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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 619-627, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903194

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to introduce a 4-week long fully immersive virtual reality-based cognitive training (VRCT) program that could be applied for both a cognitively normal elderly population and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, we attempted to investigate the neuropsychological effects of the VRCT program in each group. @*Methods@#A total of 56 participants, 31 in the MCI group and 25 in the cognitively normal elderly group, underwent eight sessions of VRCT for 4 weeks. In order to evaluate the effects of the VRCT, the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet was administered before and after the program. The program’ s safety was assessed using a simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), and availability was assessed using the presence questionnaire. @*Results@#After the eighth session of the VRCT program, cognitive improvement was observed in the ability to learn new information, visuospatial constructional ability, and frontal lobe function in both groups. At the baseline evaluation, based on the SSQ, the MCI group complained of disorientation and nausea significantly more than the cognitively normal elderly group did. However, both groups showed a reduction in discomfort as the VRCT program progressed. @*Conclusion@#We conclude that our VRCT program helps improve cognition in both the MCI group and cognitively normal elderly group. Therefore, the VRCT is expected to help improve cognitive function in elderly populations with and without MCI.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902366

ABSTRACT

Clip migration into the common bile duct (CBD) is a rare complication of laparoscopic biliary surgery. We report a case of Hem-o-lok clip migration-induced CBD stone in a 66-year-old man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) 4 years ago. The patient visited the emergency room for upper abdominal pain. CT scan revealed increased CBD diameter and multiple CBD stones. We performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for CBD stone extraction. Cholangiography revealed multiple suspected filling defects in the CBD; stones and unknown foreign body were removed using Basket. The foreign body found in the duodenum was a Hem-o-lok clip. When epigastric pain develops in a patient who has undergone LC and LCBDE, it is possible that biliary stone occurs due to clip migration.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900692

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adolescent suicide is a serious national issue in Korea. Recently, life satisfaction has been recognized as a major factor related to this issue. The main purpose of this study was to identify the domains of life satisfaction that affect suicidal behavior in adolescence. @*Methods@#Data were collected from eight middle schools in Incheon, Korea. A total of 1297 students answered questions regarding their demographic characteristics, happiness, self-related life satisfaction domains (appearance, leisure time, physical health, and mental health), depressive symptoms, and suicidal behavior. @*Results@#In the Spearman correlation analysis, female sex, perceived socioeconomic status (SES), happiness, and all four self-related satisfaction scores showed significant correlations with depression and suicidality. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that suicidality was significantly affected by perceived SES, satisfaction with appearance, mental health satisfaction, and depression. Finally, depression was identified as a partial mediator of the association between mental health satisfaction and suicidality, and a complete mediator of the association between female sex and suicidality. @*Conclusion@#Perceived SES, satisfaction with appearance, and mental health satisfaction significantly affected students’ suicidality, with or without the effect of depression. Health authorities, educators, and family members must be aware of this to identify adolescents at suicide risk earlier.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899897

ABSTRACT

Background@#Early trauma is known to be a risk factor of suicide-related behavior. On the other hand, people who attempt suicide using a fatal method are reported to be more likely to complete suicide. In this study, we assumed that early trauma affects an individual's temperament and character and thereby increases the risk of a fatal method of suicide attempts. @*Methods@#We analyzed 92 people with a history of previous suicide attempts. We compared the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised scores between the groups with and without early trauma, and between the groups with and without a history of suicide attempt using fatal methods through an analysis of covariance with age, sex, and presence of a psychiatric history as covariates. A mediation analysis was conducted of the relationship between early trauma and fatal methods of suicide attempt with self-transcendence as a mediator. @*Results@#Higher self-transcendence was reported in the fatal group (27.71 ± 13.78 vs. 20.97 ± 12.27, P = 0.010) and the early trauma group (28.05 ± 14.30 vs. 19.43 ± 10.73, P = 0.001), respectively. The mediation model showed that self-transcendence mediates the relationship between early trauma and fatal methods of suicide attempt. The 95% confidence intervals for the direct and indirect effect were (−0.559, 1.390) and (0.026, 0.947), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Self-transcendence may mediate the relationship between early trauma and fatal methods of suicide attempt. Self-transcendence may be associated with unhealthy defenses and suicidal behavior for self-punishment and may constitute a marker of higher suicide risk.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899043

ABSTRACT

House dust mite (HDM) is one of the significant causes for airway inflammation such as asthma. It induces oxidative stress and an inflammatory response in the lungs through the release of chemokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate inflammatory signaling mediators such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and redox-sensitive transcription factors including NF-κB and AP-1. Ascorbic acid shows an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in various cells. It ameliorated the symptoms of HDM-induced rhinitis. The present study was aimed to investigate whether HDM could induce IL-8 expression through activation of MAPKs, NF-κB, and AP-1 and whether ascorbic acid could inhibit HDM-stimulated IL-8 expression by reducing ROS and suppressing activation of MAPKs, NF-κB, and AP-1 in respiratory epithelial H292 cells. H292 cells were treated with HDM (5 μg/mL) in the absence or presence of ascorbic acid (100 or 200 μM). HDM treatment increased ROS levels, and activated MAPKs, NF-κB, and AP-1 and thus, induced IL-8 expression in H292 cells. Ascorbic acid reduced ROS levels and inhibited activation of MAPKs, NF-κB and AP-1 and L-8 expression in H292 cells. In conclusion, consumption of ascorbic acid-rich foods may be beneficial for prevention of HDM-mediated respiratory inflammation by suppressing oxidative stress-mediated MAPK signaling pathways and activation of NF-kB and AP-1.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898086

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Among available oral antidiabetic agents, only the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) primarily target insulin resistance. TZDs improve insulin sensitivity by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone have been used widely for T2DM treatment due to their potent glycemic efficacy and low risk of hypoglycemia. However, their use has decreased because of side effects and safety issues, such as cardiovascular concerns and bladder cancer. Lobeglitazone (Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical Corporation), a novel TZD, was developed to meet the demands for an effective and safe TZD. Lobeglitazone shows similar glycemic efficacy to pioglitazone, with a lower effective dose, and favorable safety results. It also showed pleiotropic effects in preclinical and clinical studies. In this article, we summarize the pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and clinical characteristics of lobeglitazone.

7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 619-627, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895490

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to introduce a 4-week long fully immersive virtual reality-based cognitive training (VRCT) program that could be applied for both a cognitively normal elderly population and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, we attempted to investigate the neuropsychological effects of the VRCT program in each group. @*Methods@#A total of 56 participants, 31 in the MCI group and 25 in the cognitively normal elderly group, underwent eight sessions of VRCT for 4 weeks. In order to evaluate the effects of the VRCT, the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet was administered before and after the program. The program’ s safety was assessed using a simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), and availability was assessed using the presence questionnaire. @*Results@#After the eighth session of the VRCT program, cognitive improvement was observed in the ability to learn new information, visuospatial constructional ability, and frontal lobe function in both groups. At the baseline evaluation, based on the SSQ, the MCI group complained of disorientation and nausea significantly more than the cognitively normal elderly group did. However, both groups showed a reduction in discomfort as the VRCT program progressed. @*Conclusion@#We conclude that our VRCT program helps improve cognition in both the MCI group and cognitively normal elderly group. Therefore, the VRCT is expected to help improve cognitive function in elderly populations with and without MCI.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894662

ABSTRACT

Clip migration into the common bile duct (CBD) is a rare complication of laparoscopic biliary surgery. We report a case of Hem-o-lok clip migration-induced CBD stone in a 66-year-old man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) 4 years ago. The patient visited the emergency room for upper abdominal pain. CT scan revealed increased CBD diameter and multiple CBD stones. We performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for CBD stone extraction. Cholangiography revealed multiple suspected filling defects in the CBD; stones and unknown foreign body were removed using Basket. The foreign body found in the duodenum was a Hem-o-lok clip. When epigastric pain develops in a patient who has undergone LC and LCBDE, it is possible that biliary stone occurs due to clip migration.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892988

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adolescent suicide is a serious national issue in Korea. Recently, life satisfaction has been recognized as a major factor related to this issue. The main purpose of this study was to identify the domains of life satisfaction that affect suicidal behavior in adolescence. @*Methods@#Data were collected from eight middle schools in Incheon, Korea. A total of 1297 students answered questions regarding their demographic characteristics, happiness, self-related life satisfaction domains (appearance, leisure time, physical health, and mental health), depressive symptoms, and suicidal behavior. @*Results@#In the Spearman correlation analysis, female sex, perceived socioeconomic status (SES), happiness, and all four self-related satisfaction scores showed significant correlations with depression and suicidality. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that suicidality was significantly affected by perceived SES, satisfaction with appearance, mental health satisfaction, and depression. Finally, depression was identified as a partial mediator of the association between mental health satisfaction and suicidality, and a complete mediator of the association between female sex and suicidality. @*Conclusion@#Perceived SES, satisfaction with appearance, and mental health satisfaction significantly affected students’ suicidality, with or without the effect of depression. Health authorities, educators, and family members must be aware of this to identify adolescents at suicide risk earlier.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892193

ABSTRACT

Background@#Early trauma is known to be a risk factor of suicide-related behavior. On the other hand, people who attempt suicide using a fatal method are reported to be more likely to complete suicide. In this study, we assumed that early trauma affects an individual's temperament and character and thereby increases the risk of a fatal method of suicide attempts. @*Methods@#We analyzed 92 people with a history of previous suicide attempts. We compared the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised scores between the groups with and without early trauma, and between the groups with and without a history of suicide attempt using fatal methods through an analysis of covariance with age, sex, and presence of a psychiatric history as covariates. A mediation analysis was conducted of the relationship between early trauma and fatal methods of suicide attempt with self-transcendence as a mediator. @*Results@#Higher self-transcendence was reported in the fatal group (27.71 ± 13.78 vs. 20.97 ± 12.27, P = 0.010) and the early trauma group (28.05 ± 14.30 vs. 19.43 ± 10.73, P = 0.001), respectively. The mediation model showed that self-transcendence mediates the relationship between early trauma and fatal methods of suicide attempt. The 95% confidence intervals for the direct and indirect effect were (−0.559, 1.390) and (0.026, 0.947), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Self-transcendence may mediate the relationship between early trauma and fatal methods of suicide attempt. Self-transcendence may be associated with unhealthy defenses and suicidal behavior for self-punishment and may constitute a marker of higher suicide risk.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891339

ABSTRACT

House dust mite (HDM) is one of the significant causes for airway inflammation such as asthma. It induces oxidative stress and an inflammatory response in the lungs through the release of chemokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate inflammatory signaling mediators such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and redox-sensitive transcription factors including NF-κB and AP-1. Ascorbic acid shows an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in various cells. It ameliorated the symptoms of HDM-induced rhinitis. The present study was aimed to investigate whether HDM could induce IL-8 expression through activation of MAPKs, NF-κB, and AP-1 and whether ascorbic acid could inhibit HDM-stimulated IL-8 expression by reducing ROS and suppressing activation of MAPKs, NF-κB, and AP-1 in respiratory epithelial H292 cells. H292 cells were treated with HDM (5 μg/mL) in the absence or presence of ascorbic acid (100 or 200 μM). HDM treatment increased ROS levels, and activated MAPKs, NF-κB, and AP-1 and thus, induced IL-8 expression in H292 cells. Ascorbic acid reduced ROS levels and inhibited activation of MAPKs, NF-κB and AP-1 and L-8 expression in H292 cells. In conclusion, consumption of ascorbic acid-rich foods may be beneficial for prevention of HDM-mediated respiratory inflammation by suppressing oxidative stress-mediated MAPK signaling pathways and activation of NF-kB and AP-1.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890382

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Among available oral antidiabetic agents, only the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) primarily target insulin resistance. TZDs improve insulin sensitivity by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone have been used widely for T2DM treatment due to their potent glycemic efficacy and low risk of hypoglycemia. However, their use has decreased because of side effects and safety issues, such as cardiovascular concerns and bladder cancer. Lobeglitazone (Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical Corporation), a novel TZD, was developed to meet the demands for an effective and safe TZD. Lobeglitazone shows similar glycemic efficacy to pioglitazone, with a lower effective dose, and favorable safety results. It also showed pleiotropic effects in preclinical and clinical studies. In this article, we summarize the pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and clinical characteristics of lobeglitazone.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899029

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori is recognized as a risk factor for gastric carcinogenesis. The chronic exposure of gastric epithelium to H. pylori induces a prolonged inflammatory state that may progress to gastric cancer. Astaxanthin, a pinkish antioxidant carotenoid, abundant in marine organisms, is known for its protective effect against inflammation and multiple types of cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of astaxanthin on H. pylori-induced oxidative injury, inflammation, and oncogene expression in gastric mucosal tissues of the infected mice. Mice were inoculated using oral gavage with H. pylori suspension (10 8 colony forming unit of H. pylori/0.1 mL) for three days, after which they were fed astaxanthin-supplemented diet (5 mg/kg body weight/day for seven weeks). The effects of astaxanthin on H. pylori-induced increase in lipid peroxide (LPO) production, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, expression of the inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ and oncogenes (c-myc and cyclin D1), and the accompanying histologic changes in gastric mucosal tissues were evaluated. H. pylori infection increased the level of LPO, MPO activity, and the expression of IFN-γ, c-myc, and cyclin D1 in gastric mucosal tissues of mice. H. pylori infection induced neutrophil infiltration and hyperplasia of gastric mucosa. Astaxanthin supplementation attenuated these effects. In conclusion, consumption of astaxanthin-rich foods may prevent H. pyloriassociated oxidative damage and inflammatory and oncogenic responses in gastric mucosal tissues.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891325

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori is recognized as a risk factor for gastric carcinogenesis. The chronic exposure of gastric epithelium to H. pylori induces a prolonged inflammatory state that may progress to gastric cancer. Astaxanthin, a pinkish antioxidant carotenoid, abundant in marine organisms, is known for its protective effect against inflammation and multiple types of cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of astaxanthin on H. pylori-induced oxidative injury, inflammation, and oncogene expression in gastric mucosal tissues of the infected mice. Mice were inoculated using oral gavage with H. pylori suspension (10 8 colony forming unit of H. pylori/0.1 mL) for three days, after which they were fed astaxanthin-supplemented diet (5 mg/kg body weight/day for seven weeks). The effects of astaxanthin on H. pylori-induced increase in lipid peroxide (LPO) production, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, expression of the inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ and oncogenes (c-myc and cyclin D1), and the accompanying histologic changes in gastric mucosal tissues were evaluated. H. pylori infection increased the level of LPO, MPO activity, and the expression of IFN-γ, c-myc, and cyclin D1 in gastric mucosal tissues of mice. H. pylori infection induced neutrophil infiltration and hyperplasia of gastric mucosa. Astaxanthin supplementation attenuated these effects. In conclusion, consumption of astaxanthin-rich foods may prevent H. pyloriassociated oxidative damage and inflammatory and oncogenic responses in gastric mucosal tissues.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836324

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adolescent suicide, a major cause of adolescent death, is affected by various factors, including attitudes toward suicide.This study investigated the association between parenting style and adolescents’ attitudes toward suicide and the mediating role of attitude toward suicide between parenting style and suicidal ideation. @*Methods@#We surveyed 1,071 adolescents from eight middle schools in Incheon, Korea. The survey included sociodemographic information, attitudes toward suicide, perception of parenting style, depression severity, and suicidality. @*Results@#Students in the authoritarian parenting group had a more permissive attitude toward suicide compared with the democratic and permissive parenting groups. These students considered that suicide is justified in certain situations and that choosing suicide is an individual’s right. They also had a negative attitude toward talking about suicide or intervening in others’ suicide. This association remained statistically significant after adjusting for the impact of confounding factors that could affect attitudes toward suicide, except for suicidal processes and preparedness to prevent suicide. In the mediation analysis, we observed that some factors of the attitudes toward suicide mediated between authoritarian parenting attitudes and suicidal ideation, namely, suicide as a right, preventability, suicide as normal/common, preparedness to prevent suicide, and resignation. @*Conclusion@#This study revealed the significant impact of parenting style on children’s attitudes toward suicide. Educating parents about the appropriate parenting attitudes–sympathetic and rational–can help prevent youth suicide.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an irreversible progressive disease that destroys exocrine parenchyma, which are replaced by fibrous tissue. As pancreatic fibrosis is a key feature of CP, reducing fibrotic protein content in the pancreas is crucial for preventing CP. Studies suggest that NF-κB facilitates the expression of fibrotic mediators in pancreas and protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ) regulates NF-κB activation in stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid having anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. It has been shown to inhibit NF-κB activity in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells which is a cellular model of CP. In the present study, we investigated if DHA inhibits expression of fibrotic mediators by reducing PKC-δ and NF-κB expression in mouse pancreatic tissues with CP.METHODS: For six weeks, mice were weekly induced for acute pancreatitis to develop CP. Furthermore, acute pancreatitis was induced by hourly intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (50 μg/kg × 7). Mice were administered DHA (10 μM) via drinking water before and after CP induction.RESULTS: Cerulein-induced pancreatic damages like decreased pancreatic weight/total body weight, leukocyte infiltration, necrosis of acinar cells, and vacuolization were found to be inhibited by DHA. Additionally, DHA inhibited cerulein-induced fibrotic mediators like alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin in pancreas. DHA reduced expression of PKC-δ and NF-κB p65 in pancreatic tissues of cerulein-treated mice.CONCLUSIONS: DHA may be beneficial in preventing CP by suppressing pancreatic expression of fibrotic mediators.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Actins , Animals , Body Weight , Ceruletide , Drinking Water , Fibronectins , Fibrosis , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Leukocytes , Mice , Necrosis , Pancreas , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Protein Kinases
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786254

ABSTRACT

Antidepressants are widely used to treat depression in Korea, however, only a few studies have focused on the provider of the treatment. The aim of the study is to compare the differences between patients who were prescribed antidepressants by psychiatrists and those who were prescribed antidepressants by non-psychiatrists in South Korea. Patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder who had been newly prescribed antidepressants in 2012 were selected from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. They were classified into two groups depending on whether they received the antidepressant prescription from a psychiatrist or non-psychiatrist. Sociodemographic, clinical, and depression related cost has been investigated. Treatment resistant depression, which is defined as a failure of two antidepressant regimens to alleviate symptoms, was also investigated. Prescription adequacy was assessed based on whether a regimen was maintained for at least 4 weeks. Among the 834694 patients with pharmaceutically treated depression (PTD) examined in this study, 326122 (39.1%) were treated by psychiatrists. Patients who were treated by psychiatrists were younger and had more psychiatric comorbidities than those treated by non-psychiatrists. They had longer PTD duration (229.3 days vs. 103.0 days, p < 0.05) and a larger proportion of treatment resistant depression (9.3% of PTD) when compared to those patients treated by non-psychiatrists. The patients treated by psychiatrists had a smaller proportion of inadequate antidepressant use compared to those patients in the non-psychiatrist group (44.5% vs. 65.1%, p < 0.05). The costs related to depression corrected with PTD duration were higher in the nonpsychiatrist group (32214 won vs. 56001 won, p < 0.05). Patients who receive antidepressants from psychiatrists are patients with more severe, treatment-resistant depression. Psychiatrists prescribe antidepressants more adequately and cost-effectively than non-psychiatrists.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents , Comorbidity , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Humans , Insurance, Health , Korea , Prescriptions , Psychiatry
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is a major risk factor in the development of gastric cancer. H. pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells increases the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activates oncogenes, and leads to β-catenin-mediated hyper-proliferation. β-Carotene reduces ROS levels, inhibits oxidant-mediated activation of inflammatory signaling and exhibits anticancer properties. The present study was carried out to determine if β-carotene inhibits H. pylori-induced cell proliferation and the expression of oncogenes c-myc and cyclin E by reducing the levels of β-catenin and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK3β). METHODS: Gastric epithelial AGS cells were pre-treated with β-carotene (5 and 10 μM) for 2 hours prior to H. pylori infection and cultured for 6 hours (for determination of the levels of p-GSK3β, GSK3β, and β-catenin) and 24 hours (for determination of cell viability and protein levels of c-myc and cyclin E). Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay and protein levels were determined via western blot-based analysis. RESULTS: β-Carotene inhibited H. pylori-induced increases in the percentage of viable cells, phosphorylated GSK3β (p-GSK3β), and the levels of β-catenin, c-myc and cyclin E. CONCLUSIONS: β-Carotene inhibits H. pylori-induced hyper-proliferation of gastric epithelial cells by suppressing β-catenin signaling and oncogene expression.


Subject(s)
beta Carotene , beta Catenin , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Cyclin E , Cyclins , Epithelial Cells , Glycogen Synthase Kinases , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Oncogenes , Reactive Oxygen Species , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which activates inflammatory and carcinogenesis-related signaling pathways in gastric epithelial cells. Therefore, reducing ROS, by upregulating antioxidant enzyme, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), may be a novel strategy to prevent H. pylori-associated gastric diseases. Astaxanthin is an antioxidant carotenoid that prevents oxidative stress-induced cell injury. The present study was aimed to determine whether H. pylori decreases SOD activity by changing the levels of SOD1/SOD2 and whether astaxanthin prevents changes in SOD levels and activity in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial AGS cells. METHODS: AGS cells were pre-treated with astaxanthin for 3 hours prior to H. pylori infection and cultured for 1 hour in the presence of H. pylori. SOD levels and activity were assessed by Western blot analysis and a commercial assay kit, respectively. Mitochondrial ROS was determined using MitoSOX fluorescence. RESULTS: H. pylori decreased SOD activity and the SOD2 level, but increased mitochondrial ROS in AGS cells. The SOD1 level was not changed by H. pylori infection. Astaxanthin prevented H. pylori-induced decreases in the SOD2 level and SOD activity and reduced mitochondrial ROS in AGS cells. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of astaxanthin-rich food may prevent the development of H. pylori-associated gastric disorders by suppressing mitochondrial oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Epithelial Cells , Fluorescence , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Stomach Diseases , Superoxide Dismutase , Superoxides
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress occurs in white adipose tissue and dysregulates the expression of adipokines secreted from adipocytes. Since adipokines influence inflammation, supplementation with antioxidants might be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in adipocytes and inflammation-associated complications. β-Carotene is the most prominent antioxidant carotenoid and scavenges reactive oxygen species in various tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine whether β-carotene regulates the expression of adipokines, such as adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO). METHODS: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with or without β-carotene and treated with G/GO, which produces H2O2. mRNA and protein levels in the medium were determined by a real-time PCR and an ELISA. DNA binding activities of transcription factors were assessed using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RESULTS: G/GO treatment increased DNA binding affinities of redox-sensitive transcription factors, such as NF-κB, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and STAT3. G/GO treatment reduced the expression of adiponectin and increased the expression of MCP-1 and RANTES. G/GO-induced activations of NF-κB, AP-1, and STAT3 were inhibited by β-carotene. G/GO-induced dysregulation of adiponectin, MCP-1, and RANTES were significantly recovered by treatment with β-carotene. CONCLUSIONS: β-Carotene inhibits oxidative stress-induced inflammation by suppressing pro-inflammatory adipokines MCP-1 and RANTES, and by enhancing adiponectin in adipocytes. β-Carotene may be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress-mediated inflammation, which is related to adipokine dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipokines , Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue, White , Antioxidants , beta Carotene , Chemokine CCL2 , Chemokine CCL5 , DNA , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transcription Factors
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