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1.
The Ewha Medical Journal ; : e7-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002848

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Ewha Womans University launched an on-campus Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) response system called Ewha Safety Campus (ESC) Project in collaboration with the Seegene Inc. RTPCR diagnostic tests for COVID-19 were proactively provided to the participants. This study examines the effectiveness of the on-campus testing strategy in controlling the reproduction number (Rt ) and identifying student groups vulnerable to infection. @*Methods@#The ESC project was launched on March 2, 2022, with a pilot period from Feb 22 to March 1, 2022—the peak of the Omicron variant wave. We collected daily data on the RT-PCR test results of the students of Ewha Womans University from Mar 2 to Apr 30, 2022. We daily calculated Rt and compared it with that of the general population of Korea (women, people aged 20–29 years, and Seoul residents). We also examined the students vulnerable to the infection based on the group-specific Rt and positivity rate. @*Results@#A lower Rt was observed about 2 weeks after the implementation of the ESC Project than that of the general population. The lower Rt persisted during the entire study period. Dormitory residents had a higher Rt . The positivity rate was higher in students who did not comply with quarantine guidelines and did not receive the second dose of the vaccine. @*Conclusion@#The study provides scientific evidence for the effectiveness of the on-campus testing strategy and different infection vulnerabilities of students, depending on dormitory residence, compliance with the quarantine guidelines, and vaccination.

2.
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives ; (6): 5-14, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968438

ABSTRACT

With the introduction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA) commissioned the National Academy of Medicine of Korea to gather experts to independently assess post-vaccination adverse events. Accordingly, the COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Committee (CoVaSC) was launched in November 2021 to perform safety studies and establish evidence for policy guidance. The CoVaSC established 3 committees for epidemiology, clinical research, and communication. The CoVaSC mainly utilizes pseudonymized data linking KDCA’s COVID-19 vaccination data and the National Health Insurance Service’s claims data. The CoVaSC’s 5-step research process involves defining the target diseases and organizing ad-hoc committees, developing research protocols, performing analyses, assessing causal relationships, and announcing research findings and utilizing them to guide compensation policies. As of 2022, the CoVaSC completed this research process for 15 adverse events. The CoVaSC launched the COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center in September 2022 and has been reorganized into 4 divisions to promote research including international collaborative studies, long-/short-term follow-up studies, and education programs. Through these enhancements, the CoVaSC will continue to swiftly provide scientific evidence for COVID-19 vaccine research and compensation and may serve as a model for preparing for future epidemics of new diseases.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e38-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967453

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although inequality in traumatic brain injury (TBI) by individual socioeconomic status (SES) exists, interventions to modify individual SES are difficult. However, as interventions for area-based SES can affect the individual SES, monitoring or public health intervention can be planned. We analyzed the effect of area-based SES on hospitalization for TBI and revealed yearly inequality trends to provide a basis for health intervention. @*Methods@#We included patients who were hospitalized due to intracranial injuries (ICIs) between 2008 and 2015 as a measure of severe TBI with data provided by the Korea National Hospital Discharge Survey. Area-based SES was synthesized using the 2010 census data. We assessed inequalities in ICI-related hospitalization rates using the relative index of inequality and the slope index of inequality for the periods 2008–2009, 2010–2011, 2012–2013, and 2014–2015. We analyzed the trends of these indices for the observation period by age and sex. @*Results@#The overall relative indices of inequality for each 2-year period were 1.82 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–2.3), 1.97 (1.6–2.5), 2.01 (1.6–2.5), and 2.01 (1.6–2.5), respectively. The overall slope indices of inequality in each period were 38.74 (23.5–54.0), 36.75 (21.7–51.8), 35.65 (20.7–50.6), and 43.11 (27.6–58.6), respectively. The relative indices of inequality showed a linear trend for men (P = 0.006), which was most evident in the ≥ 65-year age group. @*Conclusion@#Inequality in hospitalization for ICIs by area-based SES tended to increase during the observation period. Practical preventive interventions and input in healthcare resources for populations with low area-based SES are likely needed.

4.
Intestinal Research ; : 148-160, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967008

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The fecal microbiota of Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was investigated with respect to disease phenotypes and taxonomic biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of IBD. @*Methods@#Fecal samples from 70 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, 39 Crohn’s disease (CD) patients, and 100 healthy control individuals (HC) were collected. The fecal samples were amplified via polymerase chain reaction and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. The relationships between fecal bacteria and clinical phenotypes were analyzed using the EzBioCloud database and 16S microbiome pipeline. @*Results@#The alpha-diversity of fecal bacteria was significantly lower in UC and CD (P<0.05) compared to that in HC. Bacterial community compositions in UC and CD were significantly different from that of HC according to Bray-Curtis dissimilarities, and there was also a difference between community composition in UC and CD (P=0.01). In UC, alpha-diversity was further decreased when the disease was more severe and the extent of disease was greater, and community composition significantly differed depending on the extent of the disease. We identified 9 biomarkers of severity and 6 biomarkers of the extent of UC. We also identified 5 biomarkers of active disease and 3 biomarkers of ileocolonic involvement in CD. Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus gnavus were biomarkers for better prognosis in CD. @*Conclusions@#The fecal microbiota profiles of IBD patients were different from those of HC, and several bacterial taxa may be used as biomarkers to determine disease phenotypes and prognosis. These data may also help discover new therapeutic targets for IBD.

5.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 28-36, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915880

ABSTRACT

The current multimorbidity correction method in the Global Burden of Disease studies assumes the independent occurrence of diseases. Those studies use Monte-Carlo simulations to adjust for the presence of multiple disease conditions for all diseases. The present study investigated whether the above-mentioned assumption is reasonable based on the prevalence confirmed from actual data. This study compared multimorbidity-adjusted years of lived with disability (YLD) obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations and multimorbidity-adjusted YLD using multimorbidity prevalence derived from National Health Insurance Service data. The 5 most common diseases by sex and age groups were selected as diseases of interest. No significant differences were found between YLD estimations made using actual data and Monte-Carlo simulations, even though assumptions about the independent occurrence of diseases should be carefully applied. The prevalence was not well reflected according to disease characteristics in those under the age of 30, among whom there was a difference in YLD between the 2 methods. Therefore, when calculating the burden of diseases for Koreans over the age of 30, it is possible to calculate the YLD with correction for multimorbidity through Monte-Carlo simulation, but care should be taken with under-30s. It is useful to apply the efficiency and suitability of calibration for multiplicative methods using Monte-Carlo simulations in research on the domestic disease burden, especially in adults in their 30s and older. Further research should be carried out on multimorbidity correction methodology according to the characteristics of multiple diseases by sex and age.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e10-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915539

ABSTRACT

Background@#Injury is a social problem that causes health and property losses, and it is important to identify the size and trend of injury for efficient prevention and management.Therefore, this study analyzed the trends in injury mortality and hospitalization rates from 2005 to 2019 in Korea. @*Methods@#Using mortality data by Statistics Korea and Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth injury survey by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA), age standardized rates were calculated for death and hospitalization to analyze trends and annual changes with the joinpoint regression model. In addition, annual changes in the hospitalization rate of the transport accident and fall injuries by age group were analyzed, which are the major causes of injuries. @*Results@#From 2005 to 2019, the injury mortality rate has been on the decline, but the injury hospitalization rate has been on the rise. The annual rate of change varied depending on the injury mechanism, but the mortality rate tended to decrease or remain similar level, while the rate of hospitalization has steadily increased. In addition, by age group, injury mortality and hospitalization rates were high in the elderly. In particular, the hospitalization rate of the elderly was higher when comparing the hospitalization rate of the children in transport accidents and falls. Pedestrian transport accidents tended to decrease under the age of 15, but remained similar for those aged 65 and older, and bicycle accidents tended to increase in both groups. In addition, hospitalization rates were higher in the fall, with both groups showing a statistically significant increase in hospitalization rates caused by falls. @*Conclusion@#This study analyzed the trend of injury mortality and hospitalization and found that transport accidents and falls may vary depending on the means or age of the accident.Since injury is a big social problem that is a burden of disease, safety education and legal sanctions for injury prevention should be further improved in the future, especially by prioritizing vulnerable groups by age and detailed mechanisms of injury.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e22-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915535

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the health status of healthcare workers (doctors and nurses) compared to those in the general population based on the National Health Insurance Service database and the cause of death data from Statistics Korea. @*Methods@#The subjects of this study were 104,484 doctors and 220,310 nurses working in healthcare facilities from 2002 to 2017, and who had undergone at least one general medical examination. Based on the subject definition, the subject data were extracted from the National Health Insurance healthcare facility database and qualification database. We collected medical use details included in the research database, general medical examination results, medical history included in the health examination database, and additional data on the cause of death from the National Statistics database to analyze the main cause of death and mortality. @*Results@#In terms of the major causes of death and mortality among healthcare workers, the mortality rate associated with intentional self-harm, injury, transportation accident, heart disease, addiction, and falling was significantly higher than that in the general population. Further, the prevalence of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases was high. When analyzing the proportional mortality ratio (PMR) by cause of death for healthcare workers, the PMR values for death related to malignant neoplasm was the highest. In terms of diseases, both doctors and nurses had higher rates of infectious diseases such as maternal sepsis, rubella, and measles. @*Conclusion@#The health status of healthcare workers differs from that of the general population. Thus, it is important to consider the occupational characteristics of healthcare personnel. This study is unique in that it was conducted based on medical use indicators rather than survey data.

8.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 226-233, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926179

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective level of health-related quality of life of Korean healthcare workers using various quality-of-life instruments. @*Methods@#This study included 992 participants, who were doctors and nurses. A survey was conducted between November 28 and December 4, 2019. Data from 954 participants divided into 3 groups (physicians, residents, and nurses) were analyzed. Four measurement tools (29 questions) were used in the survey to evaluate subjective health status and well-being. @*Results@#In the Mayo Well-being Index, burnout during work (88.5%) and emotional difficulties caused by work (84.0%) were frequently cited by the respondents. Regarding questions on burnout and emotional difficulties, residents and nurses had the highest scores (91.0 and 89.6%, respectively). Emotional problems, such as anxiety, depression, and irritability, accounted for a high percentage (73.1%) of the total, while 82.2% of respondents reported that their work schedules interfered with their leisure and family time. There was no significant difference among the groups in subjective health status. However, 10.1% of the residents experienced very low quality of life, which was a higher proportion than that of physicians (2.7%) and nurses (5.2%). @*Conclusions@#The level of well-being that Korean medical workers experienced in relation to work was lower than the results of the United States healthcare workers surveyed using the same tool. This study was unique in that it conducted a subjective quality-of-life survey on Korean healthcare workers.

9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021016-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890623

ABSTRACT

With the introduction of life-course epidemiology, researchers realized the importance of identifying risk factors in early life to prevent chronic diseases. This led to the establishment of the Ewha Birth and Growth Study in 2001; the study is a prospective birth cohort designed to provide evidence of early life risk factors for a child’s growth and health. Participants were recruited from those who visited Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital (a tertiary hospital in southwest Seoul, Korea) for prenatal care at 24-28 weeks of gestation. In total, 891 mothers enrolled in this study between 2001 and 2006 and their offspring (n=940) were followed-up. Regular check-up examinations of offspring were conducted at 3 years, 5 years, and 7 years of age and every year thereafter. To consider age-related health issues, extensive data were collected using questionnaires and measurements. In 2021, the study subjects will reach 19 years of age, and we are planning a check-up examination for early adulthood. About 20 years have passed since the cohort data were collected, and we have published results on childhood health outcomes associated with prenatal and birth characteristics, genetic and epigenetic characteristics related to childhood metabolism, the effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors, and dietary patterns in childhood. Recently, we started reporting on topics related to adolescent health. The findings will facilitate identification of early life risk factors for chronic diseases and the development of interventions for diseases later in life.

10.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021018-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890621

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#We conducted a comorbidity network analysis using data from the seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to systematically quantify obesity-related comorbidities. @*METHODS@#The study included 11,712 subjects aged 45 to 80 (5,075 male and 6,637 female). A prevalent disease was defined as a specific disease for which a subject had been diagnosed by a doctor and was being treated. Comorbidity network analysis was performed for diseases with a prevalence of 1% or more, including overweight and obesity. We estimated the observed-to-expected ratio of all possible disease pairs with comorbidity strength and visualized the network of obesity-related comorbidities. @*RESULTS@#In subjects over 45 years old, 37.3% of people had a body mass index over 25.0 kg/m2. The most common prevalent disease was hypertension (42.3%), followed by dyslipidemia (17.4%) and diabetes (17.0%). Overweight and obese subjects were 2.1 times (95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 2.3) more likely to have a comorbidity (i.e., 2 or more diseases) than normal-weight subjects. Metabolic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and osteoarthritis were directly associated with overweight and obesity. The probability of coexistence for each of those 4 diseases was 1.3 times higher than expected. In addition, hypertension and dyslipidemia frequently coexisted in overweight and obese female along with other diseases. In obese male, dyslipidemia and diabetes were the major diseases in the comorbidity network. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results provide evidence justifying the management of metabolic components in obese individuals. In addition, our results will help prioritize interventions for comorbidity reduction as a public health goal.

11.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 293-300, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900568

ABSTRACT

The study aims to examine the current status and differences in the burden of disease in Korea during 2008-2018. We calculated the burden of disease for Koreans from 2008 to 2018 using an incidence-based approach. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were expressed in units per 100 000 population by adding years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALY calculation results were presented by gender, age group, disease, region, and income level. To explore differences in DALYs by region and income level, we used administrative district and insurance premium information from the National Health Insurance Service claims data. The burden of disease among Koreans showed an increasing trend from 2008 to 2018. By 2017, the burden of disease among men was higher than that among women. Diabetes mellitus, low back pain, and chronic lower respiratory disease were ranked high in the burden of disease; the sum of DALY rates for these diseases accounted for 18.4% of the total burden of disease among Koreans in 2018. The top leading causes associated with a high burden of disease differed slightly according to gender, age group, and income level. In this study, we measured the health status of Koreans and differences in the population health level according to gender, age group, region, and income level. This data can be used as an indicator of health equity, and the results derived from this study can be used to guide community-centered (or customized) health promotion policies and projects, and for setting national health policy goals.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e166-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899941

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study presents a framework for determining the allocation and distribution of the limited amount of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). @*Methods@#After analyzing the pandemic strategies of the major organizations and countries and with a literature review conducted by a core panel, a modified Delphi survey was administered to 13 experts in the fields of vaccination, infectious disease, and public health in the Republic of Korea. The following topics were discussed: 1) identifying the objectives of the vaccination strategy, 2) identifying allocation criteria, and 3) establishing a step-bystep vaccination framework and prioritization strategy based on the allocation criteria. Two rounds of surveys were conducted for each topic, with a structured questionnaire provided via e-mail in the first round. After analyzing the responses, a meeting with the experts was held to obtain consensus on how to prioritize the population groups. @*Results@#The first objective of the vaccination strategy was maintenance of the integrity of the healthcare system and critical infrastructure, followed by reduction of morbidity and mortality and reduction of community transmission. In the initial phase, older adult residents in care homes, high-risk health and social care workers, and personal support workers who work in direct contact with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients would be prioritized. Expansion of vaccine supply would allow immunization of older adults not included in phase 1, followed by healthcare workers not previously included and individuals with comorbidities. Further widespread vaccine supply would ensure availability to the extended adult age groups (50–64 years old), critical workers outside the health sector, residents who cannot socially distance, and, eventually, the remaining populations. @*Conclusion@#This survey provides the much needed insight into the decision-making process for vaccine allocation at the national level. However, flexibility in adapting to strategies will be essential, as new information is constantly emerging.

13.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021016-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898327

ABSTRACT

With the introduction of life-course epidemiology, researchers realized the importance of identifying risk factors in early life to prevent chronic diseases. This led to the establishment of the Ewha Birth and Growth Study in 2001; the study is a prospective birth cohort designed to provide evidence of early life risk factors for a child’s growth and health. Participants were recruited from those who visited Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital (a tertiary hospital in southwest Seoul, Korea) for prenatal care at 24-28 weeks of gestation. In total, 891 mothers enrolled in this study between 2001 and 2006 and their offspring (n=940) were followed-up. Regular check-up examinations of offspring were conducted at 3 years, 5 years, and 7 years of age and every year thereafter. To consider age-related health issues, extensive data were collected using questionnaires and measurements. In 2021, the study subjects will reach 19 years of age, and we are planning a check-up examination for early adulthood. About 20 years have passed since the cohort data were collected, and we have published results on childhood health outcomes associated with prenatal and birth characteristics, genetic and epigenetic characteristics related to childhood metabolism, the effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors, and dietary patterns in childhood. Recently, we started reporting on topics related to adolescent health. The findings will facilitate identification of early life risk factors for chronic diseases and the development of interventions for diseases later in life.

14.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021018-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#We conducted a comorbidity network analysis using data from the seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to systematically quantify obesity-related comorbidities. @*METHODS@#The study included 11,712 subjects aged 45 to 80 (5,075 male and 6,637 female). A prevalent disease was defined as a specific disease for which a subject had been diagnosed by a doctor and was being treated. Comorbidity network analysis was performed for diseases with a prevalence of 1% or more, including overweight and obesity. We estimated the observed-to-expected ratio of all possible disease pairs with comorbidity strength and visualized the network of obesity-related comorbidities. @*RESULTS@#In subjects over 45 years old, 37.3% of people had a body mass index over 25.0 kg/m2. The most common prevalent disease was hypertension (42.3%), followed by dyslipidemia (17.4%) and diabetes (17.0%). Overweight and obese subjects were 2.1 times (95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 2.3) more likely to have a comorbidity (i.e., 2 or more diseases) than normal-weight subjects. Metabolic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and osteoarthritis were directly associated with overweight and obesity. The probability of coexistence for each of those 4 diseases was 1.3 times higher than expected. In addition, hypertension and dyslipidemia frequently coexisted in overweight and obese female along with other diseases. In obese male, dyslipidemia and diabetes were the major diseases in the comorbidity network. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results provide evidence justifying the management of metabolic components in obese individuals. In addition, our results will help prioritize interventions for comorbidity reduction as a public health goal.

15.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 293-300, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892864

ABSTRACT

The study aims to examine the current status and differences in the burden of disease in Korea during 2008-2018. We calculated the burden of disease for Koreans from 2008 to 2018 using an incidence-based approach. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were expressed in units per 100 000 population by adding years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALY calculation results were presented by gender, age group, disease, region, and income level. To explore differences in DALYs by region and income level, we used administrative district and insurance premium information from the National Health Insurance Service claims data. The burden of disease among Koreans showed an increasing trend from 2008 to 2018. By 2017, the burden of disease among men was higher than that among women. Diabetes mellitus, low back pain, and chronic lower respiratory disease were ranked high in the burden of disease; the sum of DALY rates for these diseases accounted for 18.4% of the total burden of disease among Koreans in 2018. The top leading causes associated with a high burden of disease differed slightly according to gender, age group, and income level. In this study, we measured the health status of Koreans and differences in the population health level according to gender, age group, region, and income level. This data can be used as an indicator of health equity, and the results derived from this study can be used to guide community-centered (or customized) health promotion policies and projects, and for setting national health policy goals.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e166-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892237

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study presents a framework for determining the allocation and distribution of the limited amount of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). @*Methods@#After analyzing the pandemic strategies of the major organizations and countries and with a literature review conducted by a core panel, a modified Delphi survey was administered to 13 experts in the fields of vaccination, infectious disease, and public health in the Republic of Korea. The following topics were discussed: 1) identifying the objectives of the vaccination strategy, 2) identifying allocation criteria, and 3) establishing a step-bystep vaccination framework and prioritization strategy based on the allocation criteria. Two rounds of surveys were conducted for each topic, with a structured questionnaire provided via e-mail in the first round. After analyzing the responses, a meeting with the experts was held to obtain consensus on how to prioritize the population groups. @*Results@#The first objective of the vaccination strategy was maintenance of the integrity of the healthcare system and critical infrastructure, followed by reduction of morbidity and mortality and reduction of community transmission. In the initial phase, older adult residents in care homes, high-risk health and social care workers, and personal support workers who work in direct contact with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients would be prioritized. Expansion of vaccine supply would allow immunization of older adults not included in phase 1, followed by healthcare workers not previously included and individuals with comorbidities. Further widespread vaccine supply would ensure availability to the extended adult age groups (50–64 years old), critical workers outside the health sector, residents who cannot socially distance, and, eventually, the remaining populations. @*Conclusion@#This survey provides the much needed insight into the decision-making process for vaccine allocation at the national level. However, flexibility in adapting to strategies will be essential, as new information is constantly emerging.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e20-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874766

ABSTRACT

Background@#Medical professionals must maintain their health to provide quality medical care to patients safely. However, the health-related quality of life of medical professionals is a complex issue that currently lacks a standardized evaluation approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify their perceptions of the health-related quality of life of medical professionals and explore ways to measure their quality of life as accurately. @*Methods@#This study explored the subjective health status and well-being of Korean medical professionals by conducting three focus group discussions (FGDs) with 12 physicians and 6 nurses (November to December 2019). In the FGD, we elicited participants' opinions on existing health-related quality of life measurement tools. Also, we analyzed transcribed data through content analysis. @*Results@#Participants in this study noted the ambiguity in the current definitions of health provided by the World Health Organization. They shared various problems of their health, mainly concerning fatigue and sleep disorders due to their work pattern. Also, participants shared anxiety, burden, and fear of negative consequences due to the complexity of their work. Participants voiced the necessity of a questionnaire on health-related quality of life that reflects the working lives of medical professionals. @*Conclusion@#Medical professionals in Korea were mainly criticizing about health-related quality of life problems caused by their work characteristics. The results of this study will provide valuable information for future health-related quality of life surveys targeting medical professionals in Korea, and also help to determine the method for monitoring the healthrelated quality of life for health professionals. In addition, the aspects and items identified by medical professionals as important for their health-related quality of life may be used as a basis for developing a new health-related quality of life measurement tools for medical professionals.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e91-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Routine blood pressure (BP) measurement is recommended to begin at 3 years of age, but there are no national BP reference values for Korean children less than 7 years of age. Therefore, we developed sex-, age-, and height-specific BP reference values for non-overweight children aged 3–9 years.@*METHODS@#We analyzed the data of 416, 340, 321, 323, and 332 subjects aged 3, 5, 7, 8, and 9 years, respectively, who participated in the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study. BP percentile curves were generated using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape. Reference values for the 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of BP were determined according to sex, age, and height percentiles.@*RESULTS@#In both boys and girls, a gradual increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with age was more pronounced than that in diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In boys, the reference values for 90th percentile of SBP/DBP at median height for children aged 3 and 9 years were 105/69 and 118/70, respectively. In girls, the reference values corresponding to the above conditions were 105/69 and 116/70, respectively. Among children aged 7–9 years of median height, the 90th percentile of SBP in the current study was lower and that of DBP was similar to the national reference values of Korea. For children aged < 7 years of median height, the reference value for SBP, but not that for DBP, was similar to that developed in the European study.@*CONCLUSION@#Although further research is needed, our findings could be used to help identify high BP in children less than 10 years of age.

19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e27-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Evaluation of mortality and prevalence trends is important for health planning and priority decision-making in health policy. This study was performed to examine disease-specific mortality and prevalence trends for diseases in Korea from 2002 to 2015.@*METHODS@#In this study, 206 mutually exclusive diseases and injuries were classified into 21 cause clusters, which were divided into three cause groups: 1) communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions; 2) non-communicable diseases (NCDs); and 3) injuries. Cause specific trends for age-standardized mortality and prevalence rates were analyzed by the joinpoint regression method.@*RESULTS@#Between 2002 and 2015, the age-standardized mortality declined to about 177 per 100,000 population, while the age-standardized prevalence rate increased to approximately 68,065 per 100,000 population. Among the 21 cause clusters, most of the disease mortality rates showed decreasing trends. However, neurological disorders, self-harm, and interpersonal violence included periods during which the mortality rates increased in 2002–2015. In addition, the trends for prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, tuberculosis, transport injuries, and self-harm, and interpersonal violence differed from the overall prevalence rates. The annual percent change in prevalence rates for transport injuries increased during 2004–2007, and then decreased. The self-harm and interpersonal violence prevalence rates decreased from 2004 to 2014.@*CONCLUSION@#Between 2002 and 2015, overall decreasing trends in the mortality rate and increasing trends in the prevalence rate were observed for all causes in Korea. Especially, NCDs represented an important part of the increasing trends in Korea. For clusters of diseases with unusual trends, proper management must be considered.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e91-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Routine blood pressure (BP) measurement is recommended to begin at 3 years of age, but there are no national BP reference values for Korean children less than 7 years of age. Therefore, we developed sex-, age-, and height-specific BP reference values for non-overweight children aged 3–9 years.@*METHODS@#We analyzed the data of 416, 340, 321, 323, and 332 subjects aged 3, 5, 7, 8, and 9 years, respectively, who participated in the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study. BP percentile curves were generated using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape. Reference values for the 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of BP were determined according to sex, age, and height percentiles.@*RESULTS@#In both boys and girls, a gradual increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with age was more pronounced than that in diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In boys, the reference values for 90th percentile of SBP/DBP at median height for children aged 3 and 9 years were 105/69 and 118/70, respectively. In girls, the reference values corresponding to the above conditions were 105/69 and 116/70, respectively. Among children aged 7–9 years of median height, the 90th percentile of SBP in the current study was lower and that of DBP was similar to the national reference values of Korea. For children aged < 7 years of median height, the reference value for SBP, but not that for DBP, was similar to that developed in the European study.@*CONCLUSION@#Although further research is needed, our findings could be used to help identify high BP in children less than 10 years of age.

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