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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902010

ABSTRACT

Background@#Th17 cytokines such as interleukin-17 and interleukin-22 are expressed in atopic dermatitis lesions. Previous studies have reported increased levels of interleukin-17A, -17E, and -17F in patients with atopic dermatitis.As interleukin-17A, -17E and -17F act through a common receptor composed of interleukin-17RA, it is speculated that interleukin-17RA gene (IL17RA) mutation could affect the clinical characteristics of atopic dermatitis. @*Objective@#This study aimed to characterize the clinical features of atopic dermatitis according to the presence of an IL17RA mutation in patients with atopic dermatitis. @*Methods@#We performed reverse blot hybridization assay to detect IL17RA mutations in Korean patients with atopic dermatitis. The clinical features of atopic dermatitis were compared between atopic dermatitis patients with and without IL17RA mutation. @*Results@#Of 332 patients with atopic dermatitis, 27 (8.1%) were found to have IL17RA mutation compared to 8 of 245 controls without atopic diseases (3.27%), which was statistically significant. Furthermore, 272 of atopic dermatitis patients (81.9%) had extrinsic type atopic dermatitis and 60 (18.1%) had intrinsic type. All patients with IL17RA mutations had extrinsic type. In addition, atopic dermatitis with IL17RA mutation was associated with longer disease duration, more frequent keratosis pilaris, higher blood eosinophil count, higher serum total immunoglobulin E level, higher house dust mite allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels, and more need for systemic treatment than that in patients without IL17RA mutation. @*Conclusion@#IL17RA mutation is associated with the more severe extrinsic type atopic dermatitis. So, it may predict the progress to severe atopic dermatitis.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894306

ABSTRACT

Background@#Th17 cytokines such as interleukin-17 and interleukin-22 are expressed in atopic dermatitis lesions. Previous studies have reported increased levels of interleukin-17A, -17E, and -17F in patients with atopic dermatitis.As interleukin-17A, -17E and -17F act through a common receptor composed of interleukin-17RA, it is speculated that interleukin-17RA gene (IL17RA) mutation could affect the clinical characteristics of atopic dermatitis. @*Objective@#This study aimed to characterize the clinical features of atopic dermatitis according to the presence of an IL17RA mutation in patients with atopic dermatitis. @*Methods@#We performed reverse blot hybridization assay to detect IL17RA mutations in Korean patients with atopic dermatitis. The clinical features of atopic dermatitis were compared between atopic dermatitis patients with and without IL17RA mutation. @*Results@#Of 332 patients with atopic dermatitis, 27 (8.1%) were found to have IL17RA mutation compared to 8 of 245 controls without atopic diseases (3.27%), which was statistically significant. Furthermore, 272 of atopic dermatitis patients (81.9%) had extrinsic type atopic dermatitis and 60 (18.1%) had intrinsic type. All patients with IL17RA mutations had extrinsic type. In addition, atopic dermatitis with IL17RA mutation was associated with longer disease duration, more frequent keratosis pilaris, higher blood eosinophil count, higher serum total immunoglobulin E level, higher house dust mite allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels, and more need for systemic treatment than that in patients without IL17RA mutation. @*Conclusion@#IL17RA mutation is associated with the more severe extrinsic type atopic dermatitis. So, it may predict the progress to severe atopic dermatitis.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875448

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To investigate if BK virus (BKV)-specific T cell immunity measured by an interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay can predict the outcome of BK virus infection in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). @*Methods@#We included 68 KTRs with different viremia status (no viremia [n = 17], BK viremia [n = 27], and cleared viremia [n = 24]) and 44 healthy controls (HCs). The BK viremia group was divided into controller ( 3 months) according to sustained duration of BKV infection. We compared BKV-ELISPOT results against five BKV peptides (large tumor antigen [LT], St, VP1-3). @*Results@#BKV-ELISPOT results were higher in three KTRs groups with different BKV infection status than the HCs group (p < 0.05). In KTR groups, they were higher in cleared viremia group than no viremia or BK viremia group. Within the BK viremia group, controller group had higher LT-ELISPOT results compared to noncontroller group (p = 0.032). Also, KTRs without BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVN) had higher LT, St, VP1, and VP2-ELISPOT results than those with BKVN (p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#BKV-ELISPOT assay may be effective in predicting clinical outcomes of BKV infection in terms of clearance of BK virus and development of BKVN.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is decreasing, cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB continue to increase. As conventional phenotype drug susceptibility testing (pDST) takes six to eight weeks, molecular assays are widely used to determine drug resistance. we developed QuantaMatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform (QMAP) MDR/XDR assay (QuantaMatrix Inc., Seoul, Korea) that can simultaneously detect mutations related to both first- and second-line drug resistance (rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, fluoroquinolones, second-line injectable drugs, and streptomycin). METHODS: We used 190 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains isolated from Myanmar, compared QMAP and pDST results, and determined concordance rates. Additionally, we performed sequence analyses for discordant results. RESULTS: QMAP results were 87.9% (167/190) concordant with pDST results. In the 23 isolates with discordant results, the QMAP and DNA sequencing results completely matched. CONCLUSIONS: The QMAP MDR/XDR assay can detect all known DNA mutations associated with drug resistance for both MDR- and XDR-MTB strains. It can be used for molecular diagnosis of MDR- and XDR-TB to rapidly initiate appropriate anti-TB drug therapy.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , DNA , Drug Resistance , Drug Therapy , Ethambutol , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis , Fluoroquinolones , Incidence , Isoniazid , Myanmar , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Phenotype , Seoul , Sequence Analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant
5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835115

ABSTRACT

This study describes the epidemiological characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on reported cases from long-term care facilities. As of April 20th, 2020, 3 long-term care facilities in a metropolitan area of South Korea had reported cases of COVID-19. These facilities’ employees were presumed to be the sources of infection. There were 2 nursing hospitals that did not report any additional cases. One nursing home had a total of 25 cases, with an attack rate of 51.4% (95% CI 35.6–67.0), and a fatality rate of 38.9% (95% CI 20.3–61.4) among residents. The results from this study suggest that early detection and maintenance of infection control minimizes the risk of rapid transmission.

6.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 611-615, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898601

ABSTRACT

The ichroma Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) IgG/IgM (Boditech Med Inc., Chuncheon, Korea) is a newly developed rapid lateral flow immunoassay for detection of anti- CHIKV-IgG/ IgM. This study conducted with thirty-six anti-CHIKV IgG positive sera, 57 anti-CHIKV IgM positive sera and 163 anti-CHIKV IgG/IgM negative sera which were confirmed by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Inbios CHIKjj Detect™ IgM Capture ELISA, Inbios CHIKjj Detect™ IgG ELISA (InBios International Inc., Seattle, WA, USA), Anti-CHIKV ELISA (IgM), Anti- CHIKV ELISA (IgG) (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany)). The ichroma detected all 36 anti-CHIKV IgG and 57 anti-CHIKV IgM positivity (100% sensitivity). For 163 anti-CHIKV IgG/IgM negative sera, the ichroma showed one false positive for IgM (99.4% specificity). The ichroma showed no cross-reactivity and no interference. The ichroma demonstrated good diagnostic performance compared to the current ELISAs.

7.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 611-615, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890897

ABSTRACT

The ichroma Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) IgG/IgM (Boditech Med Inc., Chuncheon, Korea) is a newly developed rapid lateral flow immunoassay for detection of anti- CHIKV-IgG/ IgM. This study conducted with thirty-six anti-CHIKV IgG positive sera, 57 anti-CHIKV IgM positive sera and 163 anti-CHIKV IgG/IgM negative sera which were confirmed by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Inbios CHIKjj Detect™ IgM Capture ELISA, Inbios CHIKjj Detect™ IgG ELISA (InBios International Inc., Seattle, WA, USA), Anti-CHIKV ELISA (IgM), Anti- CHIKV ELISA (IgG) (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany)). The ichroma detected all 36 anti-CHIKV IgG and 57 anti-CHIKV IgM positivity (100% sensitivity). For 163 anti-CHIKV IgG/IgM negative sera, the ichroma showed one false positive for IgM (99.4% specificity). The ichroma showed no cross-reactivity and no interference. The ichroma demonstrated good diagnostic performance compared to the current ELISAs.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765419

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of sagittal spinopelvic alignment on the clinical parameters, motor symptoms, and respiratory function in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: This study was a prospective assessment of treated patients (n=28, Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage 2–3) in a PD center. Twenty-eight subjects (68.5±5.7 yrs) participated in this study. The clinical and demographic parameters, including age, sex, symptoms duration, treatment duration, and H&Y stage, were collected. Kinematic analysis was conducted in the upright standing posture with a motion capture system. A pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed in the sitting position using a spirometer. The motor symptoms were assessed on part III of the movement disorder society sponsored version of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (MDS-UPDRS). SPSS 18.0 was used to analyze the collected data. RESULTS: The exceeding 12 degrees group of the lower trunk showed significantly higher on the clinical parameters than the below 12 degrees group. In addition, the exceeding 12 degrees group of the lower trunk showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) (%) and 25–75% forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF) (L/s) than in the below group. On the other hand, there was no difference in the upper trunk and the cervical pelvis between the groups. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the sagittal balance in the lower trunk is related to the clinical parameters and respiratory function, but not the motor symptoms in patients with mild to moderate PD.


Subject(s)
Forced Expiratory Volume , Hand , Humans , Movement Disorders , Parkinson Disease , Pelvis , Posture , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Vital Capacity
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762437

ABSTRACT

ELISAs and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for diagnosing dengue virus (DENV) infection. Using 138 single blood samples, we compared the ability to detect non-structural (NS)-1 antigen and anti-DENV IgM/IgG antibodies among (1) DENV Detect NS1 ELISA, DENV Detect IgM capture ELISA and DENV Detect IgG ELISA (InBios International, Inc.); (2) Anti-Dengue virus IgM Human ELISA and Anti-Dengue virus IgG Human ELISA (Abcam); (3) Dengue virus NS1 ELISA, Anti-Dengue virus ELISA (IgM) and Anti-Dengue virus ELISA (IgG) (Euroimmun); (4) Asan Easy Test Dengue NS1 Ag 100 and Asan Easy Test Dengue IgG/IgM (Asan Pharm); (5) SD BIOLINE Dengue Duo (Standard Diagnostics); and (6) Ichroma Dengue NS1 and Ichroma Dengue IgG/IgM (Boditech Med). For NS1 antigen detection, InBios and Euroimmun showed higher sensitivities (100%) than the RDTs (42.9–64.3%). All tests demonstrated variable sensitivities for IgM (38.1–90.5%) and IgG (65.7–100.0%). InBios and Boditech Med demonstrated higher sensitivity (95.6% and 88.2%, respectively) than the other tests for combined NS1 antigen and IgM antibody. Five NS1 antigen tests had good agreement (92.8–98.6%) without showing positivity for chikungunya. However, all IgG tests demonstrated potential false-positivity with variable ranges. Clinical laboratories should note performance variations across tests and potential cross-reactivity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mutation in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG) is a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis (AD), in association with distinct features such as increased allergic sensitization, higher severity, and frequent skin infections. Genetic diversity in FLG mutations exists across ethnicities. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of AD according to the presence of FLG mutation in Korean individuals. METHODS: We performed reverse blot hybridization assay to detect FLG mutation in Korean patients with AD. Classifying subjects into AD with or without FLG mutation, clinical features of AD and patch test results were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Among a total of 281 subjects, 39 (13.9%) were found to have FLG mutation. AD with FLG mutation was associated with higher risk of impetigo and eczema herpeticum but lower risk of prurigo nodularis. In the patch test, there was no difference in positive reactions of major contact allergens between the groups. CONCLUSION: In Korean patients with AD, FLG mutation was associated with more frequent skin infections but not with personal or family history of atopic diseases, allergic sensitization, contact allergy, and protracted course. It is important to consider other skin-barrier-related genes, such as KLK7 and SPINK5, and immune response-related genes in conjunction.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Causality , Dermatitis, Atopic , Genetic Variation , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Impetigo , Kaposi Varicelliform Eruption , Patch Tests , Prurigo , Skin
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761495

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antibodies directly injure endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells by activating transcription factors associated with proinflammatory responses. Previous studies have shown that AT1R antibodies are associated with allograft rejection and decreased graft survival in kidney transplantation. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has facilitated semiquantitative detection of AT1R antibodies. Assessing AT1R antibodies along with donor specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies may have potential to identify patients with possible risk for allograft injury and improve overall outcomes. In this review, we summarize recent clinical studies about AT1R antibodies in kidney transplantation and provide perspectives for future research area.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factors , Allografts , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Antibodies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Graft Survival , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Leukocytes , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Tissue Donors , Transplantation
12.
Mycobiology ; : 449-456, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918534

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infections caused by Cyberlindnera fabianii have recently increased. However, biochemical kits such as API 20 C AUX and Vitek-2C have misidentified this species as other Candida spp. such as C. pelliculosa or C. utilis due to no information of Cy. fabianii in yeast database. During our 2016–2017 surveys, eleven isolates of Cy. fabianii were obtained in International St. Mary's Hospital in Korea. Here, we describe its morphological and molecular characteristics and tested its antifungal susceptibility against nine antifungal agents. The sequences of the ITS region and the D1/D2 region of LSU revealed 100% identity with the sequences of Cy. fabianii. In comparison with the results from MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we found that Cy. fabianii can be distinguished from other species. In antifungal susceptibility test, voriconazole and echinocandins exhibited good antifungal activities against the majority of Cy. fabianii isolates despite the absence of standard criteria.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917937

ABSTRACT

A “pathogen resource” contains information about pathogens (e.g., bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa) and microbial derivatives (e.g., DNA, RNA, plasmid, clone, and cDNA). Pathogen resources are important for their potential use in healthcare research because they contain clinical and epidemiological information that is different from microbial resources. In October 2014, the “Nagoya Protocol” on access and benefit-sharing with the Convention on Biological Diversity was enacted to restrict the movement of transboundary pathogens and protect the natural pathogen resources of each country. On July 2017, the Korean Medical Fungal Pathogen Resource Bank (KMFRB) was established to secure, discover, and develop biological resources focused on medical fungi. KMFRB has since been operating under the National Culture Collection for Pathogens of the National Institute of Health based on the Act No. 13992. This report aims to provide general information regarding KMFRB and suggest efficient ways to utilize human fungal pathogen resources for clinical research.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719474

ABSTRACT

The detection and quantification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA plays an important role in diagnosing and monitoring HBV infection as well as in assessing the therapeutic response. We compared the analytical performance of a random access, fully automated HBV assay—DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA, USA)—with that of Abbott RealTime HBV assay (Abbott Laboratories, Des Plaines, IL, USA). The between-day precision of the VERIS assay ranged from 0.92% (mean 4.68 log IU/mL) to 4.15% (mean 2.09 log IU/mL) for pooled sera from HBV patients. HBV DNA levels measured by the VERIS HBV assay correlated with the calculated HBV DNA levels (r²=0.9994; P < 0.0001). The lower limit of quantification was estimated as 8.76 IU/mL (Probit analysis, 95% confidence interval: 7.32–12.00 IU/mL). Passing-Bablok regression analysis showed good concordance between the VERIS and RealTime assays for 187 chronic HBV samples (y=−0.2397+0.9712x; r=0.981), as well as for 20 drug-resistant HBV genotype C positive samples (y=−0.5415+0.9954x; r=0.961). The VERIS assay demonstrated performance similar to the RealTime assay and is suitable for high-throughput HBV DNA monitoring in large hospital laboratories.


Subject(s)
DNA , Genotype , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Humans , Laboratories, Hospital , Pathology, Molecular
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1174-1180, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762067

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Bone markers can be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of skeletal diseases in children and adolescents. Owing to high skeletal growth velocity and rapid bone turnover, children and adolescents have higher bone marker levels than adults. Thus, a valid age- and sex-specific reference should be established for pediatric populations living in similar environments. We aimed to assess the associations of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and osteocalcin with age and sex in a group of healthy Korean children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants (290 boys and 290 girls, age range 0–18 years) were Korean outpatients. Serum P1NP and osteocalcin levels were measured in control materials and patient samples by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay using an automated Cobas e411 analyzer. RESULTS: Significant age-dependent variations in bone marker levels were observed in both sexes (p<0.001). The highest P1NP levels were observed during the first year of life; thereafter, levels decreased until puberty. There was no postnatal peak for osteocalcin; however, its levels remained higher than the adult reference range throughout childhood. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls (p<0.05), especially between the ages of 12 and 17 years. Cobas e411 results for P1NP showed satisfactory precision and linearity. CONCLUSION: We established reference data for P1NP and osteocalcin levels in healthy Korean children and adolescents, as the first and only study of these parameters in pre-adulthood in Korea. Cobas e411-quantified bone markers may be useful for determining bone metabolism indices.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Bone Remodeling , Child , Collagen Type I , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Korea , Metabolism , Osteocalcin , Outpatients , Procollagen , Puberty , Reference Values
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) infection represents a global public health emergency. We evaluated the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay (Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform [QMAP], QuantaMatrix, Seoul, Korea) to rapidly identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and detect rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance-associated mutations. METHODS: A total of 200 clinical isolates from respiratory samples were used. Phenotypic anti-TB drug susceptibility testing (DST) results were compared with those of the QMAP system, reverse blot hybridization (REBA) MTB-MDR assay, and gene sequencing analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the phenotypic DST results, the sensitivity and specificity of the QMAP system were 96.4% (106/110; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9072–0.9888) and 80.0% (72/90; 95% CI 0.7052–0.8705), respectively, for RIF resistance and 75.0% (108/144; 95% CI 0.6731–0.8139) and 96.4% (54/56; 95% CI 0.8718–0.9972), respectively, for INH resistance. The agreement rates between the QMAP system and REBA MTB-MDR assay for RIF and INH resistance detection were 97.6% (121/124; 95% CI 0.9282–0.9949) and 99.1% (109/110; 95% CI 0.9453–1.0000), respectively. Comparison between the QMAP system and gene sequencing analysis showed an overall agreement of 100% for RIF resistance (110/110; 95% CI 0.9711–1.0000) and INH resistance (124/124; 95% CI 0.9743–1.0000). CONCLUSIONS: The QMAP system may serve as a useful screening method for identifying and accurately discriminating MTBC from non-tuberculous mycobacteria, as well as determining RIF- and INH-resistant MTB strains.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay , Emergencies , Isoniazid , Mass Screening , Methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Prevalence , Public Health , Rifampin , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accurate, rapid, and cost-effective screening tests for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be useful in laboratories that cannot afford automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a novel rapid automated fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). METHODS: A fluorescent LFIA using a small bench-top fluorescence reader, Automated Fluorescent Immunoassay System (AFIAS; Boditech Med Inc., Chuncheon, Korea), was developed for qualitative detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), and antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) within 20 minutes. We compared the diagnostic performance of AFIAS with that of automated CLIAs—Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Penzberg, Germany) and ARCHITECT (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA)—using 20 seroconversion panels and 3,500 clinical serum samples. RESULTS: Evaluation with the seroconversion panels demonstrated that AFIAS had adequate sensitivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV detection. From the clinical samples, AFIAS sensitivity and specificity were 99.8% and 99.3% for the HBsAg test, 100.0% and 100.0% for the anti-HBs test, and 98.8% and 99.1% for the anti-HCV test, respectively. Its agreement rates with the Elecsys HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV detection assays were 99.4%, 100.0%, and 99.0%, respectively. AFIAS detected all samples with HBsAg genotypes A-F and H and anti-HCV genotypes 1, 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 4, and 6. Cross-reactivity with other infections was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: The AFIAS HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV tests demonstrated diagnostic performance equivalent to current automated CLIAs. AFIAS could be used for a large-scale HBV or HCV screening in low-resource laboratories or low-to middle-income areas.


Subject(s)
Fluorescence , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis , Immunoassay , Mass Screening , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758780

ABSTRACT

Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic contagious disease responsible for major agricultural economic losses. Abattoir monitoring and trace-back systems are an appropriate method to control bovine tuberculosis, particularly in beef cattle. In the present study, a trace-back system was applied to bovine tuberculosis cases in Korean native Hanwoo beef cattle. Bovine tuberculosis was detected in three index beef cattle during abattoir monitoring in Jeonbuk Province, Korea, and the original herds were traced back from each index cow. All cattle in each original herd were subjected to tuberculin skin test. The positive rates in the tuberculin skin test were 64.6% (62 of 96), 4.8% (2 of 42), and 8.1% (3 of 37) at farms A, B, and C, respectively. On post-mortem examination of 56 tuberculin-positive cattle, 62% had granulomatous lesions, and Mycobacterium bovis was cultured from 40 (71.4%) of the cattle. Molecular typing by spoligotyping and the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat assay revealed the genotype of the M. bovis strains from the index cattle were same as the M. bovis genotype in each original herd. The results suggest that tracing back from index cattle to the original herd is an effective method to control bovine tuberculosis in beef cattle.


Subject(s)
Abattoirs , Agriculture , Animals , Autopsy , Cattle , Disease Outbreaks , Genotype , Korea , Methods , Molecular Typing , Mycobacterium bovis , Red Meat , Skin Tests , Tandem Repeat Sequences , Tuberculin , Tuberculosis, Bovine
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the tumor markers available for evaluating disease progression status after initial therapy and monitoring subsequent treatment modalities in colorectal, gastrointestinal, lung, and breast carcinoma. We evaluated the correlations and differences between widely used, automated CEA immunoassays at four different medical laboratories. METHODS: In total, 393 serum samples with CEA ranging from 3.0 to 1,000 ng/mL were analyzed on ADVIA Centaur XP (Siemens Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA), ARCHITECT i2000sr (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL, USA), Elecsys E170 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN, USA), and Unicel DxI800 (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA, USA), and the results were compared. Deming regression, Passing-Bablok regression, and Bland-Altman analyses were performed to evaluate the data correlation and % differences among these assays. RESULTS: Deming regression analysis of data from Elecsys E170 and UniCel DxI800 showed good correlation (y=3.1615+0.8970x). According to Bland-Altman plot, no statistically significant bias (−1.78 ng/mL [95% confidence interval: −4.02 to 0.46]) was observed between Elecsys E170 and UniCel DxI800. However, the relative differences of CEA concentrations between assays exceeded the acceptable limit of 30%. Regarding the agreement of positivity with cut-off value 5.0 ng/mL, ARCHITECT i2000sr and Elecsys E170 showed the highest agreement (95.2%), whereas ADVIA Centaur XP and ARCHITECT i2000sr showed the lowest agreement (70.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Agreements between automated CEA immunoassays are variable, and individual CEA concentrations may differ significantly between assays. Standardization of serum CEA concentrations and further harmonization are needed.


Subject(s)
Bias , Biomarkers, Tumor , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Disease Progression , Immunoassay , Lung , Statistics as Topic
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714722

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Variations in barrier- or immune response-related genes are closely related to the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). This study was designed to identify genetic variations and clinical features to predict ‘recalcitrant AD.’ METHODS: AD patients were classified as treatable and recalcitrant. Treatable AD patients showed satisfactory clinical improvement with basic and topical treatments. Recalcitrant AD patients used systemic immune-suppressants for over 4 weeks as they had not shown clinical improvement with basic and topical treatments. The frequency of gene variations in barrier- (FLG 3321delA, FLG K4022X, KLK7, SPINK 1156, SPINK 1188, SPINK 2475) and immune response- (DEFB1, KDR, IL-5RA, IL-9, and IL-12RB1a, b) related genes were compared between each AD group and the controls. RESULTS: Of all, 249 treatable AD and 32 recalcitrant AD were identified. Heterozygous mutations (Hetero) in KLK7 was more frequent in recalcitrant AD patients than treatable AD, without statistical significance. Hetero in DEFB1 was more frequent in treatable AD patients. However, no other significant genetic differences between treatable and recalcitrant AD was observed. Instead, higher initial Eczema Area Severity Index (EASI) score, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) level, allergen specific IgE for house dust mites, and family history of atopic diseases were associated with recalcitrant AD with statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: According to our study, no genetic variation to predict recalcitrant AD was identified, suggesting that clinical manifestation, rather than genetic variations of AD patients is more likely to be an important factor in predicting the prognosis of AD. Further large-scale studies on the correlation between genetic variation and recalcitrant AD are needed.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Atopic , Eczema , Genetic Variation , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Interleukin-9 , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Prognosis , Pyroglyphidae
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