemoglobinopathies, RBC enzymopathies, and unknown etiologies accounted for 263 (71.3%), 59 (16.0%), 23 (6.2%), and 24 (6.5%) of the cases, respectively. Compared to the cohort from the previous decade, the proportions of hemoglobinopathies and RBC enzymopathies significantly increased (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). Twenty-three of the 59 hemoglobinopathy patients had immigrant mothers, mostly from South-East Asia. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, thalassemia traits have increased over the past 10 years, reflecting both increased awareness of this disease and increased international marriages. The enhanced recognition of RBC enzymopathies is due to advances in diagnostic technique; however, 6.5% of HHA patients still do not have a clear diagnosis. It is necessary to improve accessibility of diagnosing HHA.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766834

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the role of hydrogen sulfide in the survival and collagen gel contraction of cultured human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTCFs). METHODS: Primarily cultured HTCFs were exposed to 0, 100, 200, or 300 µM hydrogen sulfide (sodium hydrogen sulfide, NaHS) for 2 days. Cellular survival was assessed by MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Degree of apoptosis was assessed with flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining. To evaluate the effect of NaHS on cellular transdifferentiation, HTCFs were stimulated with 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 and the level of expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) mRNA was assessed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The cells were embedded in collagen gel, and the amount of gel contraction was measured. RESULTS: NaHS at 300 µM reduced HTCF survival (p = 0.013); NaHS at both 200 and 300 µM increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (p = 0.013 and p = 0.016). TGF-β1 increased the expression of α-SMA mRNA (p = 0.041); co-treatment with 100 µM NaHS decreased TGF-β1-induced α-SMA mRNA expression (p = 0.039) and inhibited collagen gel contraction. CONCLUSIONS: NaHS at high concentration reduced cellular survival and increased HTCF apoptosis. NaHS decreased TGF-β 1-induced increases in α-SMA mRNA expression and collagen gel contraction. Thus, hydrogen sulfide may suppress scar formation by inhibiting HTCF transdifferentiation and contraction of collagen gels.


Subject(s)
Actins , Apoptosis , Cicatrix , Collagen , Fibroblasts , Flow Cytometry , Gels , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide , Hydrogen , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Tenon Capsule
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760893

ABSTRACT

Bacillus cereus causes serious central nervous system infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Successful treatment requires adequate antimicrobial concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid; however, in some cases, achieving this with systemic treatment alone is difficult. We treated intractable B. cereus ventriculitis with intraventricular vancomycin, with no major adverse events.


Subject(s)
Bacillus cereus , Bacillus , Central Nervous System Infections , Cerebral Ventriculitis , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Immunocompromised Host , Injections, Intraventricular , Pharmacokinetics , Vancomycin
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739613

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Regional differences in the incidence of lymphoid malignancies have been reported worldwide, but there has been no large-scale epidemiologic analysis in Korea. The aim of this study was to provide a nationwide population-based statistical analysis of Korean patients with lymphoid malignancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Korea Central Cancer Registry analyzed the incidence and survival of patients with lymphoid malignancies from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database. Diseases were grouped by clinically relevant categories based on the 2008 World Health Organization classification. RESULTS: Overall 65,948 lymphoid diseases were identified between 1999 and 2012. The incidence of most subtypes increased with age, except for precursor cell neoplasms. Male predominance (male:female ratio=1.28:1) was observed. In 2012, annual age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 persons of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, mature B-cell neoplasm, mature T/natural killer (NK)–cell neoplasm, and precursor cell neoplasm were 0.46, 6.60, 0.95, and 1.50, respectively, and they increased yearly from 1999. Composite Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas were extremely rare. Survival improvement estimated using 5-year relative survival rate was observed in patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma (71.1%-83.0%), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (49.5%-61.5%), plasma cell neoplasms (20.2%-36.9%), and lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (41.5%-56.3%) between 1993 and 2012. However, survival rates of T/NK-cell lymphoma (excluding cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) ranged from 40.5%-43.5% during the study period. Survival rates decreased with age in most subtypes. CONCLUSION: This report presented the subtype-specific statistical analysis of lymphoid malignancies in the Korean population, showing increasing incidences and survival rates in most subtypes.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Classification , Epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Male , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell , Republic of Korea , Survival Rate , T-Lymphocytes , World Health Organization
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49314

ABSTRACT

This multicenter, prospective trial was conducted to develop an effective and safe reinduction regimen for marrow-relapsed pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by modifying the dose of idarubicin. Between 2006 and 2009, the trial accrued 44 patients, 1 to 21 years old with first marrow-relapsed ALL. The reinduction regimen comprised prednisolone, vincristine, L-asparaginase, and idarubicin (10 mg/m²/week). The idarubicin dose was adjusted according to the degree of myelosuppression. The second complete remission (CR2) rate was 72.7%, obtained by 54.2% of patients with early relapse < 24 months after initial diagnosis and 95.0% of those with late relapse (P = 0.002). Five patients entered remission with extended treatment, resulting in a final CR2 rate of 84.1%. The CR2 rate was not significantly different according to the idarubicin dose. The induction death rate was 2.3% (1/44). The 5-year event-free and overall survival rates were 22.2% ± 6.4% and 27.3% ± 6.7% for all patients, 4.2% ± 4.1% and 8.3% ± 5.6% for early relapsers, and 43.8% ± 11.4% and 50.0% ± 11.2% for late relapsers, respectively. Early relapse and slow response to reinduction chemotherapy were predictors of poor outcomes. In conclusion, a modified dose of idarubicin was effectively incorporated into the reinduction regimen for late marrow-relapsed ALL with a low toxic death rate. However, the CR2 rate for early relapsers was suboptimal, and the second remission was not durable in most patients.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63854

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Malignant central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs), although rare, are thought to occur more frequently among Asians. However, a recent population-based study revealed no differences in GCT incidence between Asians and Caucasians. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the incidence and survival rates of CNS GCTs using the national cancer incidence database, and to compare these rates to those in the United States and Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted CNS GCT patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2012 from the Korea Central Cancer Registry database. Age-standardized rates (ASRs), annual percentage change, and the male-female incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. To estimate the survival rate, we used data for patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2010 and followed their cases until December 31, 2013. RESULTS: The ASR for CNS GCT between 2005 and 2012 was 0.179 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval, 0.166 to 0.193), with an overall male-to-female (M:F) IRR of 2.95:1. However, when stratified by site, the M:F IRR was 13.62:1 for tumors of the pineal region and 1.87:1 for those located in nonpineal regions. The most frequent histologic type was germinoma (76.0%), and the most frequent location was the suprasellar region (48.5%). The 5-year survival rate of germinoma patients was 95.3%. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of CNS GCTs in Korea during 2005-2012 was 0.179 per 100,000, which was similar to that of the Asian/Pacific Islander subpopulation in the United States. Moreover, the CNS GCT survival rate in Korea was similar to rates in Japan and the United States.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Central Nervous System , Germ Cells , Germinoma , Humans , Incidence , Japan , Korea , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Survival Rate , United States
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160276

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the neurocognitive functioning of children with intracranial germ cell tumor (IGCT) prior to receiving proton beam therapy (PBT), and to identify differential characteristics of their neurocognitive functioning depending on tumor location. As a secondary object of this study, neurocognitive functions were followed up at 1-2 years after PBT to examine early post-treatment changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2008 and 2014, 34 childrenwith IGCT treatedwho received PBT atNational Cancer Center, Korea were enrolled in this study. Standardized neurocognitive tests of intelligence, memory, and executive functioning were performed with baseline psychological assessments using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Follow-up assessments after PBT were conducted in 20 patients (T2). The results were analyzed based on the locations of tumors, which included the suprasellar, pineal gland, basal ganglia, and bifocal regions. RESULTS: The neurocognitive function of IGCT patients was significantly lower than that of the normal population in performance intelligence quotient (p=0.041), processing speed (p=0.007), memory (p < 0.001), and executive functioning (p=0.010). Patients with basal ganglia tumors had significantly lower scores for most domains of neurocognitive functioning and higher scores for CBCL than both the normal population and patients with IGCT in other locations. There was no significant change in neurocognitive function between T1 and T2 for all types of IGCT patients in first 1-2 years after PBT. CONCLUSION: Tumor location significantly affects the neuropsychological functioning in patients with IGCT. Neuropsychological functioning should be closely monitored from the time of diagnosis in IGCT patients.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia , Brain Neoplasms , Checklist , Child Behavior , Child , Cognition , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Germ Cells , Humans , Intelligence , Korea , Memory , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Pineal Gland , Proton Therapy
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1057-1064, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160268

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Few studies have addressed gonadal and sexual dysfunctions in childhood cancer survivors. We evaluated the prevalence rates and risk factors for gonadal failure among adolescent/young adult childhood cancer survivors and their sexual function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were childhood cancer survivors aged 15-29 years who had completed therapy more than 2 years ago. Demographic and medical characteristics were obtained from the patients’ medical records. In addition, hormonal evaluation and semen analysis were performed and sexual function was evaluated via questionnaire. RESULTS: The study included 105 survivors (57 males, 48 females), of which 61 were adults (age > 19 years) and 44 were adolescents. In both males and females, the proportion of survivors with low sex hormone levels did not differ among age groups or follow-up period. Thirteen female subjects (27.1%) needed sex hormone replacement, while five males subjects (8.8%) were suspected of having hypogonadism, but none were receiving sex hormone replacement. Of 27 semen samples, 14 showed azospermia or oligospermia. The proportion of normospermia was lower in the high cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED) group (CED ≥ 8,000 mg/m2) than the low CED group (27.3% vs. 62.5%, p=0.047). Among adults, none were married and only 10 men (35.7%) and eight women (34.3%) were in a romantic relationship. Though a significant proportion (12.0% of males and 5.3% of females) of adolescent survivors had experienced sexual activity, 13.6% had not experienced sex education. CONCLUSION: The childhood cancer survivors in this study showed a high prevalence of gonadal/sexual dysfunction; accordingly, proper strategies are needed to manage these complications.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cyclophosphamide , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gonads , Humans , Hypogonadism , Male , Medical Records , Oligospermia , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sex Education , Sexual Behavior , Survivors
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